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ENGLAND--continued. who gave or bequeathed their

Orthodox Unitarian money for uses which they conCounties, &c. Foundation. Foundation. sidered to be pious, would have Lancashire - - *32 - - 7 Leicestershire

held in abhorrence. Whether this Lincolnshire - .

2 - - 1

has been done fairly, justifiably, Loodon - -

and honourably, is the point we Middlesex -

propose to investigate, in exaNorfolk .

mining the arguments of those Northumberland Nottinghamshire

who, whilst they avow, seek openOxfordshire • •

ly to justify the change. : Shropshire

Their strongest ground of deSomersetsbire

fence, and therefore we put it Staffordshire Suffolk

first in our list, is that the Unita.. Surry

rians hold the chapels in question Sussex .

as the Presbyterian successors Warwickshire

of their Presbyterian founders. Westmoreland

- In discussing this point, we Wiltshire Worcestershire

might successfully, and justifiably Yorkshire, W.R. - 12

take issue upon the fact of any Do. N. & E.R. 4

thing like a majority of these chaTotal in England - 170

pels ever having belonged to con

gregations properly called PresWALES.

byterians. Presbyterianism, as a Caermarthenshire - 2 - - 1 regular and uniform mode of Cardigansbire •

church government, never was esGlamorganshire - 5

tablished in England. That during Pembrokeshire

the Commonwealth, and for some Total in Wales . 8 6 time afterwards, it vegetated rather

- - than took deep root in some parts Of these chapels, very many

of the soil, is a matter of historical are endowed, and such as are

record too clear to be disputed; not, were, most probably, without

but its synods, its classes, and all exception, put in trust by those

the divisions and modes of gowho built them. For the promul

vernment peculiar to that church, gation of Unitarianism no such

were mere voluntary associations, trust could ever have made pro

similar to many which, for certain vision, as its professors were by

purposes, exist to the present day law subject to penalties for pub.

amongst the Congregationalists. licly maintaining their tenets, and

But there is no need to discuss

this matter : for the sake of the any bequest or settlement for such

argument, we give our opponents purpose would have been abso

the full benefit of their assumplutely void in law. It follows, therefore, of course, that these

tion, that these places of worship trusts and endowments for the

were of Presbyterian foundation; support of the preaching of the

and, having given it, boldly dare

them to the proof of their havGospel, have, by some means or other, been diverted to the propa

ing one of the characteristic fea

tures of Presbyterianism amongst gation of doctrines which those

them. True it is, that they have * One of these chapels, viz. Walton,

called themselves, and do call themafter it fell into the hands of the Unita

selves by this name. “ When they rians was converted into cottages. And build a chapel,” says the preface to two of the chapels in Liverpool bave been the work before us, with great force built by Unitarians from funds arising chiefly, if not wholly, from the sale of the

and truth, “ it is the Unitarian cha. old chiapels of orthodox foundation. pel at such a place; their book

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societies, their missionary societies, they were, doubtless, subject to their associations, their funds, when the same control; but what would they raise any, are all Unitarian ; these gentlemen say, were the disbut this is only during a state of tinct congregations, over which repose, Presbyterian is their nom de they now separately preside, guerre. When the important sub- though situated in the same counject of trusts and trust deeds is ty, and within a few hours' ride of agitated, all at once they are each other, to hold the minister or Presbyterians, and Presbyterians people of the one accountable for only. The founders,' say they, their doctrines or conduct to the

