« AnteriorContinuar »
and an end, we might say, was made of one rebellion out of
CURRENT PRICES OF GRAIN inedito, fifty if there could exista cobellion in country without a Wheat, red ....... 64s. 72s. fifty, if there could exist a rebellion in a country without a
Boilers ...... . 146s, 535. Old.................
.... 60$. 768. | Small Beans..........46s. 52s. Government, where the will of any temporary tyrant stands
White, new vorios
1. 668. 748. 1 Tick ..... ...... 388. 448. for law, and accidental force for justice. Whether the party Old.........
.. 368. 45s. | Feed Oats............ 24s. 265. of Carlos gains strength or not, there is no sufficient evi
Grey Peas ....!
.: 40s. 42s. Potatoe............. 24s. 28s. dence. If Carlos finally dethrones his illustrious brother, 1 old.
Maple...... ... 44s. 46s. Scotch ......... 30s. 32s. in what character will he be acknowledged by the legitimates
| White .............. 42s. 54s. "Flour, per Sack ....... 558. 658. of Europe ? Divine right may be represented' best by the Aggregate Average Prices of the Twelve Maritime Districts of Eng. principles of Carlos, and she may favour accordingly in land and Wales, by which Exportation and Bounty are to be regulated her heart the Ultra-Royal ends of his usurpation; but she
in Great Britain.
Wheat per Quarter, 69s. 1d.-Barley, 40s, 70.-Oats, 26s. 10d.-Rye, is formally, identified with the person of his brother, for
41s. Ild.-Beans, 458. 10d.-Peas, 45s. 10d." Ferdinand is the living image of divine right itself, and cannot consistently bę abandaned : such a ruler over man
SMITHFIELD, SEPT. 5.
Beef is selling this morning at 5s. to 5ş. 2d. per stone for best cattle, kind must indeed be a bonne bouche for the genuine
and 4s. 6d. to As.10d. Mutton has not varied since last Market day lovers of the monarchical principle. In him there is no such and Veal is full as good as we last quoted. Lamb is firm as last quoted.
admixture of moral worth, or intellectual eminence, as to Pork is rather worse. - cast a doubt upon the chivalrous motives of that support
To sink the Offal—per Stone of 8lbs. which he enjoys from the Holy Alliance. His Catholic Ma
Beef .......... 4s. 6d. to 4s.10d, 1 Veal.......... 58. 60. to 6s. 4d.
Mutton...,....58. 2d. to 5s, 4d. | Pork.......... 5s, 6d. to 6s. 6d. jesty forms, therefore, the best illustration of the bent and
Lamb 5s. 4d. to 6s. 2d. genius of true legitimacy. His more despotic brother must
HEAD OF CATTLE THIS DAY. ; be discountenanced for him; and the substantial essence of a Beasts .................. 2328 Pigs ..................... 100 Spanish monarchy,. the existence of a state, without which Sheep .................. 20,860 [ Calves.................... 217 despotism would seem to have no practical object, loses all
- PRICE OF HAY AND STRAW. und its "theoretic value, when the first canon of the science, the Hay.......... £3. 5s, to £4. 15s. Straw ......... 22. Ds, to £2.88 indefeasible supremacy of the name of Sovereign, is in danger.
Clover £4. to £5. 10s.. If at the same time anything that wears a crown could be less than sacred in the eyes of other monarchs, the successor
THE NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE, for September 1, contains.
among various other interesting articles :- 1. My Books, No. 1. The Mena giana-II. Men, Women, and Nimmen ; or, a New Sex discovered-III. Coro
pation of Charles X. and of the Kings of Dawtrey-W. On the Old School of very unnatural exception.-Times.
Dress-V. London Lyrics : The Maiden's Lament VI. Grimm's Ghost. No. 28
Anti-Out-of-Town Company-VII. Embellishinents of London-YIII. The Lion CURIOUS SEIZURE.-Travellers in the silk and riband Fight-IX. The Family Journal, No. 9; Conversation of Swift and Pope-X.
