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- (From the Etoile dated Saturday, August 6.)

ships of war is exactly what the Greeks want. Bad mariners “ Mayence, July 27.

as their enemies are, the Greeks in their light vessels can " It seems certain that the Central Committee of Inquiry

tee or inquiry only skirmish round the Turkish ships of the line, or make a into Revolutionary Intrigues is going to suspend its sittings, dash at them with fire-ships. But one or two ships like the and even that all the members are preparing to quit this city. Pero

Y: Peranga, mapped with British or American seainen, which Is the Committee dissolved ? This is generally reported, but li

could lay themselves alongside the enemy's first-rates, would is not certain. The Compsittee was instituted by the Con

soon make prizes of half the Turkish feet, and supply the gress at Carlsbad, and all the measures taken by that Greeks

mat Greeks with a navy at little expense. They would besides Congress having been calculated only for a temporary give the Greeks a lesson in close fighting, which would avail duration of five years, it is possible that the Sovereign may them much. and in which it is evident, from the nature of have resolved to let them fall into oblivion.

their fleet, that they cannot gain experience at present. It is affirmed that Messrs. Hoffman and Ruhl are going Sroteman to be set at liberty.”

" Paris, August 5.

Major Colby, Director of the Ordnance Survey, left the “ We yesterday gave important and authentic details

ils Tower last month, for the inspection of his numerous party

that are employed on the survey of Ireland. His operations relative to the Marla, and the operations of Ibrahim Pacha. The following are equally authentic accounts of the situation

at present are confined to the north part of that country, and

the following places are the head-quarters of his different of the Greek and Turkish Fleets. (These accounts are dated Milo, and commence the 1st of June):

detachments, each under the command of a Captain of Engi.

« Zante." neers-viz. Antrim, Coleraine, Londonderry, Dungarvon, and " It states the Egyptian army to be everywhere victorious. I two other places. An officer with sume sappers and miners, and in every respect superior to the Greeks. The account, are proceeding to the Isle of Man, and another to the western does not come down to the taking of Tripolizza, the relater part of Scotland also, with a detachment of sappers or artillery having left Modon the 19th. It was reported on the 18th,

on the 18th | men, to act with those in Ireland in taking observations, that Colocotroni had been totally defeated, but no confirma- / taking points, &c. tion had reached Modon when he left.

In a recent examination at the Mansion-house, London,

« Milo, June 16. some startling facts were disclosed, which come home to the The French frigate La Cyrene has just arrived in this business and bosoms of ordinary men more than a whole port. The Captain states, that Ibrahim Pacha must be Transatlantic revolution. It was there stated, on excellent within a shiort distance of Tripolizza, and that the Egyptians authority, that stuff is brought into the market under the have hitherto met with no resistance from the Greeks.

name of flour-and no doubt is sold and eaten in large quan

« June 19. tities-one-third of which consists of ground bones and plaster “A Greek vessel returning from the Coast of Candia of Paris. We are not remarkably squeamish, and fully relates, that on the 12th, 13th, and 14th, the Greeks had an believe that people live quite as long here as in other counaction with the two combined fleets between Suda and Ret-tries, but we must say that this is an alarming fact. The tino, but that they lost four fireships, one of which, with its luxurious who poison themselves with confectionery, wines, whole crew, was taken by the Turks.

and manufactured sauces, may be left to their fate with

June 20, | little pity. They can give up the use of the “ deceitful dainThe Turkish fleet, after the late affair, has entered Suda. I ties.” without depriving themselves of pourishing and sub

“ The pirates swarm in these seas. There is now no safety stantial fare. But when deleterious ingredients are mixed at a stone's throw from a port. It is feared that many tragi

with bread-the staff of life--the danger is brought to every cal scenes have been repeated, for dead bodies in European man's door. Whether either of the substances used for costume have been met with in different parts of the sea.

adulteration is absolutely poisonous we cannot tell, but they . « Puris, August 5.

are obviously such as no human being would voluntarily “ After sixty days of uninterrupted drought, and an ex

swallow. Gypsum, at the best, would probably have the traordinary heat for our climate, we had a gentle rain yes

same effects in the stomach as common clay; and the other terday noon, which cooled the earth. Rain fell in abundance

ingredient-composed of the putrid skeletons of dogs and during the whole night.”...

horses—is bad enough in itself, but calls up suspicions too FRENCH FUNDS.PARIS, AUGUST 5.-Five per Cents. horrible to dwell upon. How free these traders in iniquity opened at 1021. 65c.; closed at 102f. 40c.; Three per Cents. make with human life, is obvious from another fact mentioned, 751, 700.; Bauk Stock, 2190f.; Rente de Naples (Certif. that one fourth part of what is sometimes sold under the Falconet), 89f. 70c. Royal Spanish Loan, 1823, 523.; Ex-name of tea consists of oride of lead, a substance, the use of claiige on London, one month, 25f; Three ditto, 248. 850.-

which terminates as certainly we believe in palsy, as that of Cours Authentique.

