Imagens das páginas

considerable number of extracts from to be printed. “The Old Gentleman," in the voluminous productions of Dr. a very judicious manner, treats of PuncOwen. Our testimony to the senti. tuality, Temper, Retirement, Friendship, ments contained in them is not re. Cheerfulness, Candour, Happiness, the quired; but we are bound to say, that Sabbath, Prejudice, Sensibility, Pride, the extracts are very judicious, embrac- Retrospection, Religion, Providence, and ing the leading truths of Christianity, Faith. There is a little too much reguand some of the most interesting topics larity and stiffness in his movements, of christian experience. As a vude men and occasionally a portion of quaintness; cum, or pocket companion to a Chris. but there is so much substantial exceltian, in whatever walk of life, we consider lence, we cordially recommend it to our it fitted to be very useful.

readers, both old and young. A SERMON, preached in the Parish REMARKS ON A RECENT EFFORT TO Church of Minal, Wilts, on Whitsunday, SUBVERT The CHARTER OF THE ROYAL 1825, at the opening of the Protestant COLLEGE OF SURGEONS; with AnimadFree School, Maidenheud. No Author's

versions on the evil Tendency of the name.

Lancet, fc. By William Cooke, Mem. SERMONS, delivered at Beresford Cha- ber of the Royal College of Surgeons, pel. Walworth. By Edward Andrews. London, 1826. 8vo. Price 3s. LL.D. Part the First. London: Pal.An Essay ON THE FREE AGENCY mer, 1826. 8vo. 68.- As Part the Second of Man. By Ralph Holgate. R. of these Sermons, with a correct likeness Baynes. Price 1s. 6d. -We hear it someof the Author, is promised to appear times asserted that a man may will soon, we shall abstain from all critical what he likes ; but this is the same thing remarks till the volume is completed.

as to say that he may will what he wills. In the mean time, while we are pleased Others, again, sound perhaps in chriswith the sentiments which pervade these tian' experience, but strangers to the discourses, we cannot, but regret the accurate definition of terms, as consingularities of style, and the bad taste fidently maintain that man has no will; with which they abound. We would this is as much as to affirm that man has sincerely recommend to the author a no soul. Some persons seem fearful of very rigid discipline in those respects. Speaking a word about the will of man, We are sorry to observe, that his ima- lest they eclipse the glory of sovereiga gination so often runs away with his grace; while others ascribe a self-deterunderstanding, and that his trumpet, mining power to it, which is inconsistent from the wildness of its notes, so fre with the acknowledged doctrine of huquently gives an uncertain sound.

man depravity, and of the necessity of THE BIBLE SOCIETY-ITS ADVOCATES

divine influence. AND OPPONENTS: a Remonstrance, re

Mr. Holgate has shown that free spectfully addressed to the Rev Walter

agency in man consists in liberty to act Farquhar Hook, M. A. occasioned by a

according to his own will.* It has often

been thought that a small treatise, conNote appended to his Sermon, preached at the Consecration of the Right Rev, M. H.

taining the principles of the admirable Leescombe, D.D. By Thomas Mann,

Essay of President Edwards, condensed Pastor of the Congregational Church,

and simplified, might be useful to put West Cowes. London, 1826. R. Baynes.

into the hands of plain Christians; and

we think that this pamphlet is well 8vo. pp. 25.

calculated for such a purpose. The THE OPINIONS OF AN OLD GENTLE- author's style is as perspicuous as the MAN, on several Moral und Religious subject will admit; his appeals to reaSubjects. London ; Nisbet, 1826. 18mo. son, scripture, and christian experience, Price 25.-We are exceedingly pleased

are conclusive; and the spirit which with this little work, which contains pervades the whole is far removed from more sound practical wisdom, and the bitterness of controversy. He seems scriptural instruction, than many vo- more wishful throughout to lead his lumes of a much larger size. If“ days” always, spoke thus, and the multitude . We were marred by the fall of Adam, of years showed such discernment, we and yet notwithstanding cease not to be should be delivered from much of that justly accursed, forasmuch as our offendmiserable slip-slop, which passes for ing of God is with our own good will.conversation, and is even thought worthy Calvin.

