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past, and the assurance of future ing funds committed to their charge, amendment, contained ? What to inculcate the Gospel of peace, number of copies of the New to wrath, discord, and alienation. Testament would the money ex. All this, they wish us to believe, pended on these appendages have is prompted purely by zeal for the produced ? By what law of the word of God, and the glory of its Bible Society are they justified Author. Their motives we desire in publishing, with the funds of not to judge, and to the disclosures the Society, or under the name of of another day, we must leave the its Committee, this immense con- exposition of many things controversial pamphlet ? As they are nected with the origin and progress not an auxiliary, but an indepen- of this most painful affair. We dent Society, were they bound, or know enough, and more than called upon, to act in the aggressive enough, to satisfy us that somemanner in which they have lately thing besides zeal for the Lord of conducted themselves towards the Hosts is concerned in it. We are British and Foreign Society ? deceived, if this will not bye and Are the members of the Edin- bye be discovered. The people of burgh Bible Society perfectly Scotland will then perhaps find, agreed on all the points of this if they do not take care in time, discussion, and to be held as that they have transferred their parties to this crusade against the allegiance without improving their British and Foreign Society ? circumstances; and that the final Who are the reporters of the pro- struggle has been, not to get rid of ceedings of the Bible Society's the Apocrypha, for that is now Committee, on the accuracy of settled; but to remove the governwhose information, and the fide- ment from London to Edinburgh; lity of whose testimony so much from an oligarchy at Earl Street, to dependence is placed ?

a junta in the Royal Exchange. We could ask some other ques. We do not fear the effects tions, not unworthy of an answer of the statement on this side of the in this controversy, but we forbear. Tweed; nor indeed on many ultiWe envy not the feelings, and mately on the other. There is shrink froni contemplating the still a large portion of the British responsibility of those who seem public uncorrupted, who can disdetermined to drive it on.' Re- tinguish between errors of judgmonstrance and resolution on the ment and want of integrity; bepart of the British and Foreign tween charges deeply affecting Society, we believe would be un- the honour, the moral worth, and availing; as the authors of the Christian principles of men hithersecond statement are capable of to unimpeached, and proofs of issuing a seventh. They are evi- those charges ; to thein the Comdently determined to carry their mittee of the British and Foreign hostility to the utmost length. We Bible Society make its appeal, in have met with the statement fifty its last resolution, and we are conmiles from London, where it has fident it will not appeal in vain. been sent by the dozen, for distri. bution without money and without price. Thus in the villages, ham- Bishop Hall: his Life and Timcs. lets, and cottages of our country, Büthe Rev. John Jones.-Seeley the Edinburgh Committee are and son scattering fire-brands, arrows, and death; insinuating suspicions where

(Continued from p. 145.) they would never have been enter. It was no wonder that the infatutained ; inflicting wounds which ated attempt of Charles I. in 1637, can never be healed; and apply- to impose episcopacy on Scotland,

should, as Wellwood remarks in nied to be of divine right. (2.) Not only his *o Memoirs." have proved “the that government wbich was directly comfatal torch that put the two king

manded and enacted, but also that which

was practised and recommended by the doms into a flame." Not content

apostles to the church, must justly pass with feeling the pulse of this high for an apostolic institution. (3.) That minded nation, and finding, by which the apostles by Divine inspiration the reception the liturgy met with

instituted, was not for the present time,

but for continuance. (4.) The unive.'sal on its introduction into Edinburgh,

practice of the church, immediately sucthat it was beating a fever of in ceeding the apostles, is the best and surest dignation at such an impious commentary upon the practice of the aposstretch of arbitrary power, he per

tles, or upon their expressions. (5.) We

inay not entertain so irreverent an opinion sisted in his design, after the Scots

of the saints and fathers of the primitive had entered into the solemn league church, that they who were the immediate and covenant, and the General successors of the apostles would, or durst Assembly, convened at Glasgow,

set up a government, either faulty, or of

their own heads. (6.) If they would have had abolished episcopacy by a

been so presumptuous, yet they could not formal decree. The result, it is have diffused an uniform form of goveruwell known, was, that the king, ment through the world in so short a who imagined that episcopacy was sp

space. (7.) The ancient histories of the

church, and writings of the eldest fathers, essential to monarchy, immediately are rather to be believed in the report of engaged in a holy war in support the primitive form of the church governof the lawn and the mitre, and ad- ment, than those of this last age. (8.) vanced to Scotland at the head of

Those whom the ancient church of God,

and the holy and orthodox fathers con20,000 foot, and 3000 horse, at

deinned for heretics, are not fit to be foltended by a fleet carrying 5000 lowed as authors of our opinion or pracmarines! These crusaders, how. tice for church government. (9.) The acever, were not able to establish

cession of honourable titles or privileges,

makes no difference in the substance of the episcopacy by the force of arms,

calling. (10.) Those scriptures wherein a and the king was at leagth com new form of government is grounded, pelled to agree to such terms as have need to be very clear and unquestionthe Scots were pleased to pre

able, and more evident than those whereon

the former rejected polity is raised. scribe.


