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numerous instances, they should memorial viewed as a permanent be considered as synonymous. If institute, or the actual rememthe following passages * in the brance enjoined, both were for the Alexandrine Version be examined, sake of the people. It was not to which are rendered in our trans- remind God, but invariably to relation, “memorial,” there will be mind them of what he had done, or found in every case the word uvr- of what he had engaged to do, on uoouvov, which appears to be used their behalf. Ainsworth, indeed, as the equivalent of the Hebrew is cited by Mr. Orme, as thus

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memorial thereof, bringing to God's substantives from the root 73). It

oot pa t remembrance his covenant with the is true that these words are some people:" but the bringing to their times, though very infrequently, remembrancewould have been a rendered, by the LXX, úvá uvnois; far more natural and obvious exbut it appears that, in each case, planation. When Jehovah says of the process of remembering, ra- his incommunicable name, “ This ther than the idea of an instituted is my memorial to all generations," memorial, seems to be conveyed he means, it is “ the name by by its application. In Numbers which I am to be remembered." y. 15. the participle of the verb The “ memorial,” in all other infrom which it is derived is so con- stances, conveys the idea that the nected with the other word as to rite, or revelation, or whatever it illustrate this distinction. ësı yap might be, which is so called, was θυσία μνημοσυνο, αναμιμνήσκεσα instituted in order. that the people đuapríay: “it is an offering of me- might remember God! W ben the morial, bringing iniquity to remem- Apostle Paul adverts to the anbrance.” In Numbers x. 10. it is nual sacrifices, he says, “there said of the sacrifices of the peace- was a continual remembrance of offerings, " they shall be for a sin.” “ That is,” says Mr. Orme, memorial before your God.” Here . " they showed that God had them the Septuagint has rendered it still in remembrance; for had εται υμίν ανάμνησις εναντι τα θες they been blotted out, and therevuwv. The observance of the law, fore forgotten by God, the sacri. in this case, was undoubtedly a fices would have ceased to be

memorial," and the translators offered.” Now, it is worthy of might have retained the ordinary remark, that in this passage the word, almost universally used in word åráavnog is used, and evisuch connexion ; but they seem dently conveys the idea of the act to have fixed rather upon the men- . of recollection. This was necestal operation, than on the com- sary under the law, because of the memorative institute.

inadequate nature of the typical But without insisting on this sacrifices. Their constant repedistinction, I would further re- tition was therefore enjoined to mark, that if the word used in denote that inadequacy, and to reference to the Lord's Supper had serve as a constant remembrancer ben" uvnjoouvov, it would not have to the people of their iniquities, supported the idea sanctioned by and of the future sacrifice by the esteemed author of the work which alone their guilt could be to which I have alluded. In every actually taken away. This apuse of the words, whether it be the pears to be the most natural bean

ing of the text. * Exod. ili, 15; xii, 14 ; xiii. 9; xvii. 14; When Jehovah calls his name xxvi &c. &c.

19. “ my memorial," (931, TÕTO Mese

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€51-uynuoouvov,) the language were printed in a small pocket vomay be considered as illustrative lume for circulation, together with of the words of Christ, eis Thy a few of the explanatory remarks, eurv ává uvnour; and my last ob- the most important passages would jection to the opinion of Mr. Orme form an excellent assistant to an is founded on the pronoun. Had intelligent and spiritual obserit been general and indefinite, vance of the sacred ordinance. “ as a memorial or remembrancer,” Wishing the esteemed author emithere might have been some plausi- nent success in all his labours, and bility in the view given by Mede: your work a circulation equal to on the other hand, if our Lord had its merits, I am, Gentlemen, used the Hebrew language, no

Yours respectfully, phraseology could have been more

CANDIDUS. literally significant of his meaning

wunnus than 'n. It is obvious, that if

MISCELLANEA BIBLICA. the Lord's Supper be a service in which we “ pùt God in mind,”

No. III. our Lord would have used a very different form of expression. If

Idie Words the avauvnors be a memorializing, Our Lord admonishes us, that or “ putting another in remem- “ every idle word that men shall brance,” rather than ourselves re- speak, they shall give account membering, then it is Christ him. thereof in the day of judgment.".. self who is memorialized ; a con- Matthew xii. 36. A few remarks struction which, I presume, would may perhaps remove some diffinot be admitted by any one. If culties from this passage, and set God” be intended, and the pro- it in a light in which it has not noun merely denote the authority usually appeared. by which the institute was ap. 1. To give account, ought not pointed, then it is not easily to be to be considered as synonymous reconciled with the assurance, that with, to be condemned. When the Intercessor, “ having obtained informed that we shall have to or secured the everlasting redemp. give an account, we are admotion,” “appeareth in the presence nished of our responsibility ; but of God for us.” It is more natural not certainly of our criminality, to consider the Eucharist as our respecting the matter contemremembrancer of the Redeemer, plated. The faithful pastor watches and his appearance before the for souls, as one that must give throne as the continual memorial account, and hopes to do it with in heaven on his part, who “ever joy, Heb. xiii. 17. - Every one liveth to make intercession.” of us shall give account of him

