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bodies were anthems to the praise best modern professors. Her faof their great Ruler. The expres- ther, Henry, was a composer of sion of holy Scripture, that “ the sacred music. Walton the angler, morning stars sang together,” fully Ligon the traveller, Feltham the proves the propriety of the meta- essayist, were amateurs. In the phor. Music is the fittest medium sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of divine praise, as she is the a sufficient acquaintance with the exactest human copyist of creative theory of sounds to sing at sight power, in raising order out of con- was esteemed necessary to a polite fusion, and regulating her succes- education. To this period we are sive productions by the just pro- indebted for some of our most portions of time. Music is the solemn and exquisite pieces of language of sentiment, and the psalmody. We occasionally meet, breath of the passions. Poetry and in the relics which remain of those eloquence owe to music half their ages a sequence of notes which charms: the first borrows from music appears to possess the reality and her measured cadence, and the vigour of thought, and is heard latter her diversity of tones. Music with feelings not less acute, and is the joint product of the intellect with pleasure not less profound, and the senses, or rather she is the than when the mind receives an mysterious point in which both addition to its stores, in the per* meet. The Italians have proved, ception of some new and correct that “ God loves not him whom idea. It is pleasing to hear these he hath not made to love music.” aërial antiquities, which have in This is extravagant, but certain it a manner acquired permanence, is, that the finer sensibilities of the whilst the men who composed soul are not possessed by those them, and the lips which first who have no taste for this science. uttered them, have long since It will be confessed that the lia- passed away: it seems as though bility to strong excitement, so in- we were joining our orisons with herent in musicians, if not directed the fathers of our churches. Of by sound principles, is capable of this number we may instance the being perverted to the worst ends. “ Hundredth Psalm," the “ Non It is the energy of feeling, which Nobis Domine” of Bird, “ Old impels to virtue or vice, accord- York," a composition of Milton, ingly as it is well or ill directed. the father of the great poet; PurBut let it be remembered, that the cell's “ Burford," ~ Bedford,” and contrary apathy, though it may the “ Evening Hymn" of Tallis. not incline to vice, can never incite These still retain their places in to virtue, and is, at best, but a our“ Collections,” thongh we are negative excellence, consisting in often surprised that the policy and an insensibility to, and not a supe- consistency of the publishers have riority over temptation. Many of not banished them, as but ill acthe wisest and best of men have cording with the jigs with which been proficients in the study of they are assembled, and as calcumusic. Alfred the Great is an lated, by their antiquated gravity, illustrious example. In later days to damp the merriment of their Sir Francis Bacon, Milton, Sir noisy associates. It is not our inIsaac Newton, Sir William Petty, tention, however, to discuss the Plott, Wallis, Goldsmith, Gay, and merits of ancient English music: many of our most eminent poets those of our readers who feel any have studied the theory and prac- interest on this subject will do tice of harmony. Queen Elizabeth well to peruse the works of Morley, was so skilful, that her lessons can Chilmead, Butler, Mace, Playford, with difficulty be performed by the North, and Salmon, our most an
cient writers on this science, in might excite surprise. The best whose pages they will find much Welch antiquaries confess that to instruct and amuse them. their music was considerably im
Nothing is more remarkable in proved by Gryffydd ap Conan, who the theory of music than its adap- brought with him from Ireland tation to national character. If some experienced musicians. It the wisdom of a nation be known is however remarkable, that there by its proverbs, its predominant is a most decided difference beaffections may be as well dis- tween the compositions of the two covered by its music. The volup- countries. That of Ireland is intuous Italian, the airy Frenchman, variably the expression of overand the energetic German have strained feeling : either the plainimpressed their peculiarities on tiveness of depression, or the ebultheir various schools. It is perhaps litions of unruly joy. This pecuowing to this capability in music, liarity is fully accounted for by of national adaptation, that all the social character of that nation, mountainous and secluded regions In some instances a burst of genius have a music distinctly their own, has impelled them