were Presbyterians, and so are other? Were Mr. Harris, who lives we.” Are they so indeed? Where and preaches but eleven miles from then are their classes, their synods, Manchester, and about thirty from their presbyteries? In what hole Liverpool, to be cited to answer or corner do they hold those re- for those inflammatory expressions gularly constituted courts of ec- towards his orthodox neighbours, clesiastical discipline, without which the members of his own which, as a system of church go- communion, in his own county vernment, Presbyterianism is less and immediate neighbourhood, are than the shadow of a shade ? anxious to disclaim, would the Where are the ruling elders, join- pretext that the citation issued ing with the Presbyters, or pas- from the synod, to which, as a tors of their churches, in judging Presbyterian minister, he was atof the qualifications of communi- tached, and accountable for his cants, or bringing such of them as ministerial conduct, save those offend under the censure of their who cited him from a vituperation synods ? In Lancashire, where on their presumption, their insothis controversy originated - in lence, and egregious folly, almost London, where we are reviewing as anathematizing as that which it-recent discussions, as to the he pronounced in his celebrated conduct of Messrs. Fletcher and philippic against orthodoxy? Yet Thom, have given sufficient proofs were the Unitarians Presbyterians, of what Presbyterianism, as a as, when prudence and convenisystem of discipline, is. Both of ence dictate, they profess to be, these gentlemen have been com- the suppositious cases we have pelled to leave the chapels in put would have been in the ordiwhich they ministered, not because nary course of the discipline of the majority of their congregation the church, to which they tell us wished — not even because the that they belong. Instead, theretrustees resolved that they should fore, of the fuming, and fretting, do so—but because the conduct of and denouncing of such a procethe one, and the doctrine of the dure, as a presumptuous, intoleother minister, was held not to ac- rant, and unjustifiable interference cord with the doctrines and tenets with the right of private judgment, of the Presbyterian church; and of which, in such a case, we should these judgments were pronounced, hear enough,—the parties cited to it will be remembered, by deputa- answer for their conduct, accordtions from a synod in a foreign ing to the rules of their church, country (for such, as to ecclesias- would only have to appeal from tical affairs, Scotland must be con- the judgment of a presbytery to sidered) to presbyteries in which that of a synod, and from a synod the churches those ministers pre- to a general assembly, from whose sided over were attached. Whilst decision their form of church goMr. Roberts and Mr. Grundy were vernment admits not of redress. co-pastors of the same church, But it must be obvious to every one acquainted with the Unita- tion. But we go much farther, rians of the present day, that, so and, supported alike by the law far from being Presbyterians in of the land, and by every principle discipline, they are, to all intents of justice and equity, assert, withand purposes, as completely inde out fear of successful contradicpendent in their form of church tion, that even were the deeds government, as far as they have thus bare of every other indication any, as are the most orthodox of the doctrines to be preached in of the Congregational churches these places of Worship, the word amongst us. They are men of Presbyterian is alone sufficient to sense and prudence, and must, indicate that those doctrines must therefore, be fully aware, that were be orthodox, and could never they to rest their claims upon this have been, in reality or in contemground, they would not be able to plation,Unitarian. At the date of all support, by evidence, a single the trusts and endowments in dispoint of their pretended title by pute, Presbyterians, unorthodox in descent. Unitarians Presbyte- their sentiments, especially as to rians !-let them try to prove them- the Trinity, were unheard-of anoselves such in any court of law or malies. In the language and unequity in the kingdom, and they derstanding of the times, a Presbywill find, to their cost, the wisdom terian was essentially a Trinitaof adopting the candour of Mr. rian; essentially, we might also Grundy, the innocent cause of all add, but that it is altogether fothis disturbance of their repose, reign to the present discussion, who, in a sermon preached at the a Calvinist ; essentially, at all opening of the Unitarian Chapel events, a supporter of those leadin Liverpool, over which Mr. Har- ing doctrines of the Gospel which ris once presided as its pastor, Unitarians disavow, and denounce when speaking of the term given as ridiculous, irrational, and antito the sect to which he belongs, christian; essentially so decided opvery truly said, " The term ponents of those which they preach Presbyterian is now commonly as the genuine Gospel, as never to used; but, I confess, some diffi- have admitted the men who held culty appears to me to attend the them as members of the church of use of it; because it has either no Christ on earth, or without a total definite meaning as to opinions changein their views and sentiments, or discipline, or if it have any to have considered it possible for meaning, it signifies something them to become fellow-heirs of the which we are not.”

kingdom of heaven. Upon every But even were the Unitarians principle, therefore, of sound inof the present day what they cer- terpretation of terms, which directs tainly are not, Presbyterians in them to be taken in the ordinary discipline, the concession of this sense and acceptation of the times point could avail them nothing in in which, and the parties by whom the present controversy, even in they are used, not only must their own view of the case, unless courts of law and equity, but they could shew that the endow- every man of plain common sense, ments and trust deeds of the cha- hold it impossible that a Presbytepels to which they assert their rian could, in these deeds, mean or right, contain no other descrip- contemplate an Unitarian. That tion of the parties for whose use it could not, is, however, further those chapels were erected, and proved, beyond the possibility of for whose benefit those endowments doubt or disputation, by the fact were made, than that they should of the Toleration Act, 1st William be of the Presbyterian denomina- and Mary (soon after which most of the foundations and trusts in those chapels are of orthodox foundispute had their origin), having dation ; but then they would have expressly exempted from all the it believed, that the deeds putease, benefit, and advantages which ting them in trust, or creating the it gave to Protestant Dissenters, endowments, contain nothing which every person « that should deny, can or ought to prevent persons, in his preaching or writing, the holding doctrinal sentiments diadoctrine of the blessed Trinity, as metrically opposite to those of the it is declared in the Articles” [of founders, from enjoying the benethe Church of England]. Coupling fits of their pious labours or bewith this very clear and decisive quests. Fortunately, however, exception, the unequivocal, though, for the cause of truth and justice, we readily admit, the unjust and evidence does exist in the hands most intolerant provision of ano- of their opponents, that this sugther Act, of the 9th and 10th of gestion, rather than open and the reign of the same king, sub- direct assertion of theirs, is unjecting all persons who “shall, by founded in fact, as it is contrary writing, printing, teaching, or ad- to all probability, at least in vised speaking, deny any one of several instances of chapels, which the persons in the Holy Trinity to they hold in direct and barefaced be God," to severe disabilities for violation of the express provithe first offence, and to three years sions of their trust decds. Thus, imprisonment for the second, it to confine ourselves to the county becomes a self-evident proposition, in which these disputes originated, that whilst these legal enactments at Cockey Moor, on which place were on the statute book-and they there is an endowment of £120. were so until within a very few per annum), the ministers are reyears—every endowment, every quired to be “ sound in the faith trust for preaching, or otherwise of our Lord Jesus Christ, and such promulgating the Unitarian no- as hold and profess the doctrinal tions of the Trinity, was mere articles of the Church of England.” waste paper, utterly void in law, and those articles they are rebecause destined to the publishing quired to sign. At Knowsley, near of tenets which that law (properly Prescot, in a chapel which, as they or improperly is not the question cannot keep it open themselves, here, provided it was, as it is, they have let to others, of the most clearly and unequivocally) minister officiating it is required, denounced and proscribed as blas- that he shall “ preach accordphemous, heretical, anti-christian, ing to the doctrinal articles of and illegal. Aware of these laws, the Church of England, and shall as the founders of those chapels teach the Assembly's Catechism,” and endowments must have been, Similar provisions are made in the they could not have framed any trust deeds of the chapels at Platt deeds for the purpose here sup- and Toxteth Park, in both of posed :-if they did frame and exe- which places the broadest Soci cute them, they are invalid, illegal, nianism is openly and unblushingly and inoperative.