I camot close these observa. self unto God," Rom. xiv. 12; yet tions without renewing the expres- to many, it is hoped, the great sion of my grateful acknowledg., audit will issue in, “ Well done ments to the author of the work good and faithful servant.” Matt. on the Lord's Supper, for the high xxv. 19-23. The account, theresatisfaction. I have enjoyed in the fore, to be given respecting what perusal of his volume. The chap is here rendered an idle word, maġ, ter on the “ symbolical and com- so far as this expression is con memorative” character of the in- cerned, be honourable and happy stitution is one of peculiar in- for the individual by whom it is terest; and I would respectfully rendered. suggest to the author, that if the 2. The word apyos, rendered more practical and devotional parts' idle, does not of itself express'

any moral quality. It is a con- iudicative of moral character, whetracted form of aepyos, without 'ther good or bad : “a good man work, without labour, and is ap- out of the good treasure of the plied by classic authors to land heart bringeth forth good things; not cultivated, or left to itself, the and an evil man out of the evil produce of which is therefore treasure bringeth forth eyil things," spontaneous. Pythagoras would ver. 35. Everyone's ordinary rather that his disciples should conversation, therefore, will come throw stones at random, than utter into account at the day of judgan apyov loyov, idle or random' ment, in evidence of his character speech. Though the word in ques- and state of mind : “ I say unto tion occurs several times in the you, that every unpremeditated New Testament in relation to per. word, which man shall speak, they sons, it is found referring to things shall give account thereof in the in this place only. The Septua- day of judgment.” And accordgint use it in reference to things ing to this evidence, among others, in but one place, where its import will the final condition of every is disputed. Symmachus renders individual be determined: “ for by by this word "the Hebrew un, thy words thou shalt be justified, without form, Gen. i. 2. In the and by thy words thou shalt be. Apocryphal Book, Ecclesiasticus, condemned,” ver. 37. we find apyw oidnow, rude, unpo. Thus the passage before us conlished iron. -- Schleusner, Lexicon. firms the declaration of David, Vet. Test.

Psalm xii. 2-4. “ They speak 3. In reference to persons, there- vanity every one with his neighfore, apyos denotes moral obli- bour; with flattering lips and a quity, all that we inean by idle, double heart do they speak. The slothful, and such like; but in Lord will cut off all flattering reference to things, it denotes lips, and the mouth that speaketh merely the absence of care, atten, proud things; who have said, tion, preparation; and in refe- with our tongue will we prevail; rence to words, the absence of our lips are our own : who is Lord premeditation or design. Hence, over us?” It also delightfully we may conclude, that the “ idle harmonizes with the announceword” of this passage means, free, ment of the prophet, Mal. iii. spontaneous conversation; and 16–18. " Then they that feared that our Lord admonishes us, that the Lord spake often one to anonot only our deliberate and studied ther: and the Lord hearkened and communications to others, but our heard it, and a book of rememunstudied, off-hand, spontaneous brance was written before him for conversation, suggested by the then that feared the Lord, and present temper of our minds, will that thought upon his name. And come into account, whether fa- they shall be mine, saith the Lord, vourable or unfavourable, before in that day when I make up my God.

jewels," &c. Thus, moreover, it . 4. This interpretation not only enforces the exhortation of the coincides with the tenour of our Apostle, Col. iii. 8, 9; and chap. Lord's discourse, but contributes iv. 6. “ Put off all these, anger, to its continuity and energy. Free, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy uncontrouled, verbal communica- communication out of your mouth, tions, are according to the state of Let your speech be always with the heart, or moral disposition: grace, seasoned with salt, that ye ci Out of the abundance of the may know how ye ought to anheart the mouth speaketh,” ver. 34. swer every man," Hence such communications are

• H.