Provincial Ballads. No. 3; The Legend of the Copleston Oak-XI. Russian Trh. velkng Sketches, No. 2-XII. Letters from Rome, No. 4-XIII. Burning of Moscow XIV. The Rubicon-XV. The Ten Thousand at the Sacred Fount
XVI. Anthony and Cleopatra, an Anecdote; by L. E. L.--XVII. The Uuiversal gentlemen lately left Brighton in luggers from Hastings; but
Culprit-XVII. Vallombrosa, Camaldoni, and La Verna-XIX, Ulla ; or, the in consequence of the wind becoming shy, they were obliged Adjuration--XX. Penn, More, and Sir W. Temple; a Dialogue-XXI. 'The Lady
of the Castle-XXII. Review of New Publicatiou8-XXIII. The Drama. Quite to land at Sleaford; and in consequence of having merchandise Correct-Tarrare-XXIV. London Exhibitions--XXV. Varieties, Literary and unaccompanied by any official documents, the whole were, on
Philosophical-XXVI. Useful Arts-XXVII. Rural EconomyXXVIII. Bíc
phical Notices of Distinguished Persons lately deceased-XXIX. Repor being landed, seized by Lieut. Clayton, R.N. belonging to the Literary.' Meteorological, and Commercial--XXX. Political Events_XXXT
Domestic Occurrences, arranged under the several Counties. Coast Blockade, and conveyed to the Custom house, New Published and sold by Henry Colburn, S New Burlington street (removed haven. The ribands have since been restored, on proof sub from Conduit street); Bell and Bradfute, Edinburgh and John Cumming.
Dublin : and may be exported to Friends abroad, by application to the General mitted that they were British. . The other goods, consisting of Post Office, or any local Postmaster. silk scarfs, shawls, handkerchiefs, and gloves, have been sent
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U PROSECUTIONS for RELIGIOUS OPINION. To which is annexed, an foreign manufacture than British ; and their being landed Printed for Hunt and Clarke, Tavistock street, Covent garden. " from sea carried a suspicion that such was the casē, notwith
POETICAL WORKS OF THE LATE LORD BYRON. standing the parties to whom the goods belong are too respect-|THE
bonect. THE TWO CONCLUDING VOLUMES of the WORKS of the
| late LORD BYRON, uniform with both the octavo and foolscap Editions. able to be thought capable of smuggling. No such seizure and accompanied by double Title-pages and Labels, so as to complete EVERY was ever recollected to have been made here before ; and no
EDITION of the Works now in circulation. ,
Persons possessing Editions of the Works issued before the later Pieces were doubt travellers will prefer coming by land in future instead written, should, in their orders to their Booksellers to complete them, specife
what Editions they have, how many. volumes, and what is the last poem of water, particularly as a week's detention is of consequence
The following POEMS may be had separately, as at first pubilshed: to the sale of such articles.
1. The AGE of BRONZE; or Carmen Seculare et Annus haud Mirabilis. 2. The ISLAND; or Christian and his Comrades.
. Several coveys of partridges have been observed lately 3. The DEFORMED TRANSFORMED; a Drama. coming from France, and it is supposed that the shooting Published by Hunt and Clarke, Tavistock street, Covent garden. season having commenced there, the birds have taken flight
7. Second Edition, beautifully printed, in 2 rols. post 8vo. 15s. boards, at the noise of the guns, and sought refuge in our cliffs.
FOREIGN SCENES and TRAVELLING RECREATIONS
TUN HowISON. Esg. of the Hon. East India Company's Service. Several have been picked up in an exhausted state at Can Printed for Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh; and Geo. B. Whittaker, London:
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SKETCHÉS of UPPER CANADA; Third Edition, Svo. 108. 6d. boards.
NR. FOTHERGILL'S TONIC FEMALE PILLS.-These Piu. 3 per Cent. Consols, 87. 34 per Cent. 957. New 4 per Cent. 1822, J have been in Public estimation for a very considerable time, and are
particularly recommended in general Debility of the Constitution, also a 1004. Consols for 87338
and excellent remedy in those periodical irregularities which female delicate and languid circulation, more especially the younger part, are liable
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Digestion, remove Nervous Giddiness, Head-ache, &c. &c. and as a Famii
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No. 919. MONDAY, SEPT. 12, 1825.
THE POLITICAL EXAMINER
would be inhuman; and it could not be withheld long; for it is im
possible that, in the improving state of society, so important and im • Party is the madness of many for the gain of a few.-Pope.
provable a class be long kept in the cruel servitude and consequent
ignorance in which the present unwise system now holds them. And EARLY CLOSING OF SHOPS.
