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principals who have also obtained a qualification to give religious instruction in the denomination to which the majority of the scholars of the schools of which they are to have charge belong, taking the average of the previous five school years. In estimating this average, scholars of the different evangelical creeds shall be regarded as belonging to one denomination. It shall be the duty of the principals to take part in the supervision of the scholars at the regularly prescribed religious exercises conlacted by teachers of the denomination required in the schools under their charge. So person can obtain a teacher's position who has been rendered ineligible to a place in the district representation by reason of any legal punishment.
This article excited a great deal of discussion and was vigorously opposed by the liberals on the ground that it favored a return to the confessional or denominational school.
b. HUNGARY, constitutional monarchy: Area, 125,039 square miles; population, 13,728, 622. Minister
of public instruction, Dr. A. von Trefort. For an account of the system of public instruction in Hangary, see the last Report of the Commissioner of Education. The statistics of education for 1884 reached the Bureau too late for compilation for the present report.
Illiteracy in Austria-Hungary: — The following statement of illiteracy in the AustroHungarian monarchy has been prepared from statistics published by Ignaz Hátsek in Petermanns Mittheilungen aus Justus Perthes Geographischer Anstalt. 30 Band, 1884. VI. The author compiled his figures from the census returns for 1880 and used them to prepare a colored map showing the degrees of illiteracy in different parts of the monarchy. The accompanying map shows the same facts, with letters instead of colors to represent degrees of illiteracy.
The following table shows the average percentage of illiteracy in the different crown lands of the monarchy, together with the highest and lowest percentage in each. Witeracy here applies to persons unable to read and write.
BELGIUM, constitutional monarchy: Area, 11,373 square miles; population (December 21, 1880), ,519,844. Capital, Brussels ; population, 388,781. Minister of public instruction, M. Victor Jacobs in early part of 1884 and M. Thonissen from October 26, 1884.
The new Belgian school law received the sanction of the King in September, 1884. The text is here substantially given:
ARTICLE 1. At least one communal school shall be established in a suitable place in each commune.
A commune may adopt and subsidize one or more private schools. In this caso the King may, with the advice of the permanent committee, excuse the commune from the obligation of establishing or maintaining a communal school, but not if twenty fathers of families, having children of school age, demand such establishment or maintenance for the education of their children.
Two or more communes may, when necessary, be authorized by the King to unite in establishing or supporting a school.
ART. 2. The primary communal schools are to be managed by the communes. The communal council will deterinine the number of schools and teachers according to local requirements. It will aiso regulate everything relating to the establishinent and organization of infant and adult schools.
Art. 3. The children of poor parents shall receive gratuitous instruction. The communes are to see that all ihose who do not attend uninspected private schools are provided with instruction either in a communal or adopted school. The communal council, on communication with the board of charities, shall draw upevery year a list of poor children receiving gratuitous instruction in the communal or adopted schools and determine the amount of pay due the teachers of those schools from each scholar receiving such instruction. This list and the assessment of the amount due shall be submitted for approval to the committee, subject to appeal to the King. The committee shall also determine, under appeal to the King, the proportion to be paid by the board of cuarities for the education of poor childreu, and the proportion so assigned shall be included in the appropriation for the board.
ART. 4. The communes may place religious and moral instruction at the head of the program of some or all of their primary schools. This instruction shall be given at the beginning or end of the recitations. Children whose parents request it are to be excused from attending this exercise.
Primary instruction comprises necessarily reading; writing; the elements of arithmetic; the systems of weights and measures prescribed by law; the elements of French, Flemish, or German, according to locality; geograpby; drawing and singing; and the history of Belgium. It also includes gymnastics for boys and needlework for girls, and, in rural communes, the elements of agriculture for boys. The communes shall have a right to enlargo this program when de:sirable and circumstances permit.
Whenever, in a commune, twenty fathers of families having children of school age ask to have their children'excused from atlending religious instruction, the King may, on the request of the parents, oblige the commune to organize one or more special classes for the children of such parents.
If, notwithstanding the request of twenty fathers of families having children of school age, the commune offers an obstacle to including the religious instruction they desire in the school program and to having such instruction given by ministers of their sect or by persons acceptable to the latter, the government may, at the request of the parents, adopt and support one or more private schools as required, provided they falfil the conditions necessary for adoption in the commune.
