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and to report their opinion thereupon, together with such propositions for relief therein as to them shall seem expedient.

84. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Public Expenditures to examine into the state of the several public departments, and particularly into laws making appropriations of money, and to report whether the moneys have been disbursed conformably with such laws; and also to report, from time to time, such provisions and arrangements as may be necessary to add to the economy of the departments, and the accountability of their officers.*

85. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Private Land Claims to take into consideration all claims to land which may be referred to them, or shall or may come in question; and to report their opinion thereupon, together with such propositions for relief therein as to them shall seem expedient.

86. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Miltary Affairs to take into consideration all subjects relating to the military establishment and public defence, which may be referred to them by the House, and to report their opinion thereupon; and also to report, from time to time, such measures as may contribute to economy and accountability in the said establishment.

87. It shall be the duty of the Committee on the Militia to take into consideration and report on all subjects connected with the organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia of the United States.

88. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Naval Affairs to take into consideration all matters which con

* See note to Rule 73.—And further on the 30th March, 1816, sia Committees on Expenditures in the several Departments of the Govern. ment were created and added to the list of standing committees. The duties assigned to these several committees would seem entirely t cover the duties of the Committee on Public Expenditures. (See Rule 99 and 100.:

cern the naval establishment, and which shall be re ferred to them by the House, and to report their opi nion thereupon; and also to report, from time to time, such measures as may contribute to economy and accountability in the said establishment.

89. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Foreign Affairs to take into consideration all matters which concern the relations of the United States with foreign nations, and which shall be referred to them by the House, and to report their opinion on the

same.

90. It shall be the duty of the Committee on the Territories to examine into the legislative, civil, and criminal proceedings of the Territories, and to devise and report to the House such means as, in their opinion, may be necessary to secure the rights and privileges of residents and non-residents.

91. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Revolutionary Pensions to take into consideration all such matters respecting pensions for services in the revolutionary war, other than invalid pensions, as shall be referred to them by the House.

92. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Invalid Pensions to take into consideration all such matters respecting invalid pensions as shall be referred to them by the House.

93. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Roads and Canals to take into consideration all such petitions and matters or things relating to roads and canals, and the improvement of the navigation of rivers, as shall be presented, or may come in question, and be referred to them by the House; and to report thereupon, together with such propositions relative thereto, as to them shall seem expedient.

94. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Patents to consider all subjects relating to patents which may be referred to them, and report their opinior

hereon, together with such propositions relative thereto as may seem to them expedient.

95. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds to consider all subjects relating to the public edifices and grounds within the city of Washington, which may be referred to them, and report their opinion thereon, together with such propositions relating thereto as may seem to them expedient.

96. It shall be the duty of the Committee of Revisal and Unfinished Business to examine and report what laws have expired, or are near expiring, and require to be revived or further continued; also, to examine and report, from the Journal of last session, all such matters as were then depending and undetermined.

97. It shall be the duty of the Committee of Accounts to superintend and control the expenditures of the contingent fund of the House of Representatives, and to audit and settle all accounts which may be charged thereon; and also to audit the accounts of the members for their travel to and from the seat of Government, and their attendance in the House.*

98. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Mileage, to ascertain and report the distance to the Sergeant-at-arms, for which each member shall receive pay.

99. Six additional standing committees shall be appointed at the commencement of the first session in each Congress, whose duties shall continue until the first seasion of the ensuing Congress:

So much of this rule as directs the Committee of Accounts to audit and settle the mileage and daily pay of the members, was adopted at the first session, 12th Congress, (1812.) At the first session of the 25th Congress, (1837,) a Standing Committee on Mileage was created for the especial purpose of ascertaining and reporting the mi' cage for which each member shall receive pay. (See Rule 98.)

1. A Committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures as relate to the Department of State;

2. A Committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures as relate to the Treasury Department;

3. A Committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures as relate to the Department of War;

4. A Committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures as relate to the Department of the Navy;

5. A Committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures as relate to the Post-Office; and

3. A Committee on so much of the public accounts and expenditures as relate to the Public Buildings.

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100. It shall be the duty of the said committees to examine into the state of the accounts and expenditures respectively submitted to them, and to inquire and report particularly—

Whether the expenditures of the respective departments are justified by law:

Whether the claims from time to time satisfied and discharged by the respective departments are supported by sufficient vouchers, establishing their justness both as to their character and amount:

Whether such claims have been discharged out of funds appropriated therefor: and whether all moneys have been disbursed in conformity with appropriation laws and

:

Whether any, and what provisions are necessary to be adopted, to provide more perfectly for the proper application of the public moneys, and to secure the Government from demands unjust in their cha racter, or extravagant in their amount.

And it shall be, moreover, the duty of the said committees to report, from time to time, whether any, and what retrenchment can be made in the expenditures of the several departments, without detriment to the public service; whether any, and what abuses at any time exist in the failure to enforce the payment of moneys which may be due to the United States from public defaulters or others: and to report, from time to time, such provisions and arrangements as may be necessary to add to the economy of the several departments, and the accountability of its officers.

101. The several standing committees of the House shall have leave to report by bill or otherwise.

102. No committee shall sit during the sitting of the House, without special leave.

103. It shall be the duty of the clerk to make, and cause to be printed, and delivered to each member, at the commencement of every session of Congress, a list of the reports which it is the duty of any officer or department of the Government to make to Congress; referring to the act or resolution, and page of the volume of the laws or journal in which it may be contained; and placing under the name of each officer the list of reports required of him to be made, and the time when the report may be expected.

104. It shall be the duty of the clerk of the House, at the end of each session, to send a printed copy of the journals thereof to the Executive, and to each branch of the Legislature of every State.

105. All questions of order shall be noted by the clerk, with the decision, and put together at the end of the journal of every session.

106. Whenever confidential communications are received from the President of the United States, the House shall be cleared of all persons, except the members, clerk, sergeant-at-arms, and doorke sper, and

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