[ocr errors]

readers to feel that they are accountable they have been written. The account to the throne of judgment, and debtors of the loss of the Winterton, though in. to the throne of grace, than to proselyte ferior to the narrative of the destruction any one to the abstract' opinion of a of the Kent, is touching. Written by party,

one of the sufferers, who since then has SERMONS FOR FAMILIES, Vol. 11. received the salvation of Christ, it disBy the Rev. W. Brown. Price 10s. 6d.

covers much earnestness that the readers

may be benefited ; in which hope we THE SHADOW OF Life: a Sermon, occasioned by the lamented Death of

trust the author will not be disappointed.

- The story of Mary Wilson is well Mrs. Lyon, Wife of Captain George Lyon, Ř. N., one of the Daughters of

told, as well as the History of a Servant the Most Noble House of Leicester. By

Maid, by the same writer.- Mr. Gipp's Rev. James Churchill, I'hames Ditton.

views of the nature of regeneration are

scripturally correct and impressive. This THORNTON ABBEY, a Series of Letters treatise is calculated to do good.-The on Religious Subjects. In two volumes. little work on the parables, the produc. A new Edition. London: 12mo. Price tion of a lady, is exceedingly creditable 105.- Most of our readers, we are per- to her good sense, discrimination, and suaded, are acquainted with the charac. scriptural knowledge. Though intended ter and merits of this religious novel.

for the young, and peculiarly adapted It was brought into notice at first chiefly to them, it might be serviceable to many in consequence of a recommendatory children of a larger growth. The parapreface by the late Andrew Fuller. We bles have been dreadfully maltreated ihought then, that its merits were un- here they are explained in their genuine duly extolled by some, and as much import, and their practical tendency well underrated by others. One of the grand illustrated and enforced. We cordially objections to it was, that it carried all recommend this work to Sunday-schools the parties to the baptismal font before and Christian families. it dismissed them. This, it would ap

HISTORICAL ANTIQUITIES OF HERTpear, was done by the author, in con

FORDSHIRE. By Sir Henry Chuuncy, sequence of the suggestion of Mr. Fuller.

Knt., Sergeant at Law. In 2 vols. 8vo. On the present edition some alteration has been made in this respect; so that

Price 368. or in royal 8vo. 458. our friends may now put it into the A GUIDE TO ACQUAINTANCE WITH hands of their young people, if sodis. God. By the Rev. James Sherman. posed, without assailing their faith in Pædobaptism. A NARRATIVE OF THE LOSS OF THE

''PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION. WINTERTON EAST INDIAMAN, wrecked A Sequel to the Diversions of Purley : on the Coast of Madugascar, in 1792, containing an Essay on English Verbs, &c. Edinburgh: Oliphant. 1826. 18mo. with Remarks on Mr. Tooke's Work, and Price 2s. 6d.

on some Terms employed to denote Soul The PROGRESS OF RELIGION, exem or Spirit. By John Barclay.–Next month plified in the History of Mary Wilson.

will be published, in one bandsome pocket By the Author of « The History of a

volume, with engravings on steel by James Servant Maid.Edinburgh: 1825. 18mo.

Mitchell, from drawings by J.M. Wright, Price 2s.

Specimens of Sacred and Serious Poetry,

from Chaucer to the present day; includA TREATISE ON THE NECESSITY AND

ing the Sabbath, &c. of Graham, and Effects OF BEING BORN AGAIN, as Blair's Grave. The whole illustrated by stated in Scripture. By the Rev. Henry Biographical Notices and Critical ReGipps, LL. B. London : Nisbet. 1825. marks. By John Johnstone.-We learn 12mo. Price 1s. 6d.

that Mr. Tennant has nearly ready for AN EXPLANATION OF THE PRINCIPAL press a work entitled “ Papistry Storm'd; PARABLES OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. or, the Dingin Down o' the Cathedral.” Intended for the Young. By the Author Nearly ready, in one volume 12mo. Disof a Catechism containing an Explana- courses on the Duties and Consolations of tion of Words and Phrases generally em

the Old. By the Rev. Dr. Belfrage, Fal

kirk, Author of " A Monitor to Families ; ployed in the Religious Instruction of

g or, Discourses on some of the Duties and Youth. London: Holdsworth. 1826.

Scenes of Domestic Life,” &c.—In one 18mo. Price 1s. 6d.

volume 12mo. with engraved emblematical All these little publications possess Frontispiece, Death on the Pale Horse, considerable merit, and are well calcu- a Treatise, illustrative of Revelations vi. 8. lated to answer the purposes for which By Rev. John Brúce, of Liverpool.