ART. 5. Teachers shall show an equal solicitude for the education and instruction of the children under their charge. They are to neglect no opportunity to inspire in their pupils the sentiments of duty, love of country, respect for national institutions, and attachment to constitutional liberty. They shall abstain from any attack upon the religious beliefs of the families whose children are intrusted to them.
ART. 6. The communes are to bear the expenses of primary instruction in the communal schools. The provinces are to aid the communes to an extent not less than two centimes additional to the amount of the direct tax. No commune shall obtain subsidies from the state or province for primary instruction unless the commune con. tributes at least four centimes additional to the direct tax and carries out the present
ART. 7. The communal council shall have the power of appointing, suspending, and removing teachers; but removal of teachers can only be effected on approval by the permanent committee; both the council and the teachers have the right to appeal to
The same rules apply to suspension with stoppage of pay, when such suspension exceeds one month. Suspension once decreed by the communal council cannot be renewed by it on the same facts, nor exceed six months in duration. The council shall fix the salaries of teachers, which shall not be less than 1,000 francs for assistant
law in all points.
teachers and 1,200 for teachers, including perquisites. Teachers shall be entitled to lodging or an equivalent, to be fixed by mutual agreement. In case of disagreement appeal may be had to the committee, and then to the King.
The communal council may place a teacher on the unattached list, and so keep him from active employment, in which case he will receive waiting pay, under conditions which will be determined by royal decree. This pay will be furnished by the state, the province, and the commune, in the proportions tixed by article 5 of the law of May 16, 1876.
ART. 8. Those persons are to be taken as communal teachers who are Belgians by birth or naturalization and who have obtained diplomas as primary teachers on graduating from a public normal school or one subject to inspection or who possess second grade diplomas of secondary instruction. Such teachers may also be selected from among those who have successfully passed an examination for teachers before a board organized by the government.
ART. 9. No primary school may be adopted or receive support from a commune, & province, or the state without subjecting itself to inspection, giving poor children gratuitous instruction, and adopting the program required by article 4. Teachers should have passed an examination, as mentioned in article 8, but the minister is at liberty to dispense with this condition during the two years following the promulgation of this law.
Those who have had charge of communal schools prior to the prosent law are exempt from examination.
The number of hours in a week to a class shall not be less than twenty, and, deducting the time employed in needlework, not less than sixteen hours.
Violations of legal requirements shall be brought to the knowledge of the government by the inspectors, and the same rule sball hold with regard to any other abuses in the schools. If the school authorities shall refuse to submit to the law or reform abuses, the support granted by the commune, province, and state shall be withdrawn by royal decreo and the fact, with the reason therefor, published in the Monitenr.
ART. 10. The inspection of communal and adopted schools shall be exercised by the state. Inspection shall not extend to religious and moral instruction and shall be regulated by the government. Each province is to have one or several principal inspectors, and there are also to be cantonal inspectors. Each cantonal inspector is to visit all the schools of the canton at least once a year. At least once in three months teachers of the district or cantop are to hold a conference, presided over by the local inspector, at which the state of primary instruction in the district is to be reported upon. The principal inspector is to preside over an annual conference of primary teachers, to visit at least every two years all the sehools under his charge, and to send in an annual report to the minister. All primary schools are to have a part in these conferences.
Art. 11. The state, the provinces, and the communes may establish normal schools.
ART. 12. The organization of normal schools belonging to the state will be regulated by the government.
Art. 13. The provincial and communal normal schools, as well as private normal schools, may receive state aid, provided they are willing to be subject to inspection.
Art. 14. The communal inspectors and teachers and the directors, professors, and teachers of state normal schools must take the oath prescribed by article 2 of the decree of July 20, 1831.
Art. 15. A report on the condition of primary instruction shall be presented to the legislature by the government every three years.
ART. 16. The law of July, 1879, iš hereby repealed, as are also articles 2, 3, and 4 and the last paragraph of the first article of the law of December 28, 1883. Articles 121 and 147 of the communal law are restored as worded in the law of May 7, 1877. Article 1 of the law of June 15, 1881, is modified so as to provide that the number of athenæums and colleges shall not exceed 20; the number of secondary schools for boys, 100, and for girls, 50.
