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SCENE I.-A Desert Place.
Sec. Witch : When the hurlyburly's done,
Third Witch: That will be ere the set of sun.
Upon the heath.
10 All: Fair is foul, and foul is fair : Hover through the fog and filthy air.
Act I. SCENE I. 3. hurly burly, uproar. A sound-word, like hiss, fizz, etc. Such words are common in every language, and Max Müller uses them as illustrations of the “bow-wow” theory of the origin of languages. See Glossary.
6. The student must notice that the second witch completes the line of the first witch. This is general throughout the play. 8. Graymalkin, the name of the witches' cat. Malkin is a diminutive of Mary, as Perkin is of Peter. Cf. lambkin, mannikin.
9. Paddock, a toad. Cats,
toads and snakes
the “ familiars” of the witches. See Intro., “ Witchcraft."
10. Anon, in one moment. See Glossary.
11. Fair is foul. A sharp contrast of exact opposites like these is called an Oxymoron. A living death, bitter sweet, are examples of Oxymoron in ordinary use. The witches made fair things foul and foul things fair.
The student will notice that the witches do not use blank verse in any of their scenes, but a line with three or four strong accents, with irregular rhythm and frequent riming.
SCENE II.-A Camp near Forres. (Alarum within. Enter DUNCAN, MALCOLM, DONALBAIN,
LENNOX, with Attendants, meeting a bleeding Sergeant.)
Dun.: What bloody man is that? He can report,
This is the sergeant
Doubtful it stood;
10 SCENE II.
to prevent me from being capForres, a town in North Scot
tured. land between Elgin and Nairn. 6. Say to. In Modern EngAlarum, means literally a call
lish,' tell.” This seems a relic
of French influence, where to arms, from the Italian, all
dire means "to say "to arme= to arms, but here means
tell." a set of notes on a trumpet, announcing the nearness of a
6, 7. the knowledge of the battle.
broil, etc. Tell the king how
the battle stood when thou Duncan, grandson of Malcolm
didst leave it. That is, “tell II. and cousin to Macbeth,
him thy knowledge of the became King of Scotland in
broil.' 1034, and married the sister
8. spent, worn out. of Siward, Earl of Northumbria.
9. choke their art, make Malcolm, nicknamed Can
their art useless by clinging more, or · Bighead” from the
together; a common occurrence size of his head, was the elder
with drowning people, who son of Duncan, and became
clutch the arm of those who King after Macbeth's defeat in
would save them, and so fre1057.
quently drown themselves and Donalbain, the second son of their rescuers. Duncan, succeeded his brother
9. Macdonwald. There seems Malcolm in 1093.
to have been no rebellion by 1. He can report, etc. His Macdonwald of the Western condition seems to prove that
Isles, and no invasion by Sweno he may be able to report to us of Norway, during Duncan's the latest happenings in the reign. The modern form of the revolt.
word is Macdonald. 2. his plight, his condition. 10. Worthy to be, fitted to See Glossary.
be by his crimes. 5. 'Gainst my captivity, i.e., 10. for to that, for to that against my being taken captive; end, for with that effect.