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Statistical summary of schools of theology, according to religious denominators.

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The foregoing summary shows that, in general, the proportion to one theological school was about 5 professors and 37 students and that there were about 7 students to 1 professor. More in detail, we find that the Protestant German schools had nearly 10 students to one professor ; that the Wesleyan and the Baptist seminaries bad more than 8 students to 1 professor; that the Roman Catholic schools reported somewhat less than 8 students to 1 professor; that the churches called Presbyterian bad nearly 7 students to 1 professor; the Congregational bodies, more than 5 students to 1 profesbor; the Protestant Episcopal, less than 4 students to 1 professor; the so-called “lilleral Christians," about 3 students to 1 professor; and the New Church school about 1 student to 1 professor.

Tho summary next following is by States, and shows how many schools, instructors, students, and volumes in libraries and how much property, income, &c., were devoted to the preparation of clergymen in 1883–84.

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Alabama..
California.
Colorado
Connecticut
Georgia
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa....
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland.
Massachusetts.
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri.
Nebraska
New Jersey...
New York
North Carolina
Ohio...
Pennsylvania
South Carolina.
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
Wisconsin
Dist of Columbia .

Total

14
5

1

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140,000

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30
10, 400 50

40,000
700 150

8, 500 700 89 97, 331 2, 296 1,009,000 1, 562, 015 89, 003 134 134, 807 8, 414 2,063, 577 2, 211, 991 122,507

3 2, 500 200 58 36, 000 330 407,000 460, 000 25, 023 66 104, 050 3,312 345, 000 849, 028 54, 684

24, 500 100 45,000
16 2,500 100 115, 000 43,000 200

600
41 27, 700 842 75, 000

278, 740 17, 100 42 25, 420 7, 140

214,000 55, 000 3,000 14

2,000 790 736, 465 29, 129 6, 357, 796 9, 790, 131 586, 856

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TABLE XII. - SCHOOLS OF LAW. The following is a statement of the number of schools of law reporting to this Bareau each year from 1874 to 1884, inclusive (1883 omitted), with the number of instructors and number of students :

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2,686

Comparing the number of clergymen and of lawyers in 1880 (64,698 to 64,137) with the annual attendance on divinity schools and on law schools for a series of years, a shown above, it is very obvious that the lawyers of the Union do not obtain their professional training, or the theoretical part thereof, from their professional schools, to any such extent as do clergymen from schools of theology. The tabular comparison below is prepared from the summaries given in my report for 1880; it shows the annual attendance upon theological and law schools from 1871 to 1880, inclusive:

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6 2,174 | 26

91
3, 134

2, 108

Se bools of theology.. 3, 204 3,351 3,838 4, 356 5,234 4,268 3, 965 4, 320 4,738 5, 242 Schools of law...

1,722 1, 976 2, 174 | 2,585 2,677 2,664 2,812 i 3, 012 3,019 Excess of theology students 1, 482, 1, 375 | 1, 664 1, 771 2,557 1,604 1, 154 1,308 1,719

It is to be remembered further that nearly all the religious denominations now favor a preliminary collegiate education for their clergy and that the course of theological study in most schools is three years in duration ; the law schools usually requiro but two years of study before graduation, and most of them do not require advanced preparatory training.

A very large number of lawyers do not attend law schools, except for one session; many do not attend at all; these classes "read law” in the offices of members of the bar. This is often thought to be advantageous because it makes the young man early familiar with the practical side of his profession; but here, as elsewhere, the lack of liberal culture and of thorough historical study of the law is a bindrance to almost every kind of real success; men may make money under such circumstances, but they seldom grow up to the full standard of legal stature, lacking, as they must, the humane nutrition of general culture. Many of the objections urged against an elective judiciary might be set aside without hesitation if the laws of the State should require of every candidate for the bench good evidence of his thorough preliminary and professional training and the attainment of at least his fortieth year.

The following summary shows the number of lawyers in each State and Territory in 1820, according to the Federal census of that year. In the Union, as a whole, the proportion of lawyers to the whole population was as 1 to 732.