Art. 17. Persons who shall have obtained the diploma of primary teacher from a private pormal school between January 1, 1880, and the date of repeal of the law of July 1, 1879, may receive the appointment of communal teacher on condition of obtaining a confirmation of such diploma from a board organized in accordance with article 8. It sball be the duty of the board to see that the private normal school giving the diploma is organized so as to train teachers to be capable of keeping communal primary schools established in conformity with the present law. The board may make the coutirmation, subject to a complementary examination on certain matters to be designated by it. In such case the teacher who has a diploma shall have one year to prepare for the examination. He may meanwhile exercise the functions of a communal teacher provisionally.
DEXBLA BK, constitutional monarchy: Area, 14,553 square miles; population (estimated January 1,
1882), 2,018,432. Capital, Copenhagen; population (with suburbs), 273,323. Minister of publio in. straction, J. F. Scavenius.
The latest general information in regard to education in Denmark may be found in the Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1882–83. From the report of the Polytechnic School at Copenhagen the following items are gathered for 1884: The course of instruction covered mathematics, descriptive geometry, physics, chemistry, rrineralogy, geognosy and descriptive geography, botany, zoölogy, drawing, technical chemistry, construction of machines and technical mechanics, technology, engineering, land surveying and levelling, and architecture. Each course takes four and one-half years. In 1883 and the early part of 1884 there were a few medical and pharmaceutical students from the university pursuing a course of instruction in the laboratory connected with this institution. On Angust 1, 1884, the faculty consisted of a director, an inspector, and 24 professors and assistants. In the autumn of 1883 there were 180 students reported; in the spring of 1884 there were 151. FINLAND, a dependency of Russia: Area, 144,222 square miles; population, 2,081,612. Capital, Hel.
singfors; population, 43,142. The Statistik Årsbok för Finland, 1884, reports 168 rural communities in 1882–83 without higher primary schools. There were, however, 302 rural districts with such a grade of school. Thirteen of these had four or more, 40 had three, 105 had two, and 144 had one each. Four normals graduated 91 teachers for primary grades in 1883. The teacbing force in these semivaries numbered 47; pupils, 540. There were seven lower elementary schools, with 21 teachers and 249 pupils. Four preparatory schools, with 12 teachers and 180 pupils, led up to 24 lycées, in which were 3,884 pupils, under charge of 318 teachers and professors. In 18 real schools were 817 pupils and 133 instructors. The Polytechnic Institute at Helsingfors reported 105 students pursuing studies in architecture, engineering, constructing machines, surveying, and chemistry. There were 26 teachers. In the university at Helsingfors were 785 students in actual attendance (1 of these a woman), while there were 1,422 students on the rolls. Tbe theological, legal, medical, and philosophical faculties had 67 profossors in all and there were 10 vacant chairs. The income was (for 1883) 956,200 marks, the expenditures were 877,300. In addition to these various institutions of learning there were 2 technical professional schools, with 12 teachers and 79 pupils. These are state schools and are situated at Åbo and Nikolaistad. The establishments for the instruction of yonng women numbered 41, with 439 teachers and 3,354 pupils. Of these schools 2 were German, 9 Finnish, and 30 Swedish.
From another source comes the information that the subject of coeducation is one which is interesting the Finnish authorities, and in September, 1883, a "samskola för possar och flickor” (mixed school) was established in Finland, which, at date of the communication received, was considered very successful. PRANCE, republic: Area, 204,177 square miles ; population (December 18, 1881), 37,672,048. Capital,
Paris; population, 2,269,023. Minister of public instruction, A. Fallières (succeeded M. Jules Ferry on November 20, 1883).
Primary instruction.-In France the subject of popular education has taken a strong hold both on the government and the people. A new law was passed in the early part of 1882 by which education for all classes was made obligatory and non-religious. In Jane, 1884, a commission of eighteen of the leading educators of France completed and pablished the third volume of their report on the statistics of primary education. The first volume, published in 1878, covered the year 1076–77; the second volume, pablished in 1880, included the years 1829 to 1877, thus covering the whole history of elementary schools as they exist today. The third volume (Statistique de l'instruction primaire pour l'année scolaire 1881–1882) einbraces statistics for 1881–82. According to this, thero wore 71,547 primary school of all kinds (maternal schools excepted)