opium does in sleep. The evil is one for which we fear there

can be no remedy but rigorous police and heavy penal inflicIt is stated in a letter froin Rio Janeiro, that Lord Cochrane tion.-Scotsman. intends to quit the Brazilian service. As it is possible that Mr. Hayne attended at Tattersall's, on Monday last, and i the Peranga, 60 gun ship, which he brought to this country, paid all his bets respecting the late battle between Cannon may be his own property, we cannot help thinking that if and Ward ; but publicly declared at the same time that lie means could be found to transfer this vessel with her well- had taken his leave of the P. R. for ever. trained crew to the service of the Greeks, the acquisition Yesterday morning, between five and six o'clock, as a party would be of inestimable benefit to that people in their arduous of young men were rowing up the River in a four-oared galley, struggle. We are not anxious that Lord Cochrane should from want of skill the boat came in contact with one of the himself accompany the ship, because, after ten years' toil in piers of Battersea-bridge. The shock occasioned by the conpromoting what we must look upon as the cause of mankind, cussion threw a young man overboard, who was foolishly we think he has done enough, and must stand in need sitting on the edge of the bow of the boat. He disappeari, of repose; and there are beyond a doubt hundreds of but immediately rose. His companions were so appalk d, generous spirits among our retired naval officers who would that they were unable to afford him assistance, and lie again volunteer with alacrity in such a causę... One or two beavy went down, but shortly afterwards romappeared. Fortunately,

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at this juncture, a six-oared wherry coming up, one of the thies, is the best; but after that, the sterling ore of wit or feeling is gentlemen grasped him by the collar of his coat, and, with gradually spor

and with gradually spun thinner and thinner, will it fades to the shadow of a shade.

Mr. Irving is himself, we believe, a inost agreeable and deserving man, assistance, hauled him into the boat, where he soon recovered. and has been led into'the natural and pardonable error we speak of, by But for this proridential circumstance, he would, in all pro- the tempting bait of European populariiy, in which he thought there was bability, have met a watery grave, as he could not swim.. no more likely meiliod of succeeding thau by imitating the style of our On Thursday se'nnight, an assistant, named Child, at The Spirit of the age."

Islandard authors, and giving us credit for the virtues of our forefathers. Mr. Bryant's soda water manufactory, Bristol, was dreadfully burnt in the face by oil of vitriol. The young man City, 12 o'Clock. --Consols for Account are 903 In the Foreign met with an accident only about a month before (by the Market, Spanish Boods are 2122, and Greek Scrip is 15% dis. The bursting of a bottle of soda water) which blinded him in one Share Market is extremely dull. eye, and he had only just recovered his sight. MAGISTERIAL SYSTEM. A comparison of the different effects of the

THE LONDON MARKETS. magisterial systems of Scotland and England, exhibits in a strong light

Corn EXCHANGE, MARK LANE, AUG. 8. the mischief done by the ignorant and irresponsible body of Justices

The arrivals of grain last week were moderate, except in Irish Oats, with which this country is cursed, 10 the great oppression and deinorali

which were abundant. This morning we have a short supply of most zation of the lower classes. The following table is extracted from a kind of grain ; but of Irish Oats there still continue large arrivals. Prime valuable pamphler just published, entitled - Remarks on the Adininis. Wheat obtains an advance of ls. and 2s. per quarter; Barley remains tration of Criminal Justice in Scotland :”—

| stationary, and Beans fully support last week's quotations. Boiling and * ENGLAND.

Grey Pease are each rather deurer, and Oats of good quality meet a tole" Average of Commitments for Seven Years, ending 1823...... 13,240 rable free sale at an advance of ls, per quarter. In Flour little is doing. of Convictions ...................................

8,863

CURRENT PRICES OF GRAIN. of Acquittals ........

2,539 Red Wlieat............ 56s. 69s. Small Beans .......... 48s. 53s. of Persons liberated by Grand Jury.................

1,898 White ditto......
1

..... 60s. 74s. Tick ............... 38s. 44s.
of Persons sentenced to death ...
. 1,175 Barley ......... .. 34s. 42s. Feed Oats .....

24s. 26s.

of Persons executed .......................... 98 Grey Peas ............ 40s. 42s | Poland .............. 258 36s. " That is, the niimber of couvictions is about two thirds of the Committals; | Maple ..... ... 435. 44s. | Potatoe ....... . 24s. 29s. the remaining third being either liberaied by the Grand Jury or acquitted | White...

