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their numbers, betook him straight to flight, whom Macduff pursued with great hatred, even until he came to Lunfannaine, where Macbeth, perceiving that Macduff was hard at his back, leaped behind his horse, saying, “ Thou traitor, what meanest it that thou shouldest thus in vain follow me, that am not appointed to be slain by any creature that is born of a woman? Come on, therefore, and receive thy reward, which thou has deserved for thy pains.” And therewithal, he lifted up his sword, thinking to have slain him.

But Macduff quickly avoiding from his horse ere he came at him, answered (with his naked sword in his hand), saying, "It is true, Macbeth, and now shall thine insatiable cruelty have an end, for I am even he that thy wizards have told thee of; who was never born of my mother, but ripped out of her womb.” Therewithal he stepped unto him, and slew him in the place. Then cutting his head from his shoulders he set it upon a pole and brought it unto Malcolm. This was the end of Macbeth, after he had reigned seventeen years over the Scottishmen.

QUESTIONS.

1. “The tragedy is that of over-vaulting ambition.” Illustrate

this from the play. 2. Contrast the characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. 3. Quote any twelve consecutive lines you have considered

worth memorising. 4. By what arguments is the date of the play determined ? 5. From what source did Shakespeare derive the play, and

how did he vary from it? 6. Give a brief account of the story of the play. 7. What share does witchcraft take in the machinery of the

play? 8. Name any ten lines which have become familiar quotations. 9. Paraphrase I. vii. 1-28; IV. i. 50-61; V. iii. 20-28. 10. What references are there in the play to (a) Man's

attendant Genius, (6) Touching for the King's evil,

(c) The murder of Darnley ? 11. How are the Stuarts flattered in the play, and why? 12. Contrast the conduct of Macbeth before and after the

murder. 13. How is Macbeth incited to the murder ? 14. Name the various predictions of the witches, and show

how they “paltered in a double sense." 15. Discuss the introduction of Hecate into the play. 16. Name any other plays of the period in which witchcraft or

magic plays an important part. 17. What is the general metre of the play, and how is it varied ? 18. Where are rime and prose used in the play, and why ?

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19. What are the chief powers of the witches, as shown in this

play? 20. Discuss the character of Duncan as shown in the play, and

compare it with the true Duncan of history. •21. What relationship existed between Macbeth, Lady Macbeth,

Duncan, Siward, and Donalbain ? 22. Describe the scene between Malcolin and Macduff. 23. How do the modern meanings of crew, presently, still, mere,

ecstasy, worm, differ from the meanings in the play ? 24. How does the English of Macbeth differ from Modern

English? Give examples from the play. 25. What are Hendiadys, Oxymoron, Climax, Alliteration,

Antithesis ? Give instances of their use from the play. 26. What part does Macduff take in the action of the play? 27. Give a detailed account of the supper scene. 28. Comment upon

the

passages:
* By Sinel's death."
" The thane of Cawdor lives,"
"Had he not resembled my father.”

'It is a peerless kinsman.' 29. Explain the passages :—“A golden stamp," "sweet bode

ments," Though bladed corn be lodged,” “If trembling I inhabit then,” “ seeling night," "particular addition,” “old turning the key,” “ the fatal bellman," "aroint thee,' “ Bellona's bridegroom,” St. Colmes' Inch,"

“ blade and dudgeon." 31. Give the derivation of sweltered, ravin, avaunt, methought,

bridegroom, minion, ecstasy, jovial, marshall, a-making,

enchanting. 32. Give examples from Macbeth of Shakespeare's verbal use

of nouns, and of his fondness for double-alliterative

adjectives. 33. How are the three dramatic unities observed in the play? 34. How is Edward the Confessor described in the play ?

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35. What treatment was shown to witches in the days of

James I., and how far was James I. concerned in it ? 36. Describe the character of Banquo. How far is it historically

true ? 37. What controversies have arisen over (a) The wounded

messenger scene, (b) The porter scene, (c) The ghost

scene, (d) The Hecate scenes ? 38. Scan the lines :

“What should be spoken here, where our fate.”
“Present him eminence, both with eye and tongue."
“In restless ecstasy. Duncan is in his grave."

“The baby of a girl. Hence, horrible shadow !” 39. What is meant by the Cæsura, and how is it used by

Shakespeare to vary the monotony of the line ? 40. Draw the character of Malcolm as given in the play.

GLOSSARY.

(PRINCIPALLY ON THE AUTHORITY OF SKEAT'S DICTIONARY.)

Ar.= Arabic.

0.H.G.=Old High German. L.=Latin.

Ic.=Icelandic. L.L.=Low Latin.

Sw.=Swedish. W.=Welsh.

Per.=Persian. Gr.=Greek.

A.S.=Anglo-Saxon. G.=German.

F=French. L.G.=Low German.

M.F.=Modern French. M.H.G.=Middle High German. O.F.=Old French.

Du.=Dutch,

Old French is referred to rather than modern, because these words were introduced into English by the Normans, who spoke, of course, the Old French, and not the Modern French.

As Old French was composed mostly of Latin words learned from the Roman soldiers, it is the Low Latin spoken by the soldiers rather than the classical Latin, which is more important.

The Franks—who gave their name to old Gaul after they had conquered it-were a German tribe, who spoke an Old High German dialect. Some of their words were introduced into the Old French, and thence again into English.

A few words were borrowed into English from the Dutch about this time.

The mode of entrance of Anglo-Saxon, Danish, Scandinavian and Celtic words is obvious.

An intensive prefix is one which strengthens the original meaning.

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