proclaimed, under the direction of But this view of the question is, trustees, whose duty is thus clearly we are assured, not new to the pointed out to them. Another, Unitarians, who are therefore and if possible a more atrocious mightily and most prudently cau- case of malversation, we give in tious in referring to the trust deeds the words of the appendix to this of the chapels which they possess. controversy. They know, and, generally speak ." Rawtonstall, in Rossendalę. --The ing, do not attempt to deny, that trust deed of this chapel bears date

May 17, 1760. It states that the meeting- intended in perpetuity for the use house erected there is put in trust for the of Presbyterians,- inasmuch as use of Protestant Dissenters, distin. guished by the name of Independents, so

there are now few or no orthodox long as there are and shall be a minister Presbyterians in England, it is to preach in it, and a congregation to meet lawful and right, is conforming in it that can and shall subscribe unto a book indeed with the language of of articles made, owned, confessed, and the subscribed unto by the present congrega

the trust, to preserve them to tion and members of this church, intitled those who agree in discipline, * An Answer to every one that askethe though they differ as far as does a reason of the hope that is in us.' The light from darkness from the docfirst minister of this chapel was a Mr. i

trines of the founders. This is Richard Whittaker, who preached here about twenty years. The minister now straining at å gnat and swallowoccupying the place is Mr. John Ingham, ing a camel with a vengeance; but who has been here above forty years. even here we are willing that they When he came hither he professed to be

och should be their own judges. Were of orthodox sentiments, but about seven years since he acknowledged himself to one of their chapels-Presbyterian be what is known by the term Unitarian. or Unitarian, we care not by which He bas in his possession the book of arti- name they call it-now vacant, cles mentioned in the trust deed, and re

i would they fill its pulpit with a quired to be signed by the minister and members of the church, and confesses he man who, holding Presbyterian does not believe the doctrinal sentiments synods, classes, ruling elders, and therein contained, though he continues to the whole system of John Knox's bold possession of the pulpit. Since he has embraced and preached Unitarian

discipline, to be the only true doctrines, he has received support from

and Gospel form of a Christian Lady Hewley's funds."--p. 153.

church ; yet believed as devoutly

in the divinity of Christ, the per. From these specimens of the no sonality of the Holy Ghost, the tions of honesty peculiar to Unita- equality of the Three Persons of rians in the administration of trusts, the Godhead, salvation by faith and from their studious concealment alone, regeneration, predestinaof those documents, which would tion, reprobation, and every iota place the point in dispute beyond of the doctrines of Calvin, down all question, it is but fair to pre- to the impossibility of salvation sume, that most, if not all the to those who deny the divinity other chapels, of orthodox founda- of the Lord who bought them ;-or tion, in their possession, are guarded, with one, who treating as the bugas we should say-encumbered, as bears of a gloomy and fanatic they no doubt conceive, by provi imagination, all that the orthodox sions such as these, for the purity hold as true, denounced the of doctrine to be preached in places preaching of the divinity of Christ of worship, built and put in trust as blasphemy, the believing in the by men too zealous for the truth existence of the devil and of hell once delivered to the saints, not as the height of folly, in the suffito have taken every possible pre- ciency of the Scriptures as the caution for its preservation. grossest absurdity; who exalted

Of this, the conduct of many the light of reason to the level of of the Unitarians evinces that revelation, and held but such parts they have, at least, a very shrewd of Scripture to be inspired as fell in suspicion; and when driven to ad- with his scheme of the Gospel as mit, that not only were the chapels it ought to be; but who, withal, originally of orthodox foundation, was à rigid Independent, abhorbut intended for the preaching ring synods, and elders, and presof orthodox sentiments, they take byteries, and national assemblies, refuge in the fallacy, that as they as cordially as he did bishops, also were places belonging to and priests, and deacons of the EstaNew Series, No. 15.


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