If that order which, they say, Christ set But cedant arma toga-Bishop for the government of the church (which Hall was employed, at the recom- they call the kingdom and ordinance of mendation of Laud, in defending

Christ) be but one, and undoubted, then

w it would, and shall have been ere this, “ divine right of episcopacy.

agreed upon against them, what, and The arguments by which his which it is. (12.) If this (which they Lordship undertook to prove it to pretend) be the kingdom, and ordinance be divine, are in number fifteen,

of Christ, then if any essential part of it and lest our readers should think

be wanting, Christ's kingdom is not

erected in the church. (13.) Christian it gratuitous to say they are to be

polity requires no impossible' or absurd estimated quite as much by num thing. (14.) Those tenets waith are new ber as by weight, we subjoin them and unheard of in all ages of the church, for their perusal. And since it was

(in many and essential points) are well

worthy to be suspected. (15.) To depart but due to hierarchical order that from the practice of the universal church an Archbishop should know still of Christ, (even from the apostles times) better how to defend the church and to betake ourselves voluntarily to a than a Bishop, we shall give his

new form, lately taken up, capnot but be

odious and highly scandalous, Grace's corrections, as well as his ". These first delineations of the porLordship’s reasonings; especially traiture,' says Heylin, being sent to Lamas if what is episcopal be divine, beth in the end of October, 1639, were what is archiepiscopal cannot be

generally well approved of by the Metropolitan. Some lines there were which he

thought too much shadow and umbrage “(1.) That government, which was migbt be taken at them, if not otherwise of apostolical institution, cannot be de qualified with a more perfect ray of light.

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And thereupon he takes the pencil in his not use any mincing terms, but unmask hand, and with some alterations, accom- them plainly; nor shall I ever give way to panied with many kind expressions of a hamper ourselves for fear of speaking fair acceptance, he sent them back again plain truth, though it be against Amster. to be completely limned and coloured by dam or Geneva : and this must be sadly that able hand.'

thought on. " The following were the remarks and “i Concerning your postulata, I shall alterations made by Laud, in a letter to pray you to allow me the like freedom; Bishop Hall.'

amongst which the two first are true, but, .666 Since you are pleased so worthily as exprest, too restrictive. For episcoand brother-like to acquaint me with the pacy is not so to be asserted unto apostoliwhole plot of your intended work, and to cal institution, as to bar it from looking yield it up to my censure and better advise higher, and from fetching it materially and (so you are pleased to write, I do not only originally in the ground and intention of thank you heartily for it, but shall in the it, from Christ himself; though perhaps same brotherly way, and with equal free- the apostles formalized it. And here give dom, put some few animadversions, such as me leave a little to enlarge. The adversaoccur on the sudden, to your further con- ries of episcopacy are not only the furious sideration, aiming at nothing but what you Arian heretics, (out of which are now raisdo, the perfection of the work in which ed Prynne, Bastwick, and our Scottish so much is concerned. And first for Mr. masters) but some also of a milder and George Graham, (whom Bishop Hall, had subtiller alloy, both in the Genevan and signified to have renounced his episcopal, funca Roman faction. And it will become the tion) I leave you free to work upon his Church of England so to vindicate it against business and his ignorance as you please, the furious Puritans, as that we may not assuring myself, that you will not depart lay it open to be wounded by either of the from the gravity of yourself, or the cause other two, more cunning, and more learned therein. Next you say in the first head, adversaries. Not to the Roman faction, That episcopacy is an ancient, holy, and divine for that will be content, it shall be Juris diinstitution. It must needs be ancient and vini mediati, by, far from, and under the holy if divine. Would it not be more pope, that so the government of the full went it thus ?-So ancient, as that it church may be monarchical in him ; but is of divine institution. Next you define not immediati, which makes the church episcopacy by being joined with imparity aristocratical in the bishops. This is the and superiority of jurisdiction, but this Italian rock, not the Genevan ; for that will seems short ; for every archpresbyter's or not deny episcopacy to be Juris divini, so archdeacon's place is so ; yea, and so was you will take it, ut suadentis vel approbantis, Mr. Henderson in his chair at Glasgow, so you will not take it as universaliter imunless you will define it by a distinction perantis ; for then Geneva might escape ; et of order. I draw the superiority, not from citra considerationem durantis; for then, the jurisdiction which is attributed to bi though they had it before, yet now upon shops jure positivo, in their audience of ec- wiser thoughts they may be without it, clesiastical inatters; but from that which which Scotland, says now, and who will is intrinsical and original in the power of may say it after, if this be good divinity : excommunication. Again you say in the and then all in that time shall be democrafirst point, That where episcopacy hath tical. I am bold to add, because in your obtained, it cannot be abdicated without second postulatum, I find that episcopacy is violation of God's ordinance. This pro directly commanded ; but you go not so position I conceive is inter minus habentes ; far as to meet with this subtilty of Beza, for never was there any church yet, where which is the great rock in the lake of Geit hath not obtained. The christian faith neva. In your nine postulatum, that the was never yet planted any wbere, but the accession of honourable titles, or privivery first feature of a church was by, or leges, makes no difference in the substance with episcopacy. And wheresoever now of the calling, you mean the titles of Archepiscopacy is not suffered to be, it is by bishops, Primates, Metropolitans, Patriarchs, such an abdication, for certainly there it &c. 'Tis well; and I presume you do so : was à principio. - In your second head, you but then in any case take heed you assert it grant that the presbyterian government so, as that the faction lay not hold of it, as may be of use, where episcopacy may not if the bishops were but the title of honour, be had. First, I pray you, consider whe- and the same calling with a priest ; for ther this conversion be not needless here, that they all aim at, &c. The eleventh and in itself of a dangerous consequence. postulatum is larger, and I shall not repeat Next I conceive there is no place where it, because I am sure you retain a copy of episcopacy may uot be had, if there be a what you write to me, being the ribs of church more than in title only. Thirdly, the work; nor shall I say more to it, than since they challenge their presbyterian that it must be warily handled for fear of fiction to be Christ's kingdom and ordi- a saucy answer, which is more ready with nance, (as yourself expresseth) and cast them a great deal than a learned one. I out episcopacy as opposite to it, we must presume I am pardoned already for this