even on the merest money-getting principle, no master possessing
common sense can doubt, that by a more humane and rational proThere are some persons absurd and callous enough to oppose the
portion of work and leisure, he would get better workmen, and more attempt now making to get the shops of the linen-drapers, &c. closed
work done; and it needs no reasoning to prove, that if the plan of at a reasonable hour, and to procure the young men employed in them
earlier hours be but generally adopted, the tradesmen will really gain a little time for improvement and recreation. We have no patience
by the reform. with such uncharitable beings, particularly when they mount the Bible
TO THE EDITOR OF THE EXAMINER, at the head of their unchristian columns. If the opposition came
Sir,-The interest that has been excited by the discussion of the advanonly from a few old women, who invariably think every youth a pro-tage and propriety of closing the shops of linen-drapers, &c. has extended Aigate, or from the most drivelling of Methodists, who call a playhouse in every direction. It is a well-known fact, that many respectable young “ the hot-bed of SATAN," we should content ourselves with a laugh at men in London are in the shop at six o'clock in the morning, and remain the incurables; but when we find men who pretend to edit daily toiling behind the counter till one and two the next morning: and it is journals putting forth repeated tirades against a reform so much called equally true, though not so generally known, that when released from for by reason and humanity, we feel something more than contempt. business their anticipations of rest and comfort are destroyed by being Above all, when we observe a wretch. himself notoriously idle and obliged to make their domicile in the shop, seeking unhealthy repose
| upon a miserable and dirty hammock drawn from the counter and spread profligate, sneering at and abusing a numerous class of his fellow- opon
on the floor, where the weariness of nature is farther oppressed by in"creatures, and predicting that they will misuse the little leisure now
haling the noxious vapours left floating in the shop after the extinguishasked for them, we experience a sensation of disgust and irritation.
ment of two or three gas-lights. This brilliant discovery has hurried The unfeeling railers we have alluded to, first beg the question
many an unsuspecting being to the shades of eternal night. There is, against the shopmen, and denounce them in the lump as an idle, im- however, no light equal to a gas-light, and I am extremely sorry that the pertinent, and dissolute set. That this character is grossly false, most inconsiderate inhumanity of many employers should force the condemLondon have the means of knowing. We deny that, as a class, nation of a discovery which their shopmen would otherwise reasonably they millit the description, or that they are at all lower in morality and admire. Having suffered severely myself from this mephitic oppression, good manners than any other body of men working for their support.
I seldom view the brilliant gas-light without unpleasant associations. Do their calumniators reflect, that such an accusation strikes equally
Being a shopman, and not a principal, I address myself to iny fellow
labourers with the hope that the observations I am about to make will at the tradesmen of the metropolis, who (with rarely, an exception)
not be entirely useless. It is a custom with many young men to leave have all been apprentices or shopmen themselves—that is, according
all the undoubled and opened articles of the day till a certain hour in the to the logic of the Smutty Gazette, have led a vicious and lazy life evening, which is called clearing up time: this is a bad plan, and the until 25 or 30 years of age? We shall not however waste more con only defence I ever heard made for it is, that if you fold or tie the goods sideration on charges so vague and sweeping; for even if they were up and put them in their proper places, they may be wanted again, and true, they make for our argument, instead of against it. If the large this occasions double trouble. The chances are however against this body of young men in question, taken mostly from the middle class supposition, and even should the articles be wanted again, it is much of the community. deserve the character given them by their enemies | easier to take them from their respective places than to find them amid of lazy and profligate, can there be a stronger fact against the system
the confusion on the counter. When goods are found that have been which renders them so ? For we presume not even Theodore himself
thus left, they are seldom in a fit state to place before the customer. A
clear stage is applicable to drapery as well as to other professions, and will maintain, that “ original sin" is the cause of their vice, or that dish
dishonesty is by this precaution often baulked of its " handy work." I they come into their employment corrupted in heart.
have always, thanks to my instructor, followed the plan of clearing up and We are quite ready to admit, that the shopmen are less industrious intervals, and thus prevented many a late hour in the shop. Still thera and moral than they would be under a better system. Human nature are many employers who defeat all the exertions of their young men by a cannot be ill-treated with impunity. It is cruel and scandalous to pertinacious obstinacy of keeping open their shops till a certain hour, confine young persons for 14, 16, or 18 hours a day in a close and they seem determined to put the injunction of Ovid into full force, by often unwholesome atmosphere, and it cannot therefore be advan- “ removing the temptations of leisure, that the bow of Cupid may lose tageous to any party. The declaimers against the shopmen (judging we
Tits effect." I hope however that they will likewise receive a check, by suppose from their own impurity)say-Release them at an earlier hour,
the wholesome operations of an Act of Parliament. A shopman has no
right to complain of the tediousness or capricious humour of a customer, and they will spend the time gained in the saloons, the taverns, the
yet I am sure the good-natyred would be unwilling to give vexatjaus brothels. But the probability is just the reverse. Let a young man
trouble, and the fidgetty part of the fair sex would find it do their nerves Teave his employment at 8 or 9 o'clock, and he will generally join his no harm to be received by a smile rather than by apprehensive acquaintances in some social amusement suited to his stinted finances : The manners of shop visitants are generally matter for discussion after parties will be formed in summer to make excursions in neighbouring they are gone, and impressions thus made are seldom erased from the places, in winter to see a play at half price, to attend lectures, classes memory. Many an apprentice and a shopman feel the greatest pleasure for learning languages, reading or debating clubs, &c. At all events, l in waiting upon certain individuals; the suavity of one smile or one there is time for such pursuits; but if the hour of quitting business bé polite observation smoothes away the rough index of cecollection, and 10, 11, or 12, what innocent pleasure or useful object can he pursue ?
