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2,326

Number of children between 5 and 20 yeas of age,.... 252,533

previous year, between 4 and 18 years,...... 246,684 Whole number attending school,..

202,504 Increase for the year,...

9,567 Average number of months of school,

6.1 Number of qualified male teachers, female teachers, .

5,485 Total number of teachers,...

7,811 Number of districts reporting no rate-bill,.

2,004 Increase for the year,..

219 Number of teachers examined by Inspectors,..

7,429 certificates granted,....

6,629 meetings of Boards of Inspectors,

3,090 Inspectors' visits to schools,....

4,703 volumes in district libraries,.

103,747 township

57.982 Whole number of volumes in libraries,.

161,729 Number of township libraries in 1860,.

178 district

2,287 Value of school houses and sites,..

$1,710,834 35 Increase for the year, .

205,218 00 Raised by district tax to pay teachers,

88,989 43 Excess over previous year, by district taxes,...

28,378 62 Voted for libraries from two mill tax,...

3,058 04 The following financial statement, exhibits the revenues and expenditures for the year, for educational purposes:

REVENUES.

Primary school interest fund, apportioned,...... $103,457 30 Received for tuition of scholars, non-resident in the districts,

11,361 73 Raised by district taxes, .

329,463 81 two mill tax,..

278,350 68 Received from fines, &c., library fund,

7,593 90 rate bills,

56,469 29 Am't paid from township funds to Inspectors,... 8,452 53

Total,...

$795,149 34

EXPENDITURES.

Paid to male teachers,..

female

$248,797 11

251,256 55

Paid for building and repairing schoolhouses,..

on past indebtedness, for Inspectors' services,... “ for books for libraries,... " for contingent expenses, payment of district officers, fuel, &c.,.

$500,053 66 122,715 52 61,488 79

8,452 30 10,651 94

91,787 13

Total,....

$795,140 34

795

To show the total cost of education for the year, we should need to add the value of the board of teachers who boarded around,' the fuel furnished by districts, the cost of school books and apparatus, and the amounts expended for the Uni. versity, colleges, academies, private schools, Normal School, and Normal Institutes. These amounts would doubtless swell the aggregate to over a million of dollars.

The average time for which the schools were taught, was six and one-tenth months. But this by no means shows the average school facilities furnished to the children, since in all the large and populous districts the school time was far more than the average, while only in the small and sparsely settled districts, did it fall below the average. In 92 districts, containing 46,501 school children, or over 500 in each district, the schools were kept open for ten months and over; while in 844 districts, containing only 32,004 children, or an average of less than 38 in each, the school time was less than six months. Thus, while the average length of school terms taught in these districs, taken together, was probably less than five months, 46,501 children enjoyed ten months schooling, and only 32,004, were restricted to less than six months. In the 3,151 districts, with 170,957 children, the school terms were between six and ten months, averaging, at least, seven and a half months.

These school facilities, if properly employed, ought to give 08 speedily one of the mosi intelligent populations in the world; but it is to be feared that that crying evil of irregular ity of attendance, so common in our schools, robs us of a large. proportion of the public good and private advantage which we have a right to expect from them.

The enumeration of school children embraces those between the ages of 5 and 20 years. Heretofore the school census has comprised only those who were between the ages of 4 and 18. A comparison of the numbers in the following table, will show that the increase in the enumeration is not as great as during former years,

which would seem to prove that the numbers of our population between the ages of 18 and 20 years, are less than those between 4 and 5.

[graphic]

$46,797 01 68,614 12 65,477 65 80,904 89

137,120 09 161,350 91 140,491 01 103,609 45 124,623 34

1950, 132,234| 110,487) 1,475 2,612

$32,318 75 1851, 143,272 115 165

$155,469 30 1852, 150,531

37.833 36 1853, 173,117| 129,517

237,827 15 63,763 42 1854,

175,000 1855, 187,549 142,307| 1,600 3,474)

295,231 291 83,932 84 1856, 202,274 153,116 1,775j 3,7461

353,077 76 100.009 491 185 162,936 2,131| 4,605

423,129 22 121,651 14 1858 227,010 173.594 2,326 4,905

442,227 37 1859 237,541 183,759 2.444) 4,068

104,869 20 1860 246,684 192,937] 2,599 5,344

467,286 50 1861, *252,533 202,504 2,326 5,485

500,053 66 66,469 291 122 716 00 Number between 5 and 20 years of age.

