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no opposition be made, or if the question to reject be negatived, the bill shall go to its second reading without a question.--Rules H. R. 110.

In the appointment of the standing committees, the Senate will proceed, by ballot, severally to appoint the chairman of each committee, ' and then, by one ballot, the other members necessary to complete the same; and a majority of the whole number of votes given shall be necessary to the choice of a chairman of a standing committee. All other committees shall be appointed by ballot, and a plurality of votes shall make a choice. When any subject or matter shall have been referred to a committee, any other subject or matter of a similar nature may, on motion, be referred to such committee.-Rule 34.

The clerk may deliver the bill to any member of the committee.-Town. col. 138. But it is usual tc deliver it to him who is first named.

In some cases, the House has ordered the committee to withdraw immediately into the committee-chamber, and act on and bring back the bill, sitting the House. -Scob. 48. Vide Rules H. R. 102.

A committee meets when and where they please, if the House has not ordered time and place for them.-6 Grey, 370. But they can only act when together, and not by separate consultation and consent; nothing being the report of the committee, but what has been agreed to in committee actually assembled.

A majority of the committee constitutes a quorum for business.-Elsynge's method of passing bills, 11.

Any member of the House may be present at any select committee, but cannot vote, and must give place to all of the committee, and must sit below them.Elsynge, 12: Scob. 49.

The committee have full power over the bill, or other paper committed to them, except that they can. not change the title or subject.-8 Grey, 228.

The paper before a committee, whether select or of the whole, may be a bill, resolutions, draught of an


address, &c., and it may either originate with them, or be referred to them. In every case, the whole paper is read first by the clerk, and then by the chairman, by paragraphs, Scob. 49, pausing at the end of each paragraph, and putting questions, for amending, if proposed. In the case of resolutions on distinct subjects, originating with themselves, a question is put on each separately, as amended, or unamended, and no final question on the whole.-3 Hats. 276. But if they relate to the same subject, a question is put on the whole. If it be a bill, draught of an address, or other paper originating with them, they proceed by paragraphs, putting questions for amending, either by inserting or striking out, if proposed; but no question on agreeing to the paragraphs separately. This is reserved to the close, when a question is put on the whole for agreeing to it as amended or unamended. But if it be a paper referred to them, they proceed to put questions of amendment, if proposed, but no final question on the whole; because all parts of the paper having been adopted by the House, stand, of course, unless altered, or struck out by a vote. Even if they are opposed to the whole paper, and think it cannot. be made good by amendments, they cannot reject it, but must report it back to the House without amendments, and there make their opposition.

The natural order in considering and amending any paper is, to begin at the beginning, and proceed through it by paragraphs: and this order is so strictly adhered to in Parliament, that, when a latter part has been amended, you cannot recur back and make any alteration in a former part.-2 Hats. 90. In numerous assemblies, this restraint is, doubtless, important.

But in the Senate of the United States, though in the main we con wider and amend the paragraphs in their natural order, yet recurrences

indulged; and they seem, on the whole, in that smal body, to produce advantages overweighing their inconveniences.

To this natural order of beginning at the beginning, there is a single exception found in Parliamentary usage. When a bill is taken up in committee, or on its second reading, they postpone the preamble, till the other parts of the bill are gone through. The reason is, that on consideration of the body of the bill, such alterations may therein be made, as may also occasion the alteration of the preamble.-Scob. 50; 7 Grey, 431.

On this head, the following case occurred in the Senate, March 6, 1800. A resolution which had no preamble, having been already amended by the House, so that a few words only of the original remained in it, a motion was made to prefix a preamble, which, having an aspect very different from the resolution, the mover intimated that he should afterwards propose a correspondent amendment in the body of the resolution. It was objected that a preamble could not be taken up till the body of the resolution is done with. But the preamble was received; because we are in fact through the body of the resolution, we have amended that as far as amendments have been offered, and indeed till little of the original is left. It is the proper time, therefore, to consider a preamble; and whether the one offered be consistent with the resolution, is for the House to determine. The mover, indeed, has intimated that he shall offer & subsequent proposition for the body of the resolution; but the House is not in possession of it; it remains in his breast, and may be withheld. The rules of the House can only operate on what is before them. The practice of the Senate, too, allows recurrences backwards and forwards for the purpose of amendments, not permitting amend ments in a subsequent, to preclude those in a prior part, or e converso.

When the committee is through the whole, a mem ber moves that the committee may rise, and the chairman report the paper to the House, with or without amendments, as the case may be.-2 Hats. 289, 292; Scob. 53; 2 Hats. 290; 8 Scob. 50.

When a vote is once passed in a committee, it cannot be altered but by the House, their votes being binding on themselves.-1607, June 4.

The committee may not erase, interline, or blot the bill itself; but must, in a paper by itself, set down the amendments, stating the words that are to be inserted or omitted, Scob. 50; and where, by reference to the page, line, and word of the bill.-Scob. 50.



THE chairman of the committee, standing in his place, informs the House that the committee, to whom was referred such a bill, have, according to order, had the same under consideration, and have directed him to report the same without any amendment, or with sundry amendments, (as the case may be,) which he is ready to do when the House pleases to receive it. And he, or any other, may move that it be now received. But the cry of "now, now," from the House, generally dispenses with the formality of a motion and question. He then reads the amendments, with the coherence in the bill, and opens the alterations, and the reasons of the committee for such amendments, until he has gone through the whole. He then delivers it at the clerk's table, where the amendments reported are read by the clerk, without the coherence; whereupon the papers lie upon the table, till the

House, at his convenience, shall take up the report.Scob. 52; Hakew. 148.

The report being made, the committee is dissolved, and can act no more without a new power.-Scob. 51. But it may be revived by a vote, and the same matter recommitted to them.-4Grey, 361.

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AFTER a bill has been committed and reported, it ought not, in an ordinary course, to be recommitted. But in cases of importance, and for special reasons, it is sometimes recommitted, and usually to the same committee. Hakew. 151. If a report be committed before agreed to in the House, what has passed in the committee is of no validity; the whole question is again before the committee, and a new resolution must be again moved, as if nothing had passed.—3 Hats. 131, note.

In Senate, January, 1800, the salvage bill was recommitted three times after the commitment.

A particular clause of a bill may be committed without the whole bill,-3 Hats. 131; or so much of a paper to one, and so much to another committee.



WHEN the report of a paper, originating with a committee, is taken up by the House, they procced exactly as in committee. Here, as in committee,

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