... 42s 45s. Scotch ..... .. 30s. 33s. on the trial; and the number acquitted by the Grand or Petit Jury, is Boilers ..... ..... 46s. 508. Flour ........

55s. 658. about half ille number ultimately convicted. .

Aggregate Average Prices of the Twelve Maritime Districts of Eng“ SCOTLAVD.

land and Wales, by which Exportation and Bounty are to be regulated * Average of persons tried annually for Three years, ending 1823 .. 273 in Great Britain... Or these were convicted....

....... 239 | Wheat per Quarter, 678. 100,- Barley, 358. 80.-Oats, 25s. 8d.-Rye, Acquitted ................................................. 35

41s. 50,-Beans, 41s. 3d.-Pease, 41s. 5d. Sentenced to death .......................................... 16 Executed ......................

-- SMITHFIELD, Aug 8 •• That is, the acquirials are to the convictions, in Scotland, as 35 to 239,1 The price of Beef is not so good as on Friday last, Scots Runts not or as I to 7 yearly. Whereas, in England, the acquittals by the Grand more than 4s. 80. to 5s. per stone. Mutton inaintains the improvement of or Petit Juries, are to the convictions as 4437 10 8,803, oras lio 2 nearly." | Friday, the finest Downs, Wethers, &c. being at 5s. 2d. and 58 4d. per

LAW EXPENSES. If it costs aman 1002. to prosecute thief to con. | stone. The best Calves continue at 58 8d. to 68. Lanıb approaches to a viction, it is vain to talk of diminishing crime. It is a fact, that ihe poor

close ai 6s, and 6s 2d. for the best. In Pork, the price has not varied. miller who prosecuted the notorious Proberi for stealing his horse, at the

To sink the Oftal-per Stone of 8lbs. curl uf 100. has obliged to sell the horse and a large part of loja stock to Beef

Becf .......... 4s.6d, to 58. Od. Veal.......... 5s. OJ to 6s. Od. py some of tbe expenses. oud is now solicing a reinuneration for the Mutton ........ 4s. 8d, to 5s. 4d. Pork......... 5s. 6d. to 6s. Od. rest by subscription ; froin the county he received only 201. ; thus it is

Lamb 5s.6d to 6s. 2d. that rogues escape.- Pottery Gazette.

HEAD OF CATTLE THIS DAY. t, Washington IRVING.-Mr. Washington Irving's acquaintance with

Beasts

... 2,963 Pigs ................... 110 English literature begins almost where · Mr. Lainb's ends, with the

Sheep .........

.... 23,870 Calves.................... 305 Speclator, Tom Brown's works, and ihe wirs of Queen Anne. He is not

• PRICE OF HAY AND STRAW. bottomed in our elder writers, nor do we think he has asked his own

Hay ........ £3 10 to £5 0 | Straw......., £1 16 to £25 faculties muchi, at least on English ground. Or the merit of his Knicker.

Clover £40 to £5 15 bocker, and New York stories, we cannot pretend 10 judge. But in bis Sketch-book and Bracebridge-Hall he gives is very good American The Arerage Price of Brown or Muscovado Sogar, 'compnied froin the copies of our British Essayisis and Novelisis, whichi inay be very well on Returns made in the Week ending August 3, 1825, is 393. 8 d. per The other side of the water, and as proofs of the capabilities of the Hundred Weiglit, exclusive of the Duties of Customs paid or payable national genius, but which might be dispensed with here, where we have thereon on the lo portation thereof into Great Britain. to boast of the originals. Not only Mr. Irving's language is will great taste and felicily modelled ou that of Addison, Sierne, Goldsinith, or

FLUID EXTRACT of SARSAPARILLA. In this preparation Mackenzie ; but the thoughts and sentiments are taken at the rebound,

are concentrated all the Medicinal Properties of the Sarsaparilla Root, even and as they are brought forward at the present period u ant both fresh

to a perfect saturation of the Menstruam with which it is prepared. To such ness and probability. Mr. Irviag's writings are literally anachronisms. persons, therefore, who, from various calist's, would experience great inconieHe comes to England for the first time; and hoing on the spot, fancies nience, or with whom it would be utterly impossible to prepare the Decor tion,

the Fluid Extract, which possesses the advantages of portability and of keepiag himself in the midst of those characters and inanners which he had read

in any climate, will be found a fost desirable mode of employing this muchof in ile Spectator and other approved authors, and which were the only

esteemed Medicine.--The diseases ia which it has proved most beneficial are idea lie had hitherto formed of the parent country. Instead of looking those of the Skin, such as the Scorbutic Affectioni, Eruptive Diseases, Secondary round to see what toe are, he sets to work to describe us as we were-at

