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State, in thich the Governor has subscribed for stock on behalf of the State. Which amendment was accepted.
On motion of Mr. Smith, the bill and amendments were ordered to the table.
A Lill from the House of Representatives to locate additional branches of the Planters Bank of the State of Tennessee, was read a first time and passerl.
A Bilmaking an appropriation of mony to Rielard G. Scoggins, was read a third time and solve Is, nincs 5.
'The ayes and noes being demainc atintire voters were
Messrs. Årdersor', Asuc, Brown, Fruy, Clipz, Jones of Hickman, Jones of Lincoln, Laughlin, Love, Alastall, Bencau, Smith, Terry, Turney, Walton, Warner, Yoakum and Speaker Coe-18.
Those who voted in the negaile vero
And so said bill pasad its third reading, was ordered to be engrossed and transmiticito the llouse o: Renresentatives.
A Bill to preserve the purity of elections being taken up and read, Mr. Wheelcr cfier to following as an amendment thereto, to wit:
Provided nothing in this act contain simil he so construed as to prevent my man iron Coti vis constituitonally clirive.
And the sense of the Sunite being thereon bad, the said amendment was rejected.
Mr.vches of conmsreload the Sth section of said bill by striking therefrom the tand:, are yul! tresty-60 years of age, do you reside in the countyás
ari lure ron resided in said county six moni's next preclng or ne it before this day or the day of this eluction," and insert tvojiluunga
“Do you believe yourself in bo 'Treaty-one years of age, las your home or place of residence cerintiscount for the last six months."
And the sense ci tiesonte being thereoides, the said proposition was rejected.
Mir. Yoakum thereuron fired the following additional section as an amendment to cuid bill, to vit:
Be it crecteuh, That I return of any returning officer shall be rejected for vant o form by the sheriff or other oficer, whose duty it may be to comparatha roll--but the same shall be rercived and counted as though it had been in the proper form. Duis the pendency of which,
The Senate adjourned,
Friday, MORNING, Doc. 13, IS39. Mr. Anderson presented the petition of 30 citirens, qualified voters, of Wilson county, praying a modification of so inueh of the tippling act of 1837, as prevents tre retail of ardent spirits manufactured in this State. Which was ordered, on motion of Mr. Anderson, to be transmitted to the Ilouse of Representatives.
· Mr. Jones of Lincoln presented the following Fifth Report of Doctor Gerard Troost, Geologist, Mineralogist and Assayer of the State, to wit: To the General Assembly of the Staic of Tennessee:
In obedience to the third section of the act nassed by the last General Assembly to continuo me in the orice of Geoloris, Mineralogist and Assayer for the State of Ton. I have the honor to report that since my last communication to the Lohiture, I have travene the State in various directions and have analyzed a lurge number of minerals, mineral waters, soils and other materials, which thongh not belonging properly to the departmeni of the Geologist, were deemed necessary to be linown as constitating sources of our national wealth, the results of all which, I now beg learo to lay before you honorable body.
Before! proceed, however, with these detail, it will perhas not be improper, to give a general view of the gcology of the whole State; this has been as yet omitted in my former reporti, because I had not · when they were drawn'up ascertained the precise limits of the dillerent Seological groups of rects of vhich the Sirio of Tenn. is composed.
The country testwardly of the Appalachian mountain ---a ramification of which separates our State from North Carolina, while several spurs of iữ cross ile Statc, and are known by the name of the Cumberland mountains (1)—is separated from the crystalline primordial rocks by the highest part of us mountain crann; the junction of these two formations is not exactly markal by the State line. In Carter county the primordial rocks are found ten or twelve miles west of the line; the whole of Roane mountain is comporod o granit rocks. The primordial mourians trendi: ainish, and alont the head wators of Indian crack are no more to be seen in that part of Tennessee. The State line then runs over the grumecko lurreation or group, till near Wolf Creek in Coclic county, where the pimortal rocks again entor Tennessee. The high ri! o of t!12 great Sno'y mountain is granitic till about the entrance of 'ionnes:00 iiverinio lionroe county, where the grauwecke group again makes its appearance, continuing along the Unaka mouriains low inconniv. Dere are in the primordial rocks enter the State, and continue on to rocc river, where they are replaced agaia by die Spuwecke group. Thus wesce that our State line is not exactly the dividing line lotiveen the crystalline, er primordial rocks as they are generally called, and those that contain organic remains. These latter rocks criend 10 the western side of the vilississippi viver where the crystalline rocks again make their appearance in
(1) The Cumberlnnd mountain is a subordinate range of the great Appalachian mountains, running nearly parallel with the high ridge of that system, which separates the State of Tennessee from North Carolina, and is composed in Tennesses of Wallen's ridge, Clinch mountain, Stone mountain, Cumberland mountains, Crab Orchard mountain and several minor rapiñcations, whicb parily terminate in this State, and partly in North Carolina, and belong all to the samo geognostic system.
