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elusion of all that is not absolutely germane to the matter, this short story—it could easily be printed in thirty pages—has seldom, if ever, been surpassed. The masterpiece of Karamzin has little, or nothing, in common with the Russian novel, as it has subsequently taken shape. It belongs rather to the stock of Rousseau and Saint-Pierre.i But, in the larger sense, the author is not unworthy to have prepared the way for the creations of Gogol, Turgenjev, and Dostojevsky.

This closes our sketch of the Romantic Revolt. During the thirty years of our period—sooner in onecountry, later in another—we have seen the stirrings

Conclusion, . "." "" - ii»i

of a new life spread from end to end of the commonwealth of Europe. Everywhere they brought a reaction against the classical conventions. Everywhere, directly or indirectly, immediately or in the long-run, they resulted in throwing the nation upon its own resources, in restoring to it the heritage of its own soil. In the Latin countries, no doubt, this process was less thoroughly carried out. For there the soil itself was steeped in classical traditions; and for the Frenchman or the Italian the escape could not be so complete as for the Teuton and the Slav. Yet even in France and Italy the old forms largely vanished, the old spirit was profoundly modified. For the Teuton, in a less degree for the Slav, these years were, in the strictest sense, a new birth. There had been nothing like it since the Renaissance. But, whereas the Renaissance was, in the first instance, the invasion of a foreign culture, the Romantic Revival was, except in the Latin countries, a war of liberation. Hence, in spite of a general resemblance, the marvellous variety of genius, of imaginative beauty conceived and shaped by genius, which it produced. It was a return to the soil—to the inexhaustible fertility of nature.

i It may be added that he translated Shakespeare's Julius Qatar and Lessing's Emilia Oalotti. He was the only Russian of the time to be deeply influenced by the English and the Germans.

Consult the following, among other works: Biographic Universelle and NouveUe Biographic Oinirale (as before); Ticknor, History of Spanish Literature (3 vols., 6th ed., 1882); Bouterwek and Sismondi (as before); Rhizos-Rhankabes, Histoire litteraire de la Orece moderne (2 vols., 1877); J. ten Brink, Octchiedenis der Nedeiiandtche Letterkunde (1897); Hansen, Illustreret Damk Litteratur Historic (3 vols., 2nd ed., 1902); Vedel, Svcnsk Romantik (1894); Pypin und Spasowu;, Oesehichte der Slavischai Litteraturen (German translation, 3 vols., 1880); Pypin, Istorija Russlan Literatury (4 vols., 2nd ed., 1902-3); Bruckner, Oesehichte der Russitchcn Litteratur (1905).

INDEX.

Albany, Louise, Countess of, 453,
462.

Alembert, Jean-le-rond d', 362-3,
391

Alexis, Wilibald (i.e., Wilhelm
Hiiring), 88.

Alfieri, Vittorio, Conte di, 270,
437, 448, 4S2-4; his classical
genius, 457-8 ; romantic elements
in it, 457-8; his comedies, 459-
61; his autobiography, 461-2.

Algarotti, Francesco, Conte di, 438.

Almeida, Tolentino de, 471.

Anti-Jacobin, the, 119, 221, 237.

Arabian Xights, the, 73, 193, 481.

Araujo, Antonio de, 472.

Arnold, Matthew, 23, 26, 265, 430.

Arouet, Francois. See Voltaire.

Austen, Anne, Lady, 20.

Austen, Jane, 87, 106-8.

Bage, Robert, 96, 113-4.
Baggesen, Jens, 478-9.
Baillie, Joanna, 91-2.
Balbin, Aloys Boleslav, 491.
Balzac, Honore de, 356.
Baour-Lormian, Louis Pierre Marie

Francois, 373.
Barthclemy, Jean Jacques, 389,

390.
Beattie, James, 28.
Beaumarchais, Caron de, 359, 365-7.
Beccaria, Cesare, Marchese di, 438.
Beckford, William, 99, 100, 291.
Beethoven, Ludwig van, 351.

