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higher class has succeeded a lower till we come to man, the same class, instead of progressing, have always declined. Some races of animals have become extinct, and others are fast approaching the same crisis. The fossil remains of animals of the elephant class were much larger than any elephants now existing on the earth, and so with about all other animals. There is abundant evidence that the human race left to itself, has a tendency to degradation and decay. After arriving to a state of manhood, nations pass on to the state of old age, and eventually die. Every thing human is perishable, and hence the necessity of some remedial agent, who can check this tendency to decay.

Such a one is Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world. Whoever attaches himself to him has eternal life, and his works will suffer no loss, but abide the fire.

4. Geology establishes the Bible doctrine of miracles. He who has studied this earth's crust, must, of necessity, admit that miracles have been wrought. The beginning of each race of animals must have been a miracle. The ordinary law of nature is for like to beget like, but a race of beings cannot begin to be, in accordance with any known and established law of nature; and hence each race must have begun in a miraculous interposition of God. In examining these remains of animals in the earth's crust, we do not find one race gradually developing into another—the fish becoming a reptile the reptile becoming a monkey, and the monkey becoming a man, but the bones of each race are as distinct from all others, at the commencement of their being, as they have been at any subsequent period. A miracle, therefore, must have been wrought in the creation

of the first pair of each species of the animal kingdom. Considering the numerous and strong efforts that have been made to reason down and sneer down the miracles of the Bible, this unequivocal and incontrovertable evidence which geology yields to their possibility is peculiarly valuable. *

5. Geology agrees with the Bible in teaching that man was created lord of the world.

No other animal has been capable of thriving in all countries, of traversing land and sea, of subduing all other animals, and of contemplating, and understanding the plan of creation. When God had written the earth’s history on its strata of stone, and had laid away granite, lime, metals, minerals and coal for his use, when the empire was all fitted up, man was introduced as the emperor, who should have dominion over animate and inanimate nature.

6. Geology also agrees with the Bible in teaching that the earth is the great volume from which man is to derive instruction. What can be more clear than that God designed that man should view in these petrified vegetables and animals, evidences of his Divine perfections ? And does not the book of revelation cite us to the same volume ?—(Job 12: 7, 8.) “But ask now the beasts and they shall teach

and the fowls of the air, and they shall tell thee; or speak to the earth and it shall teach thee; and the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee. Who knoweth not in all these, that the hand of the Lord hath wrought this ?"


* Though this idea has been more than once expressed in the previous lectures, yet this appeared to be the appropriate place for its formal introduction.

7. Geology accords with the Bible in making it probable that this earth is destined to undergo the ordeal of fire. The earth has evidently undergone several destructions in some of which fire has been the principal agent; the heat of which has melted those rocks called igneous, and in which the remains of animals are never found. May we not, therefore, conclude, that, after man has read their contents, the aqueous rocks will also be melted, thus blotting out the old hand-writing to make room for a new, and as Peter says, “the heavens and the earth which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men.”

Thus we see nature and revelation speak the same language. Let infidelity hide its head, and let all the believers of the Bible lift up their head and rejoice, for they have not followed cunningly devised fables.

Science from the deep caverns of the earth lifts up a mighty voice, and raises up its arm of strength, to uphold the hands of Moses. Its language even echoes back the annunciation of the Gospel—“ Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.” Heaven's windows are opened, and truth looks down to hail science with joy as she ascends from the earth.

Truth springeth out of the earth, and righteousness looks down from heaven.*

*Of works on Geology, we would recommend the following :Hitchcock's Geology ; Hitchcock's Religion of Geology; Foot Prints of the Creator, by Hugh Miller; The Old Red Sand Stone, by Hugh Miller; the Principles of Geology Explained, and viewed in their relations to Revealed and Natural Religion, by David King, LL. D.; The Annuals of Scientific Discovery, edited by David A. Wells, A. M.


After the 117 page was in type, I had an increasing dissatisfaction with the idea that the water that issued from our Saviour's side, came from the pericardium, as is maintained by commentators in general. My own little knowledge of anatomy taught me that there was no water there, except a little lubricating matter such as is found in the knee. I, at length, wrote to a medical gentleman of years and extensive practice, for an explanation of John 19th : 34th, but, instead of a simple note, I received the following elaborate and learned essay. As I heartily concur with its general theory, and think it cannot be confuted, I subjoin it entire.

for an

Boston, February 22d, 1853. Rev. Eli Noyes, D. D. Sir.—You ask me in your letter of the 12th ult.,

ANATOMICAL EXPLANATION” of the text :-John 19th; 34th,~" But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water.To this, I now reply:

That "bloodshould flow from such a wound might naturally be expected. The wound was so large and wide, that Christ afterwards said to Thomas: Reach hilher thy hand and thirst it into my side.” Wonld He have said this, if the wound had not been large enough to admit a man's hand? When he said, “ Behold my hands,"—the expression is " Reach hither thy finger.” The Greek wordlogke-translated spearwas the Roman" lancea,” or lance; and every military man had one, besides other armor. Its length was generally about half that of the

pike, which was from sixteen to eighteen feet, sometimes longer. The lance, therefore, was about eight or nine feet long, and was sometimes called “the half pike.It consisted of a strong, stiff, wooden shaft, or handle, armed at once, or both ends with a sharp penetrating weapon called "the dart.The dart was made before that time-of iron, or brass-long, broad and sharp, with two edges, and pointed at the end. The lance, of course, could be used, either to cut, or thrust an enemy; and by having two edges, easily penetrated the fleshy parts of the body to a considerable depth, by cutting each way.*

Such a weapon pierced into the side of a man, nailed to a Cross high enough above the heads of the multitude, that those " standing afar off could behold the things that were done,” would necessarily occasion a flow of blood. But that alone would furnish no certain and positive proof that the body was dead. How many men have lived and got well, after losing much blood from deep and ghastly wounds in the side, it would be tedious to enumerate. An author, of very high authority, says, it is a thing really wonderful, “ that the thorax, containing the heart, lungs, and great vessels, should be so often wounded with so little danger! Many, no doubt, die, but numbers escape; for a wound of the substance of the lungs is far from being mortal.” And again ; "When the weapon is broad, and it has entered the substance of the lung, the hemorbage is considerable ; blood is immediately extravasated in the cavity of the thorax, and also flows out of the external wound; tient has a violent paroxysm of coughing in wbich some of the blood is ejected from the mouth; the air comes out of the chest with a hissing noise ;—the danger of such an injury depends upon the depth of the wound, and the size of the vessals which are opened. Some patients recover, while others die instantly, or in a very short space of time.”+ M. Sabatier mentions a case, since noticed by Bell, Cooper and Dor

of an officer, who was shot in the left side. The ball entered about where the bone and cartilage of the seventh true rib unite.", (i. e. where the longest rib of either side unites with the breast bone,) - and

the pa


*See Grose on Ancient Armor, Vol. 2d ; Rees' Cyclopædia, Vol. 21st ; Roman Antig. uities, &c.

iSee Dr. John Bell on the Nature and Cure of Wounds, third edition, page 257 Also Professor Thomson's Reports of observations in Military Hospitals in Belgium, after the Battle of Waterloo, page 82. And Rees's Cyclopædia, Vol. 40, Wounds of the Thorar or Chest.

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