Symptoms, &c. arising from a diseased state of the systein at large. It is taken

in water, rendering it of the same strength as the Decuction.-Sold in bottles, at second hand. He has Parson Adams, or Sir Roger de Coverley in his

4s. 6d., 7s. 6d., and 90s. by Butler, Chemist, 4 Cheapside, St. L'ul's; Sarory and “ mind's eye;" and lie inakex a village curate, or a country 'squire in Co. 136 New Bond street, Loudou; and by the priocipal Drurgisis throughout Yorkshire or Hampshire, sit to these admired inodels for their portraits the United Kingdom ; of whon may be had BUILER'S CITRATEN KALI, a in the heginning of the nineteenth century. Whatever the ingenious preparation for making Saline Dranghts, recommended by the Profession for its

convenience and certainty. lw bottles, at ls. 9d., 4s. 6d., Ss. 6d., and 20s.--Ask author las been most delighted with in the representations of books. he

for Butler's Fluid Extract of Sarsaparilla. transfers to his pori-lolio, and swears that he has found it actually existing in the course of his observations and travels through Great DR. FOTHERGILL'S TONIC FEMALE PILLS.-- These Pills Britain. Instead of Iracing the changes that have takes place in society

have been in Public estination for very considerable time, and are

particularly recommended in general Debility of the Constitution, also as a safe sinet Addison or Fielding wrote, be transcribes their accounts in a

and excellent remedy in those periodical irrogul rities which females of different hand-writing, and thus keeps ils stationary, al least in our most delicate and languid circulation, more especi illy the youger part, are liable attractive and praise-worthy qualities of simplicity, lionesty, hospitality, to; tbey tend greatly to streugthen the Organs of the Stomach, correct bad modests, and wood nalire. This is a very Aattering mode of turning

Digestion, renove Neryous Giddiness, Head-tche, &c. &c. and as a family

Medicine will be found generally useful.-Sold in boxes, Is. 1 d. and 2s 9d. by fiction into history, or hi-lory into fiction, and we should scarcely kuow

Butler, Chemist, 4 Cheapside, St. Paul's ; Savory and Co. 130 New Bond street, ourselves in the scftened and altered likeness, but that it bears the date | London; and by the principal Medicine Venders throughout the United King. of 1820, and is ues from the press in Albemarle-street. This is one way dom. Of whom may be had, Dr. FOTHERGILL'S NERVOUS DROPS, 80

much celebrated for their efficacy in Nervous disorders, and their various disliteral or exaggerated portraits of Yankee peculiarities, could hardly tail Indigestion, Sparms, Tremors, Painting Fits, and Debility or Relaxation of the

tressing aflectior ,as Oppression of Spirits, Head-aches, Loss of Appetite, to please. The first Essay in the Skelch-book, ihat on National Antipa. I system. In bottles at 45. 6d.; Ils.; and 22s.

ETUS

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Just published, in 3 vols. post Sro. Second Edition, price jas. boards,

FOR ALL FAMILIES. TORTY YEARS in the WORLD; or, Sketches and Tales of a

In 12mo. price 78. 60, boards,

es of a THE COMPLETE SERVANT; being an Exposition of the Soldier's Life. By the Author of Fifteen Years in India," &c. * I have a song of war for Knight,

Duties and Daily Business of every Description of MALE and FEMALE * Lay of love for Lady bright."

SERVANTS, with praiu Directions and Receipts for performing them; together Privted for Geo. B. Wbittaker, Ave Maria lane.

with the Laws relative to Masters and Servants, useful Tables, &c. &c.
By SAMUEL and SARAH ADAMS. Fifty Years Servants in various Families

This practical Work comprebends every variety of Servants of both sie,
Now publishing, in Weekly Numbers, and Monthly Parts,

especially A GENERAL BIOGRAPIIICAL DICTIONARY. To be con

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VAPOUR BATHING. Translated from the Dutch of M. PAUL VAN HEMERT, by LEWIS JACKSON.

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their Effects, in various species of diseased action. By J. GIBNEY, M.D. of the BACCHUS in TUSCANY: a Dithyrambic Poem. From the Italian of FRAN

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London: printed for Knight and Lacey, Publishers of Books connected to FABLES and EPIGRAMS; with Essays on Fable and Epigram. Translated

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Just complrted, price Ss. in extra boards, with fue Portraits, ON the LAW of LIBEL. Svo. price 23. 01. stitched.