Belloy, Pierre Laurent Buirette de,

360, 389, 466, 476, 493, 499.
Bentham, Jeremy, 143-8, 329.
Beowulf, cditio princeps of, 158.
Bertin, Antoine, 379.
Bertola-di-Georgi, Aurelio Georgio,

441-2.
Bilderdijk, Willem, 474-5.
Blake, William, 36-41, 50.
Bodmer, Johann Jacob, 160, 172,

189, 192.
Boie, Heinrich Christian, 190, 215,

216.
Bowles, William Lisle, 52-3.
Browning, Robert, 45, 48, 93.
Brun, Johan Nordahl, 479.
Button, Jean Louis Leclerc, Comte

de, 386, 388-9.
Burger, Gottfried August, 10, 15,

30, 55, 190, 215-9.
Burke, Edmund, 45, 120-37, 147,

154, 330, 391, 395, 432, 434, 435.
Burney, Frances, 104-6, 107.
Burns, Robert, 27-36, 41, 50, 218.
Butler, Samuel, 35.
Byron, George Gordon Noel, Lord,

15, 22, 42, 48, 50, 51, 53, 69, 76,

85, 89, 90, 102, 120, 262, 420,

428, 445, 475.

Caffe Societa del, 437-8.

Call Irion, Pedro Cald. de la Barca,

102, 255, 287, 296-9, 301, 303,

305-6, 311, 464, 469.
Campbell, Thomas, 48-9.
Canning, George, 76, 119.

Carlyle, Thomas, 149, 262, 263,
312-3, 314, 342.

Casti, Uiambattista, 444-5.

Catherine II., 362, 390, 392, 493,
494, 495, 496.

Cavendish, Henry, 164.

Cesarotti, Melchiorre, 439-41.

Chateaubriand, Francois Rene,
Vicomte de, 10, 114, 358, 377,
379, 381, 385, 386, 409, 412, 416,
417, 418; his relation to Rous-
seau, 419-20; his romances, 421-
4; Le Qtnie, 424-6; as critic,
426-8 ; his place in Romance, 428;
429, 435.

Chatham, William Pitt, Earl of,
154.

Chatterton, Thomas, 10, 13.

Chenier, Marie Andre, 398-404, 423.

Chenier, Marie Joseph, 367-9,371-2,
397, 450, 476, 499.

Choderlos de Laclos, Pierre Am-
broise Francois, 355.

Churchill, Charles, 17.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 10, 15,
30, 31, 37, 43, 45; his poetry,
55-7, 74, 76, 80, 84, 86; Osorio,
91; 134; as philosopher, 148-50;
as critic, 150-1; 243, 251, 318,
428 481 492.

Collins, William, 8, 11, 12, 13, 17,
30, 39, 52.

Colman, George (the younger), 95.

Comte, Auguste, 134, 347, 393.

Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine
Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de,
393-4, 408.

Constant, Benjamin, 398, 414.

Coraes, Diamantes, 473.

Correa Garclo, Pedro Antonio,
471.

Cowper, William, 16-27, 28, 32, 52,
79.

Crabbe, George, 41-6, 70.

Cumberland, Richard, 94, 97.

Dalton, John, 164.

Danton, Georges Jacques, 367, 397.

Darwin, Charles, 164.

Darwin, Erasmus, 164, 237-8.

Dashkov, Princess, 497.

Davy, Humphry, 164.

Day, Thomas, 111, 487.

Deken, Agatha, 476-7.
Delille, Jacques, 376-8, 475, 486.
Della Crusca, Accademia, 437-8.
Dellacruscans, the, 117.
Desmoulins, Camille, 396-7.
Diderot, Denis, 174, 182, 183, 261,

353, 358, 362, 390, 466, 494.
Djerjavin, Gabriel, 496.
Dobner, Gelasius, 490.
Dobrovski, Joseph, 490-1.
Dostojevski, Fedor, 500,
Dryden, John, 17, 34, 472.
Ducis, Jean Francois, 363-5, 498.
Dugonics, Andreas, 474.
Dumas, Alexandre (pere), 88.

Rdda, the, ediiio yrincept of, 160.
Edgeworth, Maria, 87, 109, 111.
Edinburgh Review, 153.
Kichhon'i, Johaun Gottfried, 162.
Eliot, George (i.e., Marian Evans),
87, 108.

fllis, George, 118-9, 153.
pinay, Louise Florence Petronille
d', 362.
Erskine, Thomas, Lord, 142.
Escoiquiz, Juan, 469.
Ewald, Johannes, 480-1.