The number of different teachers employed falls short of the number reported last year by 131. This a favorable fact, showing as it does, the more permanent employment of the teachers engaged. The schools have suffered largely, both from the frequent changes in teachers and from the yearly irruption of a large number of new and inexperienced teachers into our school rooms

The above figures show a healthful tendency, and it is to be hoped that the day is approaching when induce ments will be offered to retain experienced teachers in the profession, and when schools will enjoy for a succession of years the instructions of the same person.

But while the decrease was 131 in the total pumber of teachers employed, there was an actual increase of 142 in the number of female teachers. This fact also may be deemed favorable to the schools, since it cannot be rationally doubted that females make better teachers for little children, such as compose the great majority of our primary schools, than do bearded men.

The average wages, per month, paid to male teachers was $26 06, while the average wages of female teachers was only $13 52 per month. It is to be remembered, however, that in the aggregate of wages paid to male teachers, are embraced the large salaries paid to the principals of the numerous union schools. But with this deduction, the disparity still shown between the wages of the two sexes, is creditable neither to our justice nor our gallantry.

The amount raised by the two mill tax was $278,350 68. The mill tax of the several towns which failed to report would probably swell this amount to over $279,000. Adding to this the $103,457 30, apportioned from the primary school interest tund, we have a public fund of $382,807 98 for the support of the schools. The total wages paid the teachers of these schools was $500,053 66, of which $117,245 68 must have been raised by district taxes and rate bills.

The number of districts which reported no rate bill, was two thousand and four, and it is to be presumed that nearly all of these districts were free from that pernicious incumbrance upon their schools. It is gratifying to know that each year adds largely to the number of free schools, and there is a growing sentiment is favor of making all the schools thus open to the children of the State, “without money and without price." It is already the opinion of many of our most intelligent citizens, that not only qught the schools to be, by public taxes, made thus free to each child, but that a compulsory law should require the attendance of every child between some given ages at least six months each year. It may be seriously questioned if the State imposes a public and heavy tax upon all its citizens for the purpose of supporting a system of public schools, is it not bound to take measures to secure to society the full benefit of those schools, by enjoining the presence of the children, unless the parents, in the exercise of their unquestioned parental rights, shall provide adequately for the instruction of those children elsewhere? If parents have a right to the care and control of their own offspring, it is equally true that children have a sacred and indefeasible right to so much education as society can provide, and society itself has a still broader and more momentous claim, that those who are coming to live in its bosom and wield its powers shall be educated for their duties.

THE INSPECTORS' WORK. The reports of the work done by the township inspectors, are not as full as could be desired. Many townships fail to make any report at all under this head. The total number of meet ings of inspectors reported, was 3,090. The number of teachers examined was 7,429; the number licensed, 6,629. The amount reported as paid or due the inspectors, was $5,775 63; but 146 townships failed to report the amount The number of visits made to schools by the visiting inspector was 4,703, and the amount paid for the work of visiting, $2,677. Two hundred and thirty towns failed to report this last item, and 131 neglect to report any visits.

In the appendix will be found some extracts from the reports of the visiting Inspectors, for which a space was left in the blanks prepared in this office, for the Inspectors' reports. These reports, though meagre, and often entirely wanting, exhibit in the main a healthful condition and progress of the schools.

But these reports are interesting, also, as showing the good that might be accomplished by these visiting Inspectors, were they all to comply with the requirements of the law. The language of the law is explicit: The Inspectors “shall appoint one of their number to visit each) school in the township having a qualified teacher, at least once in each schoce term, in which

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