beyond this they being less exposed to the in- usual characteristic, and raised the roads of strangers, and preserving Irish planxty to an equality with their peculiarities free from foreign the sublimest productions of the mixture. Thus, whilst Wales, most cultivated school : particuScotland, and Ireland have each larly in the case of Carolan, whose their national music, England can- celebrated concerto is not surpassed not be said to have impressed any by the noblest specimens of Italy. specifie character upon her har. The music of Scotland has been mony. Welch airs are proverbially long justly admired, and though characteristic; and, indeed, the there is every reason to believe science of music was cultivated in that some of its elegance is to be that country in a very remote attributed to the refined taste of period. “ Morfa Rhyddlan” is David Rizzio, yet it possesses too supposed to be more than eight much of the artless sentiment of hundred years old, and was com, the soul to be mistaken for a mere posed to commemorate one of their imitation of an Italian pattern, or sanguinary battles with the Saxons. indeed of any pattern, but that Our barbarous ancestors in those which nature herself has supplied. days could do nothing more than If the genius of music were to visit defeat their enemies, whilst these the world, and impart to us a finished mountaineers had attained to the specimen of the perfection of her art, happy art of singing over their we think she would present it to us misfortunes ! Welch melodies are in the thrilling notes of “ Auld lang for the most part either martial or Syne.” Franklin endeavoured to pastoral. Of the former, “ Dowels account for the exquisite melody y'r Frwydr,” or “Come to Battle," of the Scottish airs, by the frequent is the most eminent. Of the latter, recurrence in them of falling' and “ The Rising of the Sun,” “ The rising thirds, by which they sound Rising of the Lark," « The Break to the ear as natural chords. But of Day,” &c. &c. are pleasing this does not impart to them their specimens. To those who are character. They speak to us in unacquainted with the exquisite the voice of nature, and they who scenery of Wales, and the enthu- have not depraved their taste, and siasm with which a Welchman re- rendered themselves insensible to gards it, the number of Cambrian her appeal, will feel her force, and melodies which are denominated acknowledge her sovereignty. from some striking object ip nature
TIBICEN. MR. HOWE'S SERMON BEFORE perish in the obscure dormitory of THE PARLIAMENT.
a bookworm, but be widely cir(To the Editors.)
·culated, to enable us to judge of GENTLEMEN,In perusing an the movements of intellect, in its old catalogue of books, printed in progression towards perfection. the Oliverian period, I met with The catalogue from whence I have the title of a sermon of the great derived this information is prefixed Mr. Howe, which, I believe, has to Lawson's Theo. Politica. 1659. escaped the notice of his numerous folio c.
PRÆCo. admirers. It is entitled “ Man's Duty in Magnifying God's Work; ON THE OFFICE OF A a sermon preached before the
MISSIONARY. Parliament, on the occasion of
(To the Editors.) the victory obtained against the GENTLEMEN, --In your MagaSpanish fleet; by John Howe, zine for September, page 494, a preacher of the word, at the Reviewer of the Carter Lane Case Abbey Church, Westminster,” 4to. asks some questions, concerning Calamy appears to have been ig- the “ modern office of managers" norant of its existence, as it is in Christian churches, “ Whence neither published in his edition of do they come ?”_" Where are Mr. Howe's works, nor mentioned their credentials ?” &c. Among in the prefixed life. In all pro- these managers, it appears the pasbability it was published in the tor of a church has no voice; he year 1657, at the time of the vic- forms not a member of their council. tory which it commemorates ; cer. This case, apparently unwartainly it was antecedent to that ranted by the records of the mentioned by Calamy, as Mr. New Testament, suggested to my Howe's first publication, and stated mind a question, as to the relaas being printed in 1660, as the tion in which people called in catalogue alluded to was printed modern phrase) • missionaries,” in 1659, and includes those works stand to the churches. A simple only which were then exposed to Christian, who is taught to look sale. Calamy alludes to the cir- into the New Testament for an cumstance of Mr. Howe's being example, or a precept, to sanc“ lecturer of St. Margaret's Church, tion even the use of terms, is led in Westminster," on the authority to inquire, to whom did missionof Mr. Wood. Perhaps Mr. Howe aries owe their name, since it was preacher of the word at the occurs not in the English TestaAbbey Church, and “ lecturer of St. ment. Every one says, they are Margaret's ;” or if the ascription of not pastors, nor