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Hundred Sermons, prcached by the most emineut Divines, of differename appears in the title-page, it is the acknowledged production of a known

Denominations ; together with a large variety of Miscellaneous Matter. aud tried friend of the people. It comprises a sumuary exposure of many of

NEW EDITIONS of VOLUMES I, II, and 111, with Portraits, are not res the abominations contained in what is called the Law of Libel, as well as in the

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LA TREATISE on INDIGESTION and its CONSEQUENCE The Publishers conceive that little explaration need he given of the reasons commonly called Nervous and Bilious Complaints; with Observations to which bare led them to think that a cheap edition of a work which unites the the Organic Diseases in which they sometimes terminate. hichest interest of romance to tbe truth of history, will be acceptable to the

By A. P. W. PHILIP, M.D. F.R.S. E. &c.-Fourth Edition. Public. A prodigious number of the Original have been sold in France in a few

Printed for T. and G. Underwood, 32 Fleet street. months; and several editions, both in French and Euglish, bave appeared in

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BY SAMUEL PLUMBE, M.R.C.S. &c.

Section I. Comprehends the Description and best Method of Treatmest appcar every fortnight.

* This won displays great talent. It is clear, eloquent, animated, full of those Diseases which most affect and distigare the face, together with dramatic interest, fascinating, and we may addinstructivo, to unmilitary

worm, Scalled Head, &c.-IL. Those which depend on Debility-II. Erupta readers like us, beyond any account of a campaign we cour remember to have

most prevalent in Spring those of Ipfants, and those which exercise & salata Tead."-Scotsman.

infuence on the system.-IV. Clironic, or Scale Diseases, as Leprosy, e“ Twenty-two thousand copies of M. de Segur's work are scattered ovor

V. Tho Itch, Mercurial Eruptiods, &c. France in every directiou. For forty years we have had nothing so interesting

N.B. The above work includes the substance of the Essay for which die and so true. The tragic recital excites intense interest in all readers, whether

Author recoived the Jacksonian Prize from the College of Surgeons. Frenchmen or foreigners." -Letters from Paris, by Grimm's Graudson, in

Printed for T. and s. Underwood, 32 Mleet street. the London Niagazine for August 1825.

COOPER'S SURGICAL DICTIONARY.--NEW EDITION. Printed for Hunt and Clarke, Tavistock street, Covent garden.

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LA DICTIONARY of PRACTICAL SURGERY, comprehendes LIBRARY OF LIGHT SUMMER READING; OR, ANAS OF ENGLISH

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By SAMUEL COOPER, Surgeon to the forces, &c. &c. &c. and piquant anecdotes which have hitherto been scattered through hundreds

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No.915. MONDAY, AUG. 15, 1825.

THE POLITICAL EXAMINER... to be and would be signs of the good condition of a people; but

that they may exist without being such, Britain is a convincing proof. Party is the madness of many for the gain of a few.-Pork.

In no other country of Europe-(Holland has been excepted, but

we doubt the propriety of the exception)-is there so large a mass of CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE OF ENGLAND

people living upon the industry of the rest of the community, with AND FRANCE.

out contributing anything to the national wealth. In what metropo

lis besides London shall we find large districts inbabited by families * Letters on Englund: by A. de Stael Hulstöin.

supported in idleness upon incomes derived from real or funded pro· Letters from France : by John M. Cobbett. Two books can hardly differ more from each other than do these 1:

o perty, froin trade, or from the taxes? In what other country are

there numerous large towns (such as Bath, Brighton, Cheltenham, volumes. Both are however amusing and useful; and as each sng

&c. &c.) almost totally dependent on wealthy visitors who spend gested to us in the perusal similar ideas on one or two points, we

there, during part of the year, a portion of the incomes drawn from have placed them together at the head of this article, in order to

the industry of the country? Where shall we find so great a class of introduce a few extracts and remarks upon the important topic of the

persons keeping splendid equipages, and living in costly style? An comparative degree of happiness enjoyed by the two nations separated from

income which a baronet or 'squire in England thinks very moderale, only by the Euglish Channel. And first a word regarding the books

is considered magnificent in Paris, Brussels, Vienna, Berlin, Petersthemselves.