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE ARMENIAN nomy, and above all by a spirit of enter. CHRISTIANS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. i prise, and a personal courage and activity

in commercial speculations, very different By the Rev. Robert Walsh, LL. D. Late

from the luxurious indolence of an Asiatic Chaplain to the British Embassy at Con people. About 40,000 reside in India, stantinople.

where they carry on the greater part of the

inland trade. I also found many mer. Extracted from an article in the Amulet.

chants of that nation in Transylvania, ARMENIA, a country in Asia, lying to

Hungary, Poland, and Russia, where they the North of Persia and Mesopotamia,

are distinguished by their national qua. and to the South of the Euxine and Cas

lities-industry, frugality, activity, and pian Seas, is celebrated from the earliest

their natural and inseparable result, great antiquity. The face of the region is very

opulence, mountainous, and all the great rivers take

But by far the most numerous and im. their rise there : the Tigris and the Eu

portant colony of this people, is that phrates running South, and falling into the

which was brought to Constantinople by Persian Gulf, and the Phasis, Cyrus, and

the Turks, after they had subdued their Araxes, running North, and falling into

country. I was curious to ascertain -with the Euxine and Caspian Seas, indicate

accuracy their present numbers, and I ob. that their sources must be in the highest

tained an authentic return from the disland in the immense space which they

tricts in which they reside. There are at traverse. Hence it was that this region present in Constantinople, and the ad. was first uncovered by the waters of the

joining villages on the Bosphorus, 200,000 deluge, and the ark, we are told, rested on

Armenian Christians. Of these, about Mount Ararat, the highest mountain of

4000 individuals have conformed to Roman Armenia. *

Catholic forms of worship, and acknowOn the subjugation of Armenia by the

ledge the supremacy of the See of Rome ; Turks, the country became greatly depo

the remainder adhere to the doctrines and pulated. Numbers emigrated to different

discipline of their primitive Asiatic parts of the world, where, like the Jews,

churches, and acknowledge no spiritual they continue at this day dispersed, and

head but their own patriarch. The reli. retain, like them, the characteristics which

gious state of this people is, therefore, distinguish their original country; and

that of their nation : I can speak of it they acquired a propensity for wandering

from a residence and observation of some about, and a commercial enterprise, which

years among them; and what I have not still mark them in the east, and which once

seen, I can detail from authentic infordistinguished them in the western world.

mation. Cha Abbas, the celebrated Persian mo

The Armenians were first converted to narch, cotemporary with our Elizabeth,

Christianity by St. Gregory, of Nazianzus, availed himself of the inroads of the

a town in Cappadocia, who, in the reiga Turks, and invited the fugitive Armenians

of the Greek Emperor Theodosius, was to settle in his dominions, where he gave

elected Patriarch of Constantinople. He, them every protection and encouragement.

however, preferred the duties of a misTwenty thousand Armenian families were

sionary to heathen nations yet unconverted, located in the province of Guilam alone,

and with this view he returned to his own where they carried the culture of silk to

country, and proceeded eastward to the the high state of perfection which it has . mountains of Armenia, where he first attained there. In Julfa. asuburb of preached the gospel. The tradition of the Ispahan, an exclusive colony was formed,

Armenians on this important event, is as which consisted of thirty thousand persons.

follows :--The country at that time was This colony became the great centre of gove

governed by Tiridates, a cruel tyrant, who Asiatic commerce. They were distin.

immediately had the missionary seized, and guished by a frugality, industry, and eco

thrown into a dungeon, deep, dank, and filled with serpents. Here he was left and

forgotten, and nothing further was heard * The Armenians believe that the ark of him and his doctrines. Thirty years was miraculously preserved from decay, after this event, Castrovitugh, sister of and still exists on the top of their moun. Tiridates, was disturbed by nocturnal tain. Many attempts, they say, have been visions; an angel, she asserted, appeared made to ascend to where it is; but the to her, and constantly urged her to interpersons, when near the top, always found cede for Gregory. She therefore applied themselves, by some supernatural means, to her brother, who assured her inter: again conveyed to the bottom..

