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fine close yeasty head and all right. 3 P. M.—All right, heat 72°, attenuated to 12 lbs. cleansed; fill up as before directed, and when done working in the casks, the ale will be down to 9 lbs. gravity.

In all healthy sound fermentations, allowance must be made when cleansing for the additional attenuation in the cleansing casks.

We must now calculate what number of lbs. gravity we have obtained per quarter from the malt. 18 barrels in best ale at 42° make 756 60 do. in 2nd ale at 26.2 do. 1572 65 do. in raw wort at 4:5 do. 292:5

Divide by number of qrs. used 30)2620-5(87.3

per quarter, leaving out fractions. The rule for the quantities to be turned out of the copper, so as to produce the required number of barrels in the gyle-tun, as described in the foregoing process, if the copper be truly and rightly gauged, will always approximate nearly enough to the truth for practice, making allowance for the difference of evaporation on the coolers, according to the state of the atmosphere. If more than the usual evaporation takes place, the quantity will be less, but the worts will be proportionally stronger, and vice versa.

We often, however, find coppers so inaccurately gauged as to make a difference of 4 or 5 barrels or more. In following this rule, therefore, it is indispensably necessary that the copper should be accu

rately gauged. The simplest and best mode of doing so is to fill the copper brim-full with water, and having found a cask which contains precisely 36 gallons, or a barrel of liquid, take out one of the ends of it; you must then procure an unmarked wooden rod, long enough to reach the bottom of the copper ; a piece of board must then be placed on the top of the copper, stretching out so as to conduct the rod perpendicularly to the bottom. Great mistakes are often made by not attending to this rule. The copper must then be run off barrel by barrel, very accurately, and at every barrel the rod should be dipped to the bottom of the copper, and a notch made where the water cuts the rod, barrel by barrel. This gives an accurate dipping-rod for the wet dip, and by reversing it and placing a piece of cork as usual on the other end, we have a dry dipping-rod.

In small coppers for private brewings, the same rule may be adopted, by marking the rod at every 1, 2, 3, or 5 gallons, as circumstances may require.


BEFORE proceeding with the directions for the next brewing, in which there are two boilings of the worts with only one copper, it may be necessary to give some information respecting the most eligible mode under these circumstances of boiling.

The practice of extensive brewers, during the last century, was to have generally three boilings of the worts in every brewing. The first was called the hop-wort; the second the jack-wort, and the third, the blue-wort. At that time, what are now termed raw or return worts, were but little known, and of course, seldom employed. It was therefore necessary, they considered, to have three boilings, in order to get the best possible extract from the malt; and perhaps they were right. Now, however, when the mode of making extracts begins to be much better understood, three boilings in the same brewing are seldom resorted to, excepting by those who obstinately adhere to the old practice, which has no other claim to adoption than its antiquity.

It has been already stated, that all delay in the process of brewing should as far as possible be avoided. Three boilings must necessarily occupy more time than two, and two boilings more time than one ; if therefore the position be allowed, (of which there can be no doubt,) that all delays are dangerous in the process of brewing, one boiling is safer than two, and two safer than three. .

No particular objection can be made to two boilings at any time, where that may be found necessary; as we shall be able to shew that by proper


management, and even with only one copper, the process may be so conducted, that none of the taps need lie any length of time either in the underback or elsewhere, before being conducted to the copper. One boiling, however, is always the safest in summer brewing.

Let the brewings be made of shorter lengths, and the more frequent the better, so as that the yeast may be always preserved in good order.

With only one copper, three boilings must invariably produce unsoundness to a certain extent, in hot weather.

We have, however, encountered individuals so confident in error, as to insist that they must and would brew the same quantities of malt which they had been accustomed to do, and that with only one copper totally inadequate for the purpose ; by which mode of proceeding they invariably produced very unsound beer.

With smaller brewings of only half the quantity of malt, the worts were boiled in one operation, and the beer turned out well ; and the trade did not require more than two of these smaller brewings per week. See “ Summer Brewing.”



ONE COPPER TWO BOILINGS. A Brewing with only one Copper, containing

twenty-five Barrels where two Boilings are ne

cessary. The great desideratum, in this case, is to get on with the process with the least possible delay, and to let no part of the worts remain longer than is absolutely necessary, between the mash-tun and the copper. As beer of from 24 to 27 lbs. gravity per barrel is now very generally wanted, we shall take here 24 lbs. for our standard, having no mashing-machine.

The copper having been previously brought to boil, the water should now be cooled to a temperature of 180°, by adding what may be necessary of cold water for that purpose. Eight quarters of tolerably good malt standing in sacks near the mashtun, weight 40 lbs. per bushel.

Commence brewing at seven o'clock in the morning. Let run into mash-tun 14 barrels at 180°; stir it about until it gets down to 170°; then turn your malt into the tun, sack by sack, thoroughly mixing it with oars and rakes, as you proceed. If the mash should become too stiff for working, run one barrel or two barrels, if found necessary, from under the false bottom of your mash-tun into the mash; this will enable you to infuse all your malt. Now get on your fire until your water in the copper


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