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augmentations appear to have been worked into the first text, or rather elaborated from it, and also by the maturer and more philosophical cast of thought which those who entertain this view fancy they can detect in the additions. Much critical delight has been expressed at the opportunity afforded by these two versions of following Shakespeare's perfecting hand; and perhaps there is some reason to believe that in a few passages it may be traced. But that the difference between the two Versions is due entirely, or even in a great degree, to mere elaboration — that is, the recasting and perfecting by the Shakespeare of 1598 or 1599 of work from the hands of the Shakespeare a few years younger — a comparison of the two, or even a careful examination of the earlier, would seem to forbid us to believe. Such a study of the two versions has led me to the opinion that the earlier represents imperfectly a composition not entirely Shakespeare's, and that the difference between the two is owing partly to the rejection by him of the w7ork of a colaborer, partly to the surreptitious and inadequate means by which the copy for the earlier edition was obtained, and partly, perhaps, but in a very much less degree, to Shakespeare's elaboration of what he himself had written.*
* Here follow the principal passages which are found in the perfect, hut not in the imperfect, version of the play. After a careful comparison of them wiili those passages which are common to hoth versions, I admit that I cannot detect the slightest trace of those "differences in judgment, differences in cast of thought, differences in poetical power," which Mr. Knight sees and regards as evidences of the growth of Shakespeare's mind, or of '• that condensed and suggestive cast of language" or "that solemn melody of rhythm" which Mr. Verplanck finds in the added passages, and which (they existing) he justly setii forth as indications of the development of Shakespeare's genius.
"Hon. Many a morning hath he there heen seen,
Ben. My noble uncle, do you know the cause?" Act I. Sc. 1.
'•Ben. Then she hath sworn, that she will still live chaste?
Bom. She hath, and in that sparing makes huge waste;
And first as to the surreptitious procurement of the copy fox
She hath forsworn to love; and, in that vow
Ben. Be rul'd by me, forget to think of her.
Rom. 0, teach me how I should forget to think.
Ben. By giving liberty unto thine eyes;
Rom. 'Tis the way
To call hers, exquisite, in question more:
Ben. I'll pay that doctrine, or else die in debt." Ibid.
"La. Cap. What say you? can you love the gentleman?
Nurse. No less? nay, bigger; women grow by men." Act I. Sc. 3,
"Mer. You are a lover; borrow Cupid's wings,
Rom. I am too sore en pierced with his shaft,
Mer. And, to sink in it, should you burden love,
Rom. Is love a tender thing? it is too rough,
Mer. If love be rough with you, be rough with love;
"Nurse. Now God in heaven bless thee ! — Hark you, sir.
Rom. What say'st thou, my dear nurse?
Nurse. Is your man secret? Did your ne'er hear say —
Rom. I warrant thee; my man's as true as steel. Nurse. Well, sir; my mistress is the sweetest lady, — lord, lord ! — when 'twas a little prating thing, — 0, there's a nobleman in town, one Paris, that would fain lay knife aboard: but she, good soul, had as lieve see a toad, a very toad, as see him. I anger her sometimes, and tell her that Paris is the properer man: but, I'll warrant you, when I say so, she looks as pale as any clout in the varsal world. Doth not rosemary and Romeo begin both with a letter? Rom. Ay, nurse; what of that? both with an R.
Nurse. Ah, mocker! that's the dog's name. R is for the dog. No; I know it begins with some othpr letter: and she hath the prettiest sententious of it, if you and rosemary, that it would do you good to hear it.
the earlier edition.* This, of course, is only to be inferred from
Rom. Commend me to thy lady. [Exit.
Nurse. Ay, a thousand times. — Peter!" Act II. Sc. 4.
That run-away's eyes may wink, and Romeo
Leap to these arms, untalk'd of, and unseen ! —
Lovers can see to do their amorous rites
By their own beauties: or, if love be blind,
It best agrees with night. — Come, civil night,
Thou sober-suited matron, all in black,
Aud learn me how to lose a winning match,
Play'd for a pair of stainless maidenhoods:
Hood my unmann'd blood bating in my cheeks,
With thy black mantle; till strange love, grown bold,
Think true love acted, simple modesty.