ģcalls every attentive quality into immediate exercise.
A SHOPMAN, Exhausted in body and mind, after his long day, he is in every respect prepared to yield to those temptations and snatch those vicious in
LABOUR IN THE MANUFACTORIES. dulgences which surround him at late hours, almost to the erclusion of
Sir, I am, like most of your Correspondents, your constant reader. harmless pleasures. In a word, too much business leaves neither incli- and generally, I may say, Admirer. My friends tell me, if I venture to nation nor opportunity for healthful amusement, and the over-worked address so formidable a person as you are, I shall be most unmercifully frame requires excessive stimulants; while a moderate leisure gives cut in pieces; but I have so strong a desire to ask you a question or two, scope and relish for wholesome and useful recreation—conduces to | that I cannot refrain ; you who feel so forcibly for ihe drapers, the lacem social pleasure rather than to solitary-and tends to enlarge the mind makers, and the milliners, will not surely blame one so deeply connected as well as to strengthen the body. "Why should not the apprentices with the question as I am, for troubling you. It seems, from my own and shopmen of linen-drapers make as good use of their evenings as
os as feelings, that the employers of the above oppressed persons would like, the mechanics and artizans who go from work to their scientific
| one and all, to ask you, who show such sensibility, -How many hours
each day you have the conscience, by yourself or agents, to employ the institutions, or to cheap coffee-houses to read newspapers and books?
persons who print the Examiner? Let us extend the question to Print To our minds, the very endeavour they are now making to obtain a ing generally. Also tell us candidly the hours your domestic servants mitigation of their excessive confinement, affords a presumption in labour, and what time they have for recreation? What is the temperafavour of their sincere desire to share in the growing cultivation of ture your Cook is exposed to, within a few feet of an immense fire, in intellect which distinguishes the age. To refuse them the opportunity 1 your underground apartment, almost excluded from the light of the Sun
Also the dreadful change she has frequently to feel in entering the damp higher orders; but when the habits of a host of Noble Dukes, Marscullery-where the kitchen-maid stands shivering for hours together? quisses, Earls, Viscounts, Lords, and Baronets, are as notoriously This, Sir, is a species of Slavery far worse than is to be found in Facto
vicious and debasing as the “ Hells". and Houses they support and ries--and where is there a family of any respectability in which it is
haunt,--we are compelled to believe that the Eulogist in John Bull not encouraged? What are our working-hours in Factories compared
has been led, in his honest zeal for Rank and Title, to overlook the with theirs-we Il or 18they 17 or 18. A revolution in society must take place before it will be better--I am only anxious that the
modest virtues of the Middle Classes Factories shoald not sustain more than their share of blame in common
We may perhaps be partial observers; but a case occurred a short with servitude generally. As to the drapers and milliners requiring time back in the Sheriffs' Court, that affords an example of conduct time for intellectual improvements,- it sounds well enough, but alas! in High Life, which we do think it would be difficult to match in the it is humbug; and I shall be much deceived, if the time granted tends to Lowest. It was that of SULLIVAN v. SULLIVAN. The Son of a increase the morality of the age. I am a Master of a Silk Manufactory; “ highly connected " individual, a “Right Honourable," falls in love our people work 11 hours; but so far from being exhausted, they are with the daughter of his father's huntsman (as we are informed, a always anxious (for a small increase of wages), to work overtime, and handsome and respectably educated girl); he persists in paying his without the use of cane or other punishment (save a stoppage of rewards), we find they work as well the last hour as the first—and I think
addresses to her, introduces her to his sisters, and finally marries ber. it would puzzle your readers in ours, or the many Silk Mills I have
And what follows? The Son of the Right Honourable, himself an visited, to find the unhealthy, unhappy beings you speak of. Notwith
Honourable, associates with his Wife a brief month, and then, substanding all you and your pressing brethren are doing to raise the Hue mitting to his Right Honourable Father's wishes, abandons luis and Ory agaiøst the factories, let me tell you, the fault is not with the unhappy victim for ever! So situated, the forsaken woman consents Masters, but with the Public and Government. The first, by seeking to a deed of separation, in which she agrees not to molest her the cheapest shops for purchasing the various articles they require-let“ Honourable" Husband, and he engages to allow her to act as if she them consider that these cheap articles cannot be made at the price, had never been led to the altar. Thus discarded after a four weeks without grinding the poor. I wish, Sir, you would say a word on this
intercourse, and for no cause but that of humble birth,-in the very growing evil-by so doing, you would strike at the root of the complaint
prime of life, and wanting more than ever a consoler and protector, for the