are they prophets. the latter function to Mr. Howe, be a To whom then do they corremistake, it can excite no wonder spond? Are they evangelists ? in those who are acquainted with Or must they be considered to Mr. Wood's general accuracy, espe- hold, as Mr. Irving says, the office cially in relation to Dissenters. I of apostles ? I care not much by am not aware whether the last edi. what name they are called; but tion of Mr. Howe's works, by Mr. since they are governed by comHunt, contains this sermon, but I mittee-men, composed of pastors, think not; if not, perhaps, some of and members of their flocks ; and your bookworm readers may pos- by clerical and lay directors, and sess it. If this be the case, I abroad by pastoral superintendents; should strenuously recommend and by lay committees; from all (and I presume I speak the sense of which, as members of council, of all my brethren) its immediate missionaries are generally expublication, as the first essays of cluded; I should like much to such men as Mr. Howe should not know, what sort of relation to churches and pastors at home chosen counsellors in Christ's kingthey really, sustain-any or none? dom, as home pastors, clergymen, If any, what? As a pastor at home, deacons, or lay committees ? I I may have a vote in directing remain, your's, missionary concerns; but some A CHRISTIAN OBSERVER. good men maintain, that he who • P.S.-I can prove etymologibecomes a missionary is incapaci- cally, as everyone knows, who tated thereby from having any knows any thing of Greek, Latin, voice in missionary councils, un- and English etymology, that aposless the managers of Societies tle, and missionary, and messenger, choose to ask him a question, and all denote the same sort of perthen they concede to him the pri- son: viz. one who is sent, or de vilege of returning an answer; puted to perform a certain duty. now I see nothing like this pro- Many of our friends would have ceeding in the New Testament, no objection to call modern misand as you advise ministers, be- sionaries, “ messengers of the fore they engage with any church, churches," as St. Paul styles to ascertain what sort of system Titas and the other brethren, in they are going to connect them- 2 Cor. viii. 23; but the learned selves with; so, before I offer know, that the word “ messengers,” myself as a missionary,* I should is in Greek “ apostles," and the like to learn from any one, who phrase, “ messengers of the will obligingly tell me, what sort churches," might well enough be of a system it is, on which home
translated, “ apostles ecclesiastipastors and churches, who direct cal.” Yes, Gentlemen, however missionaries, (and as an American popish it may appear to ignorant writer terms it, 66 patronize" mis- Protestants, apostles ecclesiastical! sionaries) act, or what analogy is, as you know, a more liberal their proceedings have to the ex- translation of the original, and a amples recorded in the Sacred
proper scriptural term for those Scriptures ? Whether they consi who are vulgarly called “ missionder their missionaries as resem- aries.” Thus again, in further proof bling hired clerks, who go abroad of the same point, St. Paul, writing for mercantile houses, and who to the Philippians, chap. ii. 25. have no right to be heard in the says of Epaphroditus, He is business of the firm, or as fellow- " your apostle,” English transla
linisters of Christ, tion, “ your messenger;" but I who do the work of evangelists, will not insist longer on this suband who are as worthy to be ject; it is perfectly plain from
Scripture, that a messenger is a * We give insertion to this paper, for missionary, and a missionary is an the satisfaction of “ Christian Observer," and shall be glad of an answer to it. All
apostle ; the difference lies not in mere words and terms apart, every person
the name, applicable to the person wishing to become a missionary has, of sent, but in the authority sending. course, a right of choosing his own sphere An immediate apostle of Christ, of labour, unless be please to waive it.
and an “ apostle ecclesiastical,” The question then is, whether other individuals, say á Society for missions, will or a messenger of the churches, are aid his design? If so, he goes; he is then very different matters : once more, a missionary; but how he can have a voice the church at Philippi's apostle in missionary councils, when he may be (was, as the classical authority, at the distance of thousands of miles, it is difficult to conceive. If it be intended,
Blackwall, says), by this designathat he should bave a voice with regard tion, constituted' bishop.” And to his own mission--this he, of course, has therefore, you see, Gentlemen, I already, for he has only just to form his
could prove etymologically, that own determination ; if others do not fall in with it, it is at his own option to modify
missionaries are bishops and aposit or not.. ED.