cession was useless, as the missionary was

long since dead; and allowed her to sa selves hold it in such respect, that they tisfy herself by examining his dungeon. have allowed it a privilege which no other She did so, and to her astonishment and place of worship is permitted to cnjoy in joy, found the missionary, not only alive, their dominions. The Turks abhor the but in perfect health. She now urged sound of a bell; their own congregations this miracle as a proof of his divine mis are called to worship by a human voice, sion; but Tiridates, like Pharaoh, still and those of other sects by a wooden mallet hardened his heart, and kept him confined, struck against a board ; to the church of till God converted him by a terrible visi- Etchmeasin alone they perinit a ring of tation. He was one day hunting a wild bells, and for that reason they call it at boar on the side of Mount Ararat, when this day, “ Changlé Chilsé," or the suddenly he was changed into a similar « Church of Bells.” animal, and all his attendants into hounds From the time of St. Gregory, Chrisin pursuit of him. The people, struck tianity made a rapid and extensive progress with this awful judgment, immediately in the East. At the period of the Turkish rushed to the dungeon, and liverated Gre- invasion, the capital of Armenia was gory; who prayed that the king and his " Anee,” celebrated for containing within attendants might be restored to their pro- it three hundred Christian churches. The per shapes. His prayers were heard, and inroad of the Mahometans, however, with the first use they made of their human the Koran in one hand, and the extermiforms was to be baptized, and acknow nating sword in the other, has now swept ledge the doctrines of Christianity, which away those monuments of the Gospel, were then embraced by all the nation, and, like Ephesus and the churches in the Gregory afterwards lived to a great age, other parts of Asia, and from the same founding churches in the country, which are still held in high veneration. At his place behind them. death he was canonized as the patron saint The churches of the Armenians are of the nation, under the name of “ Surp plain edifices outside, but the interior is loo Savorich," or the “ Holy Illumi exceedingly gaudy. In common with the nator;" and still further to eviuce their Greeks, they abhor images as idolatrous, respect and reverence, they commenced and they never admit a statue inside their their era from the time of his death, which church. They do not, however, annex happened, according to their account, in the same idea to pictures, and the walls of the year 551 after Christ; our present their churches are literally covered up to year therefore, 1826, is, according to the the roof with portraits of our Saviour, Armenian calendar, 1275.

the Virgin, and different saints, to all of The principal church founded by St. which they pay a profound veneration, by Gregory, was that of “ Etchmeasin," genuflection, touching their hands first to where, according to their ecclesiastical the ground before them, and then to their history, another extraordinary miracle was foreheads, and kissing some part of the wrought. The church stands upon a figure with an awful respect. The service rock, under which was a deep cavern. In is chaunted, and the music much more the times of Paganism, this cayern was tolerable than that of the Greeks. filled with impure demons, who were con The Armenian church is governed by sulted on all future events, and gave four l'atriarchs, whose jurisdiction is acanswers like the Greek and Roman Ora knowledged by the people in whatever discles. This foul delusion was destroyed, tant country they may reside; namely, they say, by Christ himself, who, at the the Patriarch of “ Etchmeasin,” near intercession of St. Gregory, descended Erivan, in Persia, and of “Sis," « Can. with his cross in his hand, and striking shahar,” and “ Achtamar," in Armenia, the rock with it, rent asunder the abode, There are, besides, two others, which, and put to flight the demon inhabitants. * though of equal or greater consequence, The rock from thence was called “ Etch are merely titular, and properly form no measin," or the « Stroke;" and the part of the discipline of the Armenian church founded on it, was made the seat church; these are the Patriarchs of “ Conof their Patriarch, the spiritual head of stantinople" and "i Jerusalem.” It is the their church. The Mahomedans them- policy of the Turks to avail themselves of

the religious prejudices of the people they * "The early fathers of the church men- subdue, and their apparent toleration is tion the silence imposed upon Pagan ora. little more than sordid avarice, or selfish cles as one of the first effects of the pro. policy; they therefore appointed two new mulgation of Christianity, according to Patriarchs within their own immediate the prophecy of the Apostle, “ Whether controul, and to which they nominate there be prophecies, they shall fail;" creatures of their own choice. On every 1 Cor. xiii. 8. Eusebius goes so far as to new appointment, they receive an enor. enumerate some of them. It was asserted mous sum of money, and the Patriarch that Memnon's statue ceased to emit sounds then becomes the instrument of enforcing at the same time and for the same cause, the firmans, and collecting the Haratch, or Capitation Tax, for which he is made by -provisions which the pious bring beresponsible ; the poor Patriarchs of Con. low, and which the Anchoret draws up stantinople, therefore, whether Greek or by means of a cord. It is evident that Armenian, are not held in much respect these are a remnant of the order of Simon by their people, as they are constantly Stylites. changed for the money every now appoint- Besides the usual orders of bishops, menť brings, and they are known to be priests, and deacons, there is one peculiar the mere tools of Turkish masters.. to the Armenian church, that of the Ver- When an Armenian feels, as he thinks, tahiets, or Doctors. They are considered a call to the ministry, he simply goes to as the most learned of the nation, and althe priest of his district, accompanied by lowed extraordinary privileges. They are his father and mother, and announces that permitted to preach their sermons sitting, he wisbes to derote himself to God. He -an indulgence not extended to their is then presented with a cope by the bishops. Their opinions are the standards priest, and at the expiration of some of orthodoxy, and they were the great period of probation, he is ordained and opponents of the missionaries from Rome, presented by the bishop with the sacer- who in all their writings greatly abuse dotal vestments.