Missouri State. Our researches have also extended in a southern direction from Nashville; on this route we have found, as appears from my former reports, these rocks to be covered by more recent strata, similar to the cretaceous group er green sand of the Europeans.These towards the South, in the State of liississippi, are covered with a still more recent formation, in which, the fossils characterising the supercretaceous or tertiary formation are found. Towards the east of the high ride of the Appalachian chain, the primordial rocks generally prevail
. This high ridge which separates these for nations and which contains in its limits the highcst incuntains of the United States, is sometimes composed of gravite and gneiss, es lloane mountain; sometimes of a granite, which contains talc and chlorite or protogene; sometimes of a talccse rock containing act: nolite. It contains also some veins of magnetic oxide of iron, as the Cranberry ore in Carter county, which is associated with Pyrozene Sarde, as in scme of the Swedish iron ore-or is not associated with any other mineral, as in Cocke county.
If we draw a line from a certain point o tris range, for instance, from one of its elevated parts which is near the Warm Springs, (There French Broad river les cut its way through the mountains in a westerly direction) running along by Scvicrville, Knoxville, Kingston, Crab Orchard, Spart? and Nashville;--fron this ciiy along by Charlotte, Brown's Port, Lexington, Brownsville, Covington, and Pandolphand returning og in to Nashville, draw a linc thence in a northwest direction, along by Clarksville, Ecdyrille, Ny., thence across the Ohio and Mississippi rivers as far Es St. Ilichael or Trederickstown in Missouri, where the St. Francis takes its origin, and where the crystalline rocks again make their appearance, we shall pass over successive formations in the following order:
The country lying between the Great Smoky mountains and the Cumberland mountains, or Last Tennessee, is for the most part composed of strata of grauweee, sandstone and limione, alternating with each other, and in which organic roinains are rarely found (13) these strata are highly inclined, approces log in some places towards the vertical, dipping more or less to sarils southeast and running nearly parallel with the Smoky mountain ridge; they are covered in several places by horizontal strata ci limesicno of a dark gray, approaching to a black color, and laving a granular structure. It is in some places characterized by macuites, Le Sueur, Conorlularia, Nobis, Isotellus, Dekay, and several species of Culang orl, Goldf.
The grauwache, 2) and its cocial strata mentioned above, are cov.
(1) Such is the case at least with the lower strata, namely, those which are situated nearest the primordial rocks, which, as mentioned above, are found on the higher parts of the ridge which separates North Carolina from Tennessee. The superior strata of this limestone, which are found northwest of the Holston river are full of organic reinains, amongst which the Waclurites are the most numerous.
(2) Grauwache. This singular name, adopted by the German and
ered towards the Cumberland mountains by horizontal strata of limostone, which has often an oolitic structure, and which we will call oolitic limestone, to distinguish it from what the English Geologists call oolite or oolitic famation, which is a series of rocks of which the colite is one of the members, forming a more recent group than the one to which our politic limestone belongs, and which is characterized by its peculiar organic remains. (1) This oolíticlimestone forms the basis of the Cum
English Geologists, originated amonget the German miners. Its etymology is unknown, and it has remained in use, with some other insignificant denominations, to obviate ccnfusion in the already perplexed nomenclature of rocks and forinations. It included, in its most extensive acceptation, all the conglomeratos, sandstones, puddingstones and fragmentary rocks of the transition formation, that is, of rocks anterior to the formation of the red sandstone and coal measures, (Hiomboldt.) It is the Psammite and Mymophyre (in part) of Brongniart, and 'I'raumate of D’Aubuisson. It is composed of angular or rounded grains, fragments and pebbles of unequal size, from very minute to the size of half a cubic foot and more, of quartz, slate, siliceous slate, mica slate, porphyry, granite and limestone, firmly connected together by a slaty cement more or less penetrated by silex. Several varieties of this rock compose the greatest part of the mountainous part of East Tennessee—sometime forming a real sandstone, sometimes the slaty part predominating, when it forms the slaty grauwacke, and presents then several shades of color, reddish, gray and greenish. This grauwacke is in some places replaced by the clay slate, which furnishes some good roofing slate, as in Sevier county. The grauwacke alternates here and there with strata of silex or quartz rock, and limestone.