From the Rev. G. Whitefield to again. Your late kindness has kept me Mr. Savage. • from being embarrassed, and extrícated
me out of many difficulties. I hope the V. Savannah, Dec. 3d, 1751.
Orphan-house is now in a very promisMy VERY DEAR FRIEND -- I have ing way. The debt due for it, I hope, long'd to write to you, and yet was un- will be discharged this Spring; and, willing to do it, till I had seen how by cultivating an excellent adjacent affairs turned out. Six weeks we have tract of land, lately found out and been arrived ; and, thanks be to God! granted me, in a few years, I hope, it I found the Orphan-house in as good a will support itself. Nothing is now situation as could be expected. The wanting, but more negroes.* These children are well, and much improved ; and the senior orphan hath made such a progress in learning, that he is capable # The following affecting account of the of taking upon him the care of the desolation of this establishment has reschool. I hope he will be a preacher of cently appeared in a monthly journal : the everlasting Gospel. Thanks be to “ The Orphan House in Georgia, for that God who put it into your heart which so many sermons were preached, to give me such assistance ! It hath and such large sums of money collected, kept me from being embarrassed and in this country, has little more remaining involved in debt again. The dear Lord
than one stone upon another. In 1773, Jesus shall pay you your own, with
Mr. Ashbury says, “This morning the
news is arrived that Mr. W.'s Orphan usury. I believe he sends me here to
House is burnt down : whether by acci. teach me to live by faith, and to learn to
dent or design is not known. Some say live upon him alone. But, oh! what a it was by lightning. The wings are left dull and stupid scholar am I! Pray for standing but the rest of the edifice, with me, my very dear friend, that my tardy all it contained, is destroyed. In 1800, pace may be quickened, and my poor Mr. Lee paid a visit to the spot, and found soul may be upon the stretch for the the two wings partly standing. They are blessed Emanuel. I am now going to
of brick, one story high, with four chimCharles-town, where my preaching,
neys in each; one of which had fallen about a month ago, met with great ac
down. The whole building was going ceptance. In the Spring, I purpose to
fast to decay. In one of the wings lives a go northward. God willing, you shall
small family of whites ; in part of the hear how the Lord is pleased to let his
other, a family of negro slaves; and the
residue was a stable for horses. The brick work prosper in my unworthy hands. I
walls, which enclosed the whole of the love you most affectionately, for his great
premises, were levelled with the ground, name sake, and thank you and yours and, in many places, the foundations a thousand times for the repeated tokens ploughed up. No school of any kind was of your kindness to me.
kept upon the premises. The General Often do I wake in the night, and lift Assembly of Georgia had taken possesup my heart in your behalf. Your dear sion of the whole estate, including a little one is not forgotten. May her plantation, and the slaves which belonged father's God be her God and portion for to it; and the whole was rented for 30 ever! For the present, my dear, dear
dollars per anuom. No preacher was ever friend, adieu! The schooner I am to
so popular on the Continent of America
as Mr. Whitefield. Many thousands of go in is in sight.
sinners were awakened under bis ministry, With endeared love, and unfeigoed
and a general feeling of religious concern gratitude, I subscribe myself,
was revived, wherever he preached, from My very dear friends,
the State of Massachusetts to the extremity Yours, &c.
of Georgia. How powerful was the inG. WHITEFIELD. terest excited in favour of the Orphan To Mr. Savage.
House in most parts of the country, and yet how little fruit is now found! How
is this to be accounted for?” (Rev. R. VI. Charles-town, Feb. 2, 1752.
Pieece's Letters on his late l'isit to America.)
- Various reasons might be assigned ; MY VERY DEAR FRIEND-I wrote tu but could the blessing of heaven be antici• you some time ago. The same motive, pated upon an Institution which was fed even gratitude, excites me to write by SLAVERY? The Orphan House estate