The History of the Crusades against ciples, the banner of the cross was
the Albigenses, in the Thirteenth unsullied, and its triumph were the:
Century. From the French of conquests of righteousness and
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Already its purity had been impair

ed, and its simplicity abandoned, or The history of persecution furnishes the union would have been impracthe most melancholy illustration of ticable. Its consummation, so dethe depravity of human nature. voutly to be deprecated, prepared When intolerance and malignity the way for “ all monstrous, all proare displayed by those who are digious things ;” and “ the mystery avowedly irreligious, whether in of iniquity,” in its secularity and nominally Christian, orin idolatrous intolerance, was the practical recountries, we can at once account sult. for their developement. But when It is an old adage, that the best under any possible modification of things, when corrupted, become the Christian principles, and in alleged greatest evils. For the same reasupport of the sacred cause, the son that an a postate from the faith weapons of a carnal warfare are in its purity or its influence is geneemployed, and proscriptions and rally the most inveterate in his penalties are adopted for its defence errors, or the most shameless in bis. and propagation, we are in such profligacy; so when a Christian circumstances called to witness the church is corrupted, and at the most awful proofs of that depravity. same time possesses the means of The religion of Jesus is the religion secular aggrandisement, it too of love. Benevolence was the often becomes a living illustration brightest characteristic of his life, of the apocalyptic description, “a. during his mysterious sojourn on synagogue of Satan;" and resemearth. Most distinctly did he re- bles the “ accuser of the brethren" probate the principle which leads to in his impurity and his malevolence. intolerance; in the most explicit It is no violation of candour or of terms his disciples were enjoined to truth, to affirm that the Church of combine an inflexible regard to the Rome has been for ages the seat and purity of their principles, with a centre of such corruptions; the sym-. spirit of meekness and forbearance; bol of intolerance, the fertile source and most solemnly were they forbid- of pollution to all the states and den to have recourse to any secular communities within the range of measures in support of the cause her unhallowed domination. And of their divine Master. Never was what a tremendous libel is the very that cause so triumphant as when name, which, under the sanction, its spirituality and benevolence were and by the direct appointment of most actively displayed by its first that church, has been appropriated confessors and advocates. It had to some of the most infernal conbeen announced as the great object federacies that ever disgraced relin of the Redeemer's commission, that gion, or desolated the world ? A HE came“ not to destroy men's lives, CRUSADE! an exterminating war but to save them;" and while they under the banner of the cross ! The acted on the same hallowed prin- sign of mercy converted to the pur

poses of vengeance; the emblem of Honorius an edict, which doomed peace made the standard of hos- 'to death whoever differed from the. tility, and the authority of that re- Catholic faith. Augustine acknowligion which is “ gentleness and ledged that there had been a time love,” employed to patronise the when he believed it wrong to harass most infuriate deeds of darkness heretics, and that it would be more and malignity. Never was pros-judicious to allure them by gentle titution so complete; never was and persuasive methods; but he satanic policy số successful, as confessed his sentiments were when the nominally Christian church changed, from observing that the thus became essentially Antichris- laws enacted against heresy had tian ; and in the name of all that proved to many a happy occasion was heavenly and divine, the inspi- of conversion.* . And let not the ration of hell became triumphant! guilt of this detestable enactment

This is not the language of rhe- be confined to the civil authorities torical declamation, but the faithful of the empire; those authorities record of facts. Whatever may be were under the guidance and infuthe character of individual mem- ency of aspiring ecclesiastics. While bers of the Romish church, or what. Theodosius decreed, in A. D. 443, ever the exceptions to its spirit and that the books not conformable to temper, in those communities where the doctrines of the councils of Protestant principles are predo- Nice and Ephesus, should be deminant, or, if not predominant, are stroyed, and those who concealed such as to secure a powerful coun- them should be liable to death; teraction and restraint, the genius the council of Toledo thus anof that religion is unaltered. Its nounced their persecuting fulmipersecuting canons and intolerant. nations :-“We promulge this dedeclarations are unrevoked ; its as- cree, pleasing to God, that whosumed right to punish by penalties soever hereafter shall succeed to and death, is still maintained; its the kingdom, shall not ascend the authorised and accredited com- throne until he has sworn, among mentáries on the sacred volume, other oaths, to permit no man to still justify that assumption; and live in his kingdom who is not a all its consistent and honest mem- Catholic; and if, after he has taken bers, when unwarped by policy, or the reins of government, he shall unrestrained by interest, feel no he- violate this promise, let him be acsitation in avowing it. The pre- cursed in the sight of the eternal tended immutability of the Church God, and become fuel for the eterof Rome is its imperishable in- nal fire !"

The Council of Lateran, under · Soon after the establishment of Pope Innocent III. decreed that Christianity by secular power, and "all heresy and heretics should be its incorporation with the state, anathematised, and that being conpapal Rome "became, in reference demned should be left to the seto all dissentients from her com- cular power to be punished.” By munion, what pagan Rome had the same council, magistrates, been in the better times of the princes, and all civil authorities, church. When the Emperor hap- are commanded to swear that they pened to be an Arian, the Arians will“ endeavour bona fide, and with persecuted the orthodox; and when, all their might, to exterminate from as generally happened, orthodoxy every part of their dominion all ascended the throne, the heretics heretical subjects universally that were the victims of persecution. are marked out by the church." In the fifth century, four bishops de- -puted from Carthage, obtained from

* Epist. ad Vincentium.

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