Fabre d'Eglantine, Philippe Fran-
cois Nazaire, 367.

Felth, Rhijnvis, 475-6.

Fergusson, Robert, 11.

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb, 131, 187,
192, 194, 336, 340-2, 343, 345,
347-8, 349, 350.

Florian, Jean Pierre Claris de,
381, 492.

Fontanes, Louis, Marquis de, 378-9,
409.

Fon-Vizin, Denis, 497-8.

Foscolo, Ugo, 439, 450-2.

Fox, Charles James, 155.

Franklin, Benjamin, 163.

Franzen, Franz Michael, 484.

Frederick the Great, 168, 250.

Frere, John Hookham, 119.

Gait, John, 87.

Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn, 108.

Gessner, Salomon, 372, 442, 472,

492.
Gibbon, Edward, 123, 162.
Gifford, William, 117, 153.

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Godwin, William, his novels, 103-4;
Political Justice, 140-3.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang v., 9, 15,
82, 83, 160, 164, 165, 168, 170,
176, 179, 183, 187, 190, 191, 194,
195, 200, 211, 212, 214, 215, 218;
Götz and Werther, 221-5; early
lyrics, 226.8; Italian journey,
229-32; Iphigenie, 233-6; Roman
Elegies and Metamorphose der
Pflanzen, 236-8; as man of
science, 238-43; Xenien, 244;
Wilhelm Meister, 244-8; Her-
mann, 248 - 50; ballads, 250-1;
Matürliche Tochter, 251-3; Faust,
253-61; 276,278, 280, 281-2, 287,
290, 310, 318, 350, 409, 411, 415,
416, 420, 428, 441, 448, 451-2,
475, 492.
Goeze, Melchior, 180.
Gogol, Nicolai, 498, 500.
Goldoni, Carlo, 437.
Goldsmith, Oliver, 8, 23, 24, 96, 97,
135,262, 377.
Gottsched, Johann Christoph, 172,
176, 188.
Grattan, Henry, 156.
Gray, Thomas, 8, 13,
369, 439, 446, 447, 47
Gribojadov, Alexander, 478.
Grimjakob, idi, 310,308.
Grimm, Melchior, 374, 376, 390-1,
494

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; 47, 211,

Herder, Johann Gottfried, 10, 86,
160, 181, 187, 190, 194; his idea
of evolution, 201-2, 204-5; his
philosophy of history, 205-6; his
work, in primitive poetry, 209-
12; his relation to Romance,
212-5; 216, 225, 253, 350, 408,
409, 492.
Heyne, Christian Gottlob, 159.
Holcroft, Thomas, 95-6, 381.
Hölderlin, Friedrich, 279.
Horvath, Adam, 474.
Hugo, Victor, 43, §§ 115, 215, 261,
309, 318, 370, 372, 400, 401, 402,
403, 404, 420, 422,423, 428.
Humboldt, Alexander v., 206.
Humboldt, Wilhelm v., 280, 295.
Hume, David, 145, 147, 320.

Inchbald, Elizabeth, 112-3.
lo (or Yriarte), Thomas de,

Ismārī, Maximin, 397.

Jeffrey, Francis, 58, 70, 153.

Johnson, Samuel, 16, 17, 45, 105,
106, 112.

Joseph II., 490.

Joubert, Joseph, 429.

Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchior de,
466-8.

Kant, Immanuel, 134, 149, 168, 187,
206; his metaphysics, 320-7;
his ethics, 327-30; his aesthetic,
330-5; 336, 338-9, 340; his pol-
itical philosophy, 346; 411.

Karamzin, Nicolai Mikhailovitch,
499-500.

Keats, John, 34, 39, 55, 84, 186,
196, 21

, 215.

Kellgren, Johan Erik, 483,
Kinker, Johannes, 476.
Kisfaludy, Alexander, 474.
Klinger, Friedrich Maximilian, 190.
Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb, 172,

189, 192, 213,475, 480, 484.
Kniaznin, Franz Denis, 486.
Kollar, Johann, 492.
Kollataj, Hugo, 487-8.
Körner, Christian Gottfried, 274.
Körner, Theodor, 319.
Kotzebue, August v.,207, 300,315-7.
Krasicki, Ignaz, 487.

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