freedom by your submission of all to me. will for ever disprove the notion And now I heartily pray you to send me that a stern attachment to the simup, (keeping a copy to yourself against the accidents of carriage) not the whole work plicity of Nonconformity is incomtogether, but each particular head or pos- patible with the most exalted taste tulatum, as you finish it; that so we here and genius. may be the better able to consider of it, About this time the church of and the work come on faster. So to God's blessed protection,' &c. &c."

England was struggling for exist

ence, and petitions and counterBishop Hall was obviously petitions were presented to the of a better mould than the men king from various quarters. Mr. with whom it was his lot to be Jones reprobates the idea that connected. In consequence of his “ apprentices and porters” should not enjoining upon his clergy that have any voice on so grave a subdocument, which was an insult to ject; but let him speak for himman, viewed in no other light than self: even as a religious animal, the

" It must be allowed that very unfair “ book of sports," he was suspect

means were employed to get signatures to ed of Puritanism! more odious petitions at this time: and many subscribed then than licentiousness and revel- their names who were not at all capable ling: and it is not improbable that of judging the merits of the cause. There Laud was induced to employ him

were two kinds of petitions against the

church. Some petitioned the destruction in writing on episcopacy, in order of the whole fabric; a petition, therefore, to try whether he was true to the was got up, and subscribed by above Anglican church; for he was fifteen thousand inhabitants of London;

this complained of the government of the thought, says Heylin, “ on ac

church by archbishops, bishops, deans, count of his moderation and piety, &c. and prayed that the said government, to entertain some obliquity of opi with all its dependencies, Root and Brunch, nion!

might be abolished. This extraordinary

bill was therefore cantingly termed the During the debates in Parlia

Root and Branch petition. There were ment relative to the liturgy and

also others who only aimed at the reforepiscopacy, our Prelate came for- mation of some things in the government vard à second time as the cham- of the church; a petition, therefore, pion of the church of England. called the ministers' petition, was drawn up,

and signed by seven hundred beneficed He published at this period his clergymen; this was followed by others, 6 Humble Remonstrance to the signed by a vast number of hands, from High Court of Parliament,” in her Kent, Gloucestershire, Lancashire, Notvindication and support. This tinghamshire, and other counties. Though

tlie enemies of episcopacy were extremely book was answered by ive or the busy, yet there were great efforts made in Puritan ministers, the initials of favour of the constitution; for, in 1641 whose christian and surnames and the following year, there were no less formed the word Smectymnuus. This Smestampante This than nineteen petitions presented to the

king, and the house of lords, from the two was replied to by the Bishop, in universities, from Cheshire, Nottinghambis - Defence of the Humble Re-shire, Somersetshire, Rutlandshire,Stafford, monstrance.”_Mr. Jones takes no shire, Kent, North Wales, Lancashire, notice of Milton's Apology for