This grauwacke, in several countries, is rich in minerals; the rich silver and lead mines of the Hartz, those of Leadlills and of Wanlockhead, the mines of Vorespotack in Transylvania, of Brittany in France, and or Guanaxuato and Zacatecas in Mexico are all in the same rock.
In Europe, according to Golliuss, the grauwacke, and the grauwacke limestone contain numerous organic remains, this is not the case in East Tennessee. I never discovered any in the grauwacke, nor in the limestone which alternates with it, and which is there always highly inclined, approaching to the vertical; but in proportion as we deviate from the primordial rocks the strata of grauwacke become less numerous and those of the limestone increase, become less inclined, and soon approach to the horizontal position; it is then that the orginic remains begin to make their appearance, and sometimes compose the whole of the limestone rock, and form the beautiful marbles which are wrought, in that part of Tennessee.
(1) The oolite or oolitic formation I have not found in the western parts of the United States, though the oolitic limestone is found in several places. I found it forming a stratum extending perhaps forty miles from west to east on the western slope of the Cumberland mountain of more than two hundred feet in thickness. I have traced it from Monte Sano in North Alabama, which must be considered as the most
berland mountains and is abundant towards the test of them. This colitic limestone is also perceptille in the valleys tice the lower strata of that mountar cheia come to light, as in the Sequatchee Valley, where I discovered the same inclined strata of Last Tennessee covered by the colitic line tone. This linestone lies under the sirata of coal, she and sandstone, ile tro latter being characterized by the vegetable remains peculiar to the ccelination, and composing nearly the whole ci the worpcrie the Cumberland mountains.
At the Cub O.chare the colticlic tone again comes to light from under the sandstone of the coal form: tion, and continues only a short distance vostwerd. Between Sparta and the Crab Orchard it is covered by a stratun of sand ione, the same as is found on the eastern slope of the mountais where it covers the coal strata.
Near Sparia we descend from the colitic limestone and come to a kind of limeste.le wrinn forms the low levels of the whole of Middle Tennessee. This limestone, according to my observations, made in the Sequatchee Vellcy, lies imme:liately upon the inclined strata of E. Tennessee; and wheth's limestone is wantin, they are covered with the colitic linesiono, as already mentioned. This series, which is composed of various strata, characterised by diflerent organic remains, is usually of a gray color, approaching here and there to black, has a granular strucinre, and contains Calampora, Orthoceraites, Conotubularia, Strophomenes, Producíus, Isotelus, and other Trilobites, and such fossils as are considered as characierizing the upper transition, or mountain limestone of the English geologi»ts. This limestone continues for
southern extremity of the Cumberland mountains on this side the Tennessee river. I have also traced it to Georgia, forming the basis of the Rackoon and Lookout mountains, continuations of Walden's ridge, every where characterized by Pontreiniles, and a singular, and as yet, undetermined fossil. Running from: Monte Sano in a northeast direction, it passes ihrougli 11:e whole State of Tennessee, and is invariably found beneath the coal strata. The pentremites, a fossil which is very rare in Europe, earacterize this rock every where in this country, but in particular places other fossils are found in it. I find it, for instance, west of Vienroe county, as far as Obel's river, characterized by Styling. This fossil characterizes that rock, also at Mount Fletcher in North Alala na. Near Eddyville, Ky., it is characterized by Siylina, Syringopory, Bellerophon hiulcus and Encrenites.' In Mis-, souri, towards the south of Maramec river, the sante rock is founıl, and is there also characterized by several species of Stylina and Syringopora. These fossils, viz: Stylina, Syringopora and Bellerophon, are always silicious, the Pentremites sometimes silicious, sometimes caleareous, while the above mentioned undetermined Mount Sano fossil is calcareous. All these fossils are by the European Geologists considered as characterizing the transition or grauwacke group. The same colitic limestone is found in some places near the Ohio river as in Gallatin county, Illinois, but I do not know whether it there contains any organic remains.