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should be spacious, and so constructed as that the worts may be run from the one into the other, which very much facilitates cooling; and where there are no artificial means of cooling, the coolers should be of such dimensions as to prevent the necessity of the worts being at an average more than two inches deep; or two and a half inches at the utmost. Blowers or fans are very useful, as they not only facilitate the cooling of the worts, by sweeping off the fob or froth, thus allowing a free radiation of caloric, but also by keeping the worts in constant motion, they assist in preventing their becoming tainted. Refrigerators are now very much used. We have lately, however, been inclined to think, that when improperly constructed, they sometimes occasion a little faintness in the worts by galvanic action, although the injury may perhaps as frequently arise from want of cleanliness. Our opinion, however, on this subject, will be more fully expressed under the articles Refrigerators and Regulators.
Fermenting Tuns. The fermenting or gyle-tuns should be of sufficient dimensions to contain the worts, and leave at least six inches of the depth unoccupied : they must also have on the top a sufficiency of what is called lubber boarding or frame work, for the rise of the head during fermentation. After what has been said upon electro-chemical action, it is almost unnecessary to add how the tuns should be placed ; they should of course be isolated as much as possible, and in no way connected with the earth, either by pipes or otherwise. If main pipes must be had for cleansing, the gyle-tuns should be detached from them during the progress of fermentation. When ready for cleansing, they may again be connected by union screws and pipes. Long chains of pipes connecting different vessels together, must be injurious in every case, as they will be found to produce electro-chemical action.
The chains of pipes now so frequently employed in cleansing, for the purpose of saving labour and waste of beer, although not so injurious as during fermentation in the gyle-tuns, may nevertheless be found prejudicial to a certain extent. The old mode, therefore, of cleansing with leather hoses (or pipes), although more troublesome, will be found safer, as far at least as regards perfection in beer.
Several plans might be suggested of getting through the process of cleansing as quickly and with as little waste as by long chains of pipes.
SACCHAROMETER. The late Mr. Richardson, of Hull, was the inventor of an instrument for ascertaining on scientific principles, the real value of malt. Before his time, many rude means had been resorted to for that purpose. Equal quantities, for instance, of wort and water were weighed against each other, but this method was found to be both troublesome and uncertain, and was only - practised by very few. Since his time, various instruments have been introduced for the same purpose; but for real utility in practice, it has not as yet been excelled by any; and having only one pound gravity on the stem, fewer mistakes can occur than when there are 10 or 20 lbs. in the same space. These instruments are still manufactured and sold by Mr. Joseph Long, Hydrometer-maker, &c., 20, Little Tower Street, London. For his scientific knowledge, and accuracy in all matters of this kind, we can vouch. The Saccharometer sanctioned by government, is that constructed by Mr, Bates, which shews the specific gravity of the worts, as compared with water at unity, or 1000; thus progressing to 1020, 40, 60, 80, to 1140, which is quite enough for the specific gravity of worts, for beer of every description. Richardson's instrument shows the increase of weight of the worts according to the actual number of pounds of saccharine matter, held in solution by the said worts. For instance, if 50 lbs. specific gravity by Bates's or Allan's instruments were held in solution by the worts, thirty pounds of water would be displaced. Hence Bates's or Allan's instruments would shew 50 lbs. per barrel, while Richardson's would shew about 18:3; the difference being as 1 to 2.78.'
Long has invented an instrument with only one weight; one side of the stem without any weight, indicating to the extent of 25 or 26 lbs. gravity; the other with the weight, going to the extent of 50 or 52 lbs. gravity. We would, however, . recommend the instruments made by him on the late Mr. Richardson's principle, as being much less liable to error than those having so many pounds indicated on one stem. The indications, however, of any Saccharometer, if accurate, may be easily compared and reduced to the scale of others by recollecting that the saccharometer indicating specific gravity per barrel, is founded on the fact that a barrel of water at 62° F. weighs 360 lbs., while the saccharometer of Allan or Bates, indicating specific gravity, has 1000 for its unit. Dividing 1000 by 360, we obtain the factor 2:78, near enough at least for practical purposes. The rule, therefore, in comparing the indications of instruments marking specific gravity to lbs. per barrel, is simply to divide the gravity shewn by 2.78, and the lbs. gravity by Long's saccharometer; or to convert Long's gravity to the
specific gravity of Allan or Bates, multiply by 2.78. Richardson's instrument, as made by Long and other accurate makers, is sufficiently delicate for all ordinary purposes ; although some may prefer an instrument indicating specific gravity, as Allan's of Edinburgh, the invention of Professor Thomson of Glasgow College, and which is generally used by the Scotch ale brewers. The range of Allan's or Bates's, being 2.5 times at least, that of a saccharometer where minute attention in noting the progress of the attenuation is required, the specific gravity scale may be adopted. (See in Appendix some further remarks on an erroneous mode of taking gravities in Ireland.)
When the liquor for the first mash is turned on the malt at too high a temperature, instead of producing an extract, it occasions a coagulation, forming a sort of thin paste, like thin batter, or starch when preparing for stiffening linen. This we call setting the goods, and little or no worts will be discharged.
This evil, although it never can be thoroughly cured, may sometimes be partially rectified, by