Lawyers according to the census of 1880.
States and Territories. Number.

States and Territories.

Number. Alabama 793 | Montana.

77 Arizona 118 Nebraska..

840 Arkansas. 745 Nevada

119 California.

1, 899 || New Hampshire Colorado..

807
New Jersey.

1, 557 Connecticut..

796 New Mexico Dakota 300 New York

9, 459 Delaware

127

North Carolina District of Columbia. 918 Ohio

4, 489 Florida

Oregon Georgia.. 1, 432 | Pennsylvania

4, 992 Idaho..

Rhode Island Illinois..

4,025 South Carolina. Indiana

2, 904
Tennessee

1,506 Iowa... 2, 610

2, 109 1, 492 Utah Kentucky

1,981 Vermont. Louisiana.. 828 Virginia

1, 355 725 Washington 1,087 West Virginia.

629 1,984 Wisconsin

1, 198 2,097 Wyoming...

34 906 The United States

64, 137 820 2,907

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TABLE XII.- Summary of statistics of schools of laro.

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Alabama.
Arkansas
California
Connecticut.
Georgia
Illinois.
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas.
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan ..
Mississippi
Missouri
Nebraska
New York
North Carolina...
Obio...
Pennsylvania
South Carolina...
Tennessee.
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Dist. of Columbia

Total.

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TABLE XIII.-SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE, DENTISTRY, AND PHARMACY. The following is a comparative statement of the number of schools of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy reported to the Office each year from 1874 to 1884, inclusive (1883 omitted), with the number of instructors and students:

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Number of institutions. 99 106 102 106 106 114 120 126 134 145 Number of instructors. 1, 121 1, 172

1, 201 1, 278 1, 337 1, 495 1, 660 1, 746 1, 940 2,235 Number of students ... 9,095 9, 971 10, 143 11, 225 11, 830 13,321 14,006 14,536 15, 151 15, 300 This summary for 1884 does not show the entire number of these schools in existence during the time mentioned, but only those that answer the inquiries propounded by tbis Office.

The following statement from the Tenth Federal Census shows the number of persons in 1880 pursuing the vocations to which this table has or should have intimate and practical relation:

Summary showing the number of physicians, surgeons, dentists, and pharmacists in the

United States in 1880.

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167

1,750

33

7

79

388

1, 552

71 1,892 1, 851

570 932 212

413

C8

94

191

856

243
25

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1, 809

23 3, 409

196

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655

68 205

1, 995

51

8

Alabama..
Arizona
Arkansas
California..
Colorado...
Connecticut
Dakota
Delaware
District of Columbia..
Florida
Georgia..
Idaho.
Ilipois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana..
Maine
Maryland.
Massachusetts.
Michigan...
Minnesota
Mississippi

157 2,784

179

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250 Missouri

4,50

408 27 Montana.

77 1. 314 Nebraska

807 636 Nerada..

131 21 299 New Hampshire.

610 139 366 New Jersey..

1, 595 325 119 New Mexico

80

8 85 New York

9, 272 186 North Carolina

1, 360 157
87 Ohio..

6, 393 895
333
Oregon

425 75
13 Pennsylvania

7, 042 1,425 Rhode Island

396 85 South Carolina

910 116 1,318 Tennessee

2, 688

218 831 Texas

246 828 Utah

139 26 330 Vermont.

659 132 333 Virginia

1,898 215
537 Washington

152 18
1, 311
West Virginia

939 92
1, 180
Wisconsin

1, 549 264
314 Wyoming..

30

4 298

The United States. 85, 671 12, 314

452

148

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5, 899 4, 993 3, 035 1,964 2,985 1,033

969 1, 551 2, 845 2, 924

914 1, 682

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Remembering that the total population of the Union in 1880 was 50,155,783, we seə that the proportion thereof to the number of medical men in the Union was as 584 to 1; to the number of dentists, as 4,073 to 1; and to the number of pharmacists, as 1,511 to 1.

The next following summary shows, by States, for 1883, the number of schools for the training of students wishing to enter these professions, the number of students attending them, &c.:

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