burg, or Rome. Then again is the enormous body of servants and The French author (a son of the celebrated Madame De STAEL)

dependents of our rich families, all consumers of the products of who appears to have resided here for a considerable period, has;

industry without adding to the common stock. Add further what thrown into the form of letters a series of essays on the political

are called unproductive labourers-or those who are engaged in institutions and character of the English nation. He gives an account

ministering to the enjoyments of the rich by means which contribute of the legislative bodies, the modes of election, the division of

nothing to the common stock, either in direct useful produce or by property and classes, the conduct and influence of newspapers, and

exchange,--and it does not seem difficult to understand why those the state of parties; and he proceeds to theorize upon all these mat

| classes who really support the community, are hoth over-worked and ters, with a view to explain what appear to foreigners marvellous

under-paid. Thus it is, that Great Britain has become the richest inconsistencies in our political system. In doing this, M. de STAEL

nation in the world, while its industrious population-the producers has displayed a little of the common French fault of resolving every

of its riches-ace among the most miserable. With a prodigious thing into paradox and antithesis, and has fallen into some natural

body of wealthy families, with : enormous capitals in the hands of mistakes respecting us; but really, when we consider the complex

individual traders, with pecuniary means equal to vast undertakings, state of our social relations, and the puzzling aspect they must present

with the largest public revenue ever known in any country, with to a Foreigner, we are surprised that he has made so few. It is

unrivalled machinery, and an advanced state of agricultural and maevident indeed, that he is a sensible, modest, and enquiring person;

mg person; nufacturing science, the labouring classes are pressed down to the that he has taken up no opinions hastily, but has diligevily collected

carth by excessive toil and poverty. Puiting out of the question a few facts, and taken pains to extract from them correct inferences. Above

trades in the metropolis, which require ingenuity in the workmen, and all, he is distinguished by a philosophical love of truth, which places in which a constantly increasing demand for their commodities has mainbim above both national- prejudices and personal influence. He

tained a high rate of wages,--and looking to the great body of farnto appears to speak his mind upon all the subjects he treats of with the

ing labourers, and of journeymen manufacturers, we do not hesitate utmost candour, as well as with perfect good temper and an enlarged to say, that so much toil with such disproportionate reward---30 much - sympathy with his fellow creatures.

physical suffering and consequent crime--are not to be found in the Mr. John COBBETT, on the contrary, gives us all fact, and no - theory. His lelters—which are real letters, written at the times

| labouring portion of any other European community. Of the toil and

misery of our manufacturing workmen--of their confinement in stated-are valuable, as affording precisely that species of information horrible at

les of information horrible atmospheres for 14 or 16 hours a day, their squalid appearwhich most travellers either wholly neglect or touch upon very super-lance, their induced bad habits, the early devotion of their unhappy ficially. He describes the soil of the districts be passes through, the children to the like wretchedness-the public now know enough. division of land, the agriculture, the relations of fariner and labourer, Some recent discussions have thrown a good deal of light also upon the dwellings, the dress, the wages, the manners and conversalion of the condiri

conversalion of the condition sull more degraded (because ignorance is added) of the - the industrious classes, and the prices of all produce and necessaries of agricultural labourers. Able-bodied men in the prime of life are = life. The book is written in an unpretending style, but discovers

vers working from sunrise to sunset, in the fields and barns of the farmers, good sense and observation, and is very pleasant reading. The young for a shilling, tenpence, eightpence, or even sixpence a day, while the man just says enough to let one see that he is a disciple of his father | Alb. loaf actually costs nearly as much as the largest of these sums! in politics, but never obtrudes his opinions on the reader: he has | The families of the labourers cannot of course be fed and clothed on fulilled his task with zeal and honesty, and has attempted no more.

is attempted no more. such pillances--hence the six or seven millions of pounds sterling per · Nothing is more common than for individuals 10 confound, in annu

in annum paid in poor-rates, and hence also a great portion of the derespect to the acquirement of wealth, the means with the end. They | basement and vice of the poor. We could not help smiling at M. de wear out soul and body in obtaining enough to afford sabsistence | Stael's mode of evading the plain inference to be drawn from this without labour, and in so doing neglect to cultivate those tastes and frightful amount of public contribution for the poor, and of constructfaculties which can alone anake leisure supportable. They habituate

ing a paradox out of it. Foreigners at first sight (he says) would themselves, during their slavery, to look forward to wealth as includ.

infer from this fact, that England was a country of very rich and very ing almost every kind of felicity; ayd when they have secured it, voor- of palace and howulf.

have secured my poor-of palaces and hovels, of nobles and beggars. “This suppofind that it necessarily includes none-that it is only a negative good, producing the absence of the cominonest sort of anxiety (that of pro- facts can

facts say to it? They would tell us, that in 10 country of Europe curing food and clothing), but leaving its possessor still a stranger

does there exist so little difference between the physical enjoyinents of to those mental and social enjoyments, a relish for whicir the en

the different classes of society." And what sort of proof does the grossment of money-getting has prevented him from acquiring. We

reader suppose our, lively visitor produces for this bold assertion? A suspect that nations sometimes make a like mistake; or more cor

remark which is said to have been made by the Cootinental Despots, rectly perlaps, that common observers make the mistake in regard when thi

when they were transported through the metropolis in a sort of trito nations. They look to the aggregate wealth of a country, instead