Come, night! — come, Romeo! come, thou day in night!
For thou wilt lie upon the wings of night
Whiter than new snow on a raven's back. —
Come, gentle night! come, loving, black-brow'd night,
Give me my Romeo; and, when he shall die,
Take him and cut him out in little stars,
And he will make the face of heaven so fine,
That all the world will be in love with night,
And pay no worship to the garish sun.—
0, I have bought the mansion of a love,
But not possess'd it; and though I am sold,
Not yet eujoy'd: So tedious is this day,
As is the night before some festival,
To an impatient child, that hath new robes,
And may not wear them. 0, here comes my nurse." Act III. Sc. 2
"Why rail'st thou on thy birth, the heaven, and earth?
Let the reader who desires to form his own judgment upon this point compare
internal evidence. If the text of the first edition were perfect in itself, the fact that the text of the second is nearly one quarter longer would only sustain the assertion on the title page of that edition, that the play had been augmented. But this is not the case. The text of the first edition, although not so mutilated as that of the first edition of Henry the Fifth, or even as that of the first edition of The Merry Wives of Windsor, is so often irconerent that its great corruption is manifest upon its face; and, on a comparison of the corrupted passages with the text of the second edition, the corruption, in most instances, seems unmistakably due to an imperfect representation of that text, and not to mere typographical or clerical errors in the printing or transcribing of another and a briefer.
Thus, in the passage (Act I. Sc. 3) in which the Nurse tells of Juliet's fall the day before she was weaned, Lady Capulet's speech, beginning, "Enough of this," and the Nurses reply, are not found in the quarto of 1597; the cause apparently being that the latter speech ends in the same words as the former, "it stinted and said, Ay," which misled the transcriber of the notes taken at the performance. — Just below, in the same Scene, Juliet, being asked if she can " like of Paris love," replies, "I'll look to like, if looking liking move," &c. But why should she at that time say, "I'll look to like"? The quarto of 1597 gives no occasion for this reply of Juliet's, simply because it omits Lady Capulet's immediately preceding speech of sixteen lines, beginning, —
"What say you? can you love the gentleman?
This speech and the Nurse's reply to it were plainly a part of the text before the printing of the quarto of 1597. — In the famous balcony Scene (Act II. Sc. 2) we find the following passage in the first quarto : —
"Three wordes goode Romeo and good night indeed.
edition of Shakespeare's works, 1843, Vol. VI., that the manuscript used by the printers for the first quarto edition "was made up partly from portions of the play as it was acted, but unduly [sic] obtained, and partly from notes taken at the theatre during representation."
And al my fortunes at thy foote II'e lay
And follow thee my Lord through out the world.
Ro. Loue goes toward loue like schoole boyes from their bookes, But loue from loue, to school with heauie lookes.
Jul. Romeo, Romeo 0 for a falkners voice To lure \t]his Tassell gentle backe againe."
But Romeo was there; her tassel gentle had not taken wing. Such, at least, is the case according to this text, where there is no farewell, no reason apparent why Juliet should suddenly find her lover out of sight, and almost out of reach of her voice. We see that Shakespeare never could have written thus; and our difficulty is cleared up by finding that the quarto of 1599 reads as follows ; — all the words in brackets having been omitted from the text of the previous edition, accidentally beyond a doubt, there being here no other variation whatever between them.
"And all my fortunes at thy foote He lay,
Ju. Hist Romeo, hist, — O, for a falkner's voyce,
— Again, when Romeo, in the fourth Scene of Act II., makes the appointment at Friar Lawrence' cell, he says in the quarto of 1597, "Bid her get leave to-morrow morning to come to shrift," &c, and the Nurse replies, "to-morrow morning ," but in the quarto of 1599 he says, "Bid her devise some means to come to shrift this afternoo?i," and the Nurse replies, "this afternoon." Now this variation is not the result of a correction by the author of a slip of memory; for in both versions it is but a