Herefordshire, Huntingdonshire, Cornwall,

Oxfordshire, &c. There was also a petiSmectymnuus, unless he mean to

tion from the diocese of Exeter, signed by refer to this by " Smectymnuus's Vin- about eight thousand names; which, of dication ;" but let our readers not course, was promoted by Bishop Hall and forget that the immortal MILTON

his clergy. The petitions in favour of the

church were subscribed by above one was a decided Puritan. That

hundred thousand hands! six thousand mighty spirit, who scaled the third

were nobility, gentry, and dignified clergy. heavens of poetry on his seraph “These petitions in favour of the church, wing, was too pure and noble not

signed by so vast a number, carried no

weight with them; they were not at all to despise the beggarly elements

countenanced, but were, in fact, rejected. of a worldly sanctuary, and he The house was displeased with those who New Series, No. 16.

2 E

made them, discouraged any more attempts events, take place at the bidding of the kind, and was presumptuous enough of the omnipotent voice of public to complain to, and remonstrate with the king for his receiving them.

opinion, whenever that voice shall " It would be too tedious to give an ac. have attained the dignified and count of all the petitions against episco. manly tone of its adult age. pacy; let it suffice, however, to add, that Bishop Hall was again emeven the apprentices of London made a petition to the king, desiring among other

oployed in behalf of the church in things, that prelucy might be rooted up.' 1641, when the bill for suppresThe very porters also petitioned against sing the temporal jurisdiction of episcopacy, as a burthen too heavy for the bishops and clergy, and extheir shoulders.

cluding the former from the House We are not prepared to say that of Lords, passed the Commons by these ecclesiastical disputes were a great majority. On its being carried on, even in their commence- introduced into the upper house, ment, as they ought to have been the Bishop made the following on either side; but we think it must speech: be acknowledged, that in a free - My Lords :- This is the strangest country, the right of petitioning bill that ever I heard, since I was admitied in general against grievances, vr to sit under this roof; for it sirikes at the supposed grievances, whether in

very fabric and composition of this liouse;

at the style of all laws; and, therefore, church or state, cannot be called in were it not that it comes from such a question without implicit treason recommendation, it would not, I suppose, against the majesty of the people. undergo any long consideration; but, Violence. none would be more coming to us from such bands, it cannot

but be worthy of your best thoughts. ready to deprecate than ourselves, « And, truly, for the main scope of the but we should rejoice to see the day bill, I shall yield it most willingly, that when the voice of public intelli- ecclesiastical and sacred persons should gence, calmly, but sonorously ut

lv ut not ordinarily be taken up with secular

affairs. The minister is called Vir Dei, tered, shall steadily call for reform a man of God;' he may not be Vir Seculi. in the church. That reformi must, He may lend himself to them, upon ocsooner or later, take place in the casion, he may not give himself over purestablishment, we feel no earthly P establishment we feel no earthly posely to them. Shortly, he may not so

attend worldly things, as that he do doubt. As knowledge advances, neglect divide things. This we gladly and advance it happily does, so yield. Matters of justice, therefore, are momentous an affair as religion, not proper, as in an ordinary tracle, for must necessarily be subjected to a

our function; and, by my consent, shall thorough

be, as in a generalily, waved and deserted; investigation in all its which, for my part, I never have meddled parts. The genius of information, with, but in a charitable way; with no as he proceeds in his career, will profit, but some charge to myself, whereof cast an eve of the utmost ingui. I shall be glad to be eased. Tractent fa

brilia fabri; as the old word is. sition on all its frame-work and where ga

“ But, if any man shall hence think to machinery, and nothing will be infer, that some spiritual person may not able ultimately to stand, but occasionally be in a special service of his those practices, that discipline, and king or country; and, when he is so rethose forms, which can be well

ů quired by his prince, give his advice in

the urgent affairs of the kingdom, which I substantiated by Scripture and suppose is the main point driven at; it reason. The enormous revenues, the is such an inconsequence, as I dare boldly gross abuses, the state-vassalage, say cannot be made good, either by divinity the worldly policy, the oppressive

or reason; by the laws either of God or

man : whereas the contrary may be proved religious monopoly, the tithe-sys

and enforced by both. tem of the Church of England, - “ As for the grounds of this bill, that these cannot last for ever. And if no the minister's duty is so great, that it is definite æra of a second reforma

able to take up the whole man, and the tion be destined to adorn our isle,

Apostle saith, TIS ikavos, Who is suffi

cient for these things ? and that, he, who a gradual amelioration must, at all warfares to God, should not entangle himself

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