them for their heresies. When the diffePriests are ordained, as in the Western rent heresies which sprung up in the early Church, by the “ imposition of hands;" ages of the church were condemned by but it is necessary that the four primitive the synods, they generally retired to some Patriarchs should concur in this ordina- remote. part, where, to this day, they are tion, either personally or by a represen- professed, though now forgotten or disre. tative :, if the Patriarch of Constantino. garded by the rest of Christendom ple assist, he does it as proxy for another. Like all the orientals, the Armenians The priesthood is divided into two attribute great importance to fasting. classes-secular and regular. The first Among people so comparatively moderate are not only allowed to marry, but it is and simple in their diet, restraints imposed enjoined to them as a necessary qualifi. on their appetites cannot be felt in the cation for holy orders; but if a priest's same degree as by nations who are less wife die, and he take another, he becomes temperate ; but they are actually so sesuspended and degraded from his sacer- vere, and so rigidly observed, as to evince dotal functions. The regular clergy, or an extraordinary sincerity and self-denial. monks, are not allowed to take wives ; Their first great period of fasting correand as all the dignitaries of their church, sponds with ours--the forty days preced. the Patriarchs and Bishops, must be taken ing Easter Sunday. Many commence the from this order, it follows of course, that fast by abstaining three or four days from no Patriarch or Bishop can be a married all kinds of food, and then, during its man. The whole clerical establishment is continuance, they eat nothing till three now supported by voluntary contributions, o'clock in the day, in imitation of Cornemade at festivals and other times in their lius, who fasted till that hour. When churches, and certain fees on occasional they do eat, they are not allowed the food duties. The convents, however, have that is permitted by other churches. They still some portions of land annexed to must not eat fish with blood, which is them, which goes to the sustenance and permitted in the Latin Church ; nor fish support of the monks who cultivate them. with shells, which is permitted in the There are three orders of monks : that of Greek. They are restricted to bread and “ Surp Savorich;” or “ St. Gregory," oil; and becanse olive oil is too nourish« Surp Parsiach,” or “ St. Basil," and ing and too great a luxury, they use that • Surp Dominicos," or " St. Dominick,” which is expressed from a grain called This latter is a more recent order, and sousam, of a taste and odour exceedingly has been adopted from the Latin Church. revolting. In this way they observe cerThese Cænobites inhabit four convents tain periods before Christmas and other situated in different parts of Asia : “ Surp festivals, besides every Wednesday and Carabet,” or “ St. John," on the frontiers Friday; so that the whole year is a sucof Persia ; " Varatch," or the “ Holy cession of Lents, with short intervals, Cross," near Vau, in Armenia ; “ Aspa during which they maintain, not a nomisasin," or the “ Holy Virgin,” near Diar. nal, but a rigid, uncompromising absti. bekir, in Mesopotamia; and “Surp Bogas," nence. Many of the boatmen on the or “ St. Paul," at Angora, in Asia-Minor. Bosphorus, and the hummals, or porters, Besides these, there are many religious are Armenians. I have often pitied those persons who separate themselves froin the unfortunate men, whom I have seen laworld, and devote their lives to solitude bouring whole days without remission, and prayer; among these, the “ Gignia. on scanty diet, scarcely sufficient to suphores” are the most remarkable. They port a human body when not making any search out the highest and most inaccessi- exertion. Among the food from which ble rocks, and, climbing to the summit, they abstain altogether, is the flesh of a never again descend. They are supplied hare, which no call of appetite or scarcity

« AnteriorContinuar »