Y; instead | umph, and the townspeople assembled in their holiday dresses and of to its distribution. They reckon up its revenues, its products, its mini capital, its imports and exports, its public institutions, its roads, l « • Where are then the people,' said the Allied Sovereigns, on their canals, bridges, &c.; and in proportion to the amount of these, esti- arrival in London, astonished at perceiving uo external appearance of mate the prosperity and happiness of its juhabitants. There cannot wretchedness in the curious crowd that pressed round them." be a more fatal error. Under a proper system, all these things ought! We do not stop here to remind our readers, that the Eoglish are of

all nations the most regardful of appearances, and will sacrifice most citizens of a free country!" It is plain, that M. de STA EL knows no. real comfort to externals: there is no occasion seriously to refate the thing of the actual intercourse subsisting between landlords, farmers, above assertions, since they only show in what sphere of society M. de and peasants, in the country, or between the gentry and their depenSTAEL has moved, and how little he knows of the interior of the dents, in towns; and that he enters very little into the feelings which garrets and hovels which house our working classes. For all this, I place so impassable a barrier between patrician and plebeian, the however, the facts he does communicate are of no mean value. Take rich and the poor man, in England, and make so many degrees in the the following, as a contrast between the condition of our manufac-scale of rank and wealth, each attended by a corresponding amount turers and those of France :

of pride towards inferiors, and servility towards superiors. Our best “ A French iron-master, travelling in England some years since, 10 illustration on this point, as on all others perhaps, may be supplied learn the progress made there in the manufacture of iron, went down by the exhibition of the contrast which French manners afford to our into a coal mine, in one of those districts where radical opinions were own. Mr. COBBETT describes as follows a scene which be witnessed most generally diffused among the people. When in its subterranean

in the royal grounds at St. Cloud, near Paris, as he was returning galleries, he conversed with the workmen on the nature and duration of their labour, their wages, their food, and all the particulars of their way

home one evening from Versailles :of life. The workmeu on their part. interested in the conversation of " Under a very fine cluster of these lime trees, there are two rings man who displayed an accurate knowledge of their concerns and wants,

divided off, the one being a little lower than the other, and kept in a and engaged also by the liberality of the opinions he displayed, inquired

state for dancing. The neiglibourhood meets, it seems, on every fine in turii into the state of the tabouring people in France. How many

summer's Sunday evening, and whilst ladies and gentlemen occupy the workmen do you employ ?" waid ibey.- Ponr or five hundred.' That's "pper division, maid-servants and men-servants occupy the lower one, a prelly good number : and what wages do they earn! What does it and one set of musicians plays to both parties. Of all dancing this is the cost to feed and maintain a family in the part of France where you live prettiest I ever saw. The branches of the lime frees spreading over and - Their wages are lower than yours: but lluis is more than made up to

meeting form a complete ceiling, and the lamps placed in considerable them by the cheapness of the necessaries of life.' You are riglie,' said

number amongst the large and delicately transparent leaves of this beau. the miners, after having made a little calculation among theinselves,

tiful tree, shed the palest and most impartial light that you can imagine which convinced them, that in reality the condition of the workmen was

The foors are sand, bound sufficiently to keep it from flying, and, for ibe better in France than in England: but how long do they work every

convenience of those wbo do not dance, there are seals all round the day ?'- Eight hours on an average.'- No inore! And what do they do frings, these rings being suthiciently large lo adınit of a great many spee the rest of the day? They cuttivate their land and work for themselvestators besides four sels of dancers. The ladies were of course dressed in - What do you say, their land? Then they have property? they have

wave the most airy inanner, in the greatest variety of the prettiest colours; in a ground, they have houses of their own i' _Certainly : at least inost of great many colours every one of them, and if any of them were too glaring those have, whom I einploy. At these words astonishment was depicted

or gaudy, the liglit was such as to correct it. They wear their bonnets on every countenance."

while dancing, only just untying the ribbon: and for eaxy and graceful

movements, for preuy dancing, who can deny that here the people excel? Nothing, however, can supply stronger proof of the low physical Tlie place is so captivating that one almost overlooks the rest, but the condition of the labourers in England, than the moral debasement to choice of place is one great characteristic of the genuine taste of be which they have been brought by it. There is a great difference in French people in these maliers. They, always choose to dance out o this respect between the manufacturing and the agricultural popula- doors wlien ihe weather is fine enougli, adding to their own innate gaiety tion. Whenever numbers are congregated, and a certain quantity of all that they can borrow from open air and the varieties of nature. A intelligence spread among them, a sort of public opinion is creaied, proof of the goodness of both classes is that of their ineering and almost which favours individual independence. by causiog respect on the dancing together. A whole family may be dancing in the upper ring part of the masters, and a sense of the value of their knowledge on

| wbilst the servants are dancing in the lower one, and all to ihe same that of the workmen. But nevertheless the deportment of the Eng

"music. It was nine o'clock before we could leave this place." lish poor generally towards their superiors in station is degrading and

We must stop here for the present; but we shall return to M. de melancholy. In the agricultural counties in particular, it amounts to

Stael--to whom our extracts have not yet done justice and place the grovelling. The laws have se completely subjected the farming

before our readers some excellent arguments of his on the subject of labourers to the absolute will of the magistrates and the clergy, and

population, and the consequences of the condition of the people bere circumstances have placed them so entirely under the control of their

and abroad. immediate employers, that there is hardly any kind of insult or de basement to which they will not how their heads. The single circum

LITERARY NOTICE. • stance of the tame submission of English soldiers to the lash, argues a degrading education and habits of life in the peasantry, from whom Tbe Troubadour, and other Poems, by L. E. L. Author of The Impochiefly, the army-is recruited, Mr. CORBETT relates a conversation at

visatrice. the dinner-table of an inn at Orleans, which illustrates this feeling: We apprehend that, in her own peculiar field, this very poetical

* But his highest proof of the bad organization of our army, and some- volume will bring the author of the Improvisatrice no small addition thing, too, which spoke not much in favour of our " nation liberale," of laurels. We speak of her own peculiar field, because, in our estiwas that the cominon soldiers are flogged. He turned round in the two mation, the work before us partakes of precisely the same character Frenchmen, and said with fierce energy, “Messieurs, on les fouette comme des chiens !" They had all heard it ; indeed it is generally

as the Improvisatrice, with still higher feeling and more exquisite finish. known, for during the stay of the Holy Alliance (ivloin the French call / In thus observing, we convey at once very positive praise, and a qua. " nos ennemis les Alliés") at Paris, nothing in the manners of the differ.lification as to the extent of it. We noticed, in reference to the Inent nations' seems to have struck ihem só inuch as the bearings of the provisatrice, that one train of association seems io entirely occupy the Cossacks and the English. They all pity the creatures that submit to it, inind of L, E. L. and the passion of love, and its operation, to form and look upon them as being linile beiier than doge. But she astonisho her only theme. While this exclusiveness gives intensity, and, treated ment of these gewlemen was that Englishnien, who are all, to a man, with the melting pathos and poetry of her illustration, a sense of ores deemed liberals, should submit 10 such dog-like punishments."

whelming tenderness and devotion, which a mind must be finely And again, in his conversation with a master-manufacturer at touched indeed to convey, it indisputably narrows the sphere of Alsace:

attraction, and smothers the reader as it were with roses. It must at " I asked if corporal punishment was known to be exercised on the the same time be remarked, that the power of L. E. L. in this respect children, and he exclaimed, NO! Not even the most mitigated?' is essentially descriptive, and paints passion rather than exhibits ll, • No.' This was at dinner, at the table d'hole, and a litle man, a mer- Her tsures want the relief of the sculptor and the sell-developing chant of Avignon, hearing my question, ratified Mr, tlielmann's answer, by exclaiming, Non, Monsieur, le Français ne se soumets pas aux

| principle of the dramalist. Thus her great merit consists in t'je bitan batons !' No, Sir, the Frenchman does not submit to the cudóel." And I tiful train of imagery and reflection, by which she tricks off ile eGo it is true enough, that a Frenchman, of however low degree, will revist

grossment of her all-devoted youth and maiden, added to a most the cudgel of his master, however well he may merit it, and however tasteful talent for romantic description, and those heightenings powerful the master."

the exquisite, and occasionally of the wild, in nature and in art, which, Even M. de STAEL takes notice, that the intercourse between as accompaniments, are so suitable to her general subject. But ther, superiors and inferiors iu England is marked by extreme servility on afier all, what is love? The ungallant query! Without, however, the part of the latter; but then he has a very pretty theory, that there going the length of the wit, who observed, ihat" half the world woul is a sort of reserved self-respect in the lower orders, which allows them know nothing about it, if they had never heard of it," we may senture to be exceedingly humble in manner to those above them, but which, to observe, that the most fascinating and seeling of Rooneos and 13in case of ill-treatment or insult, would break out into a "proud rude-liets require the contrast of more ordinary people, and that there is a ness," indicative of a “ profound sentiment of their own rights as difficulty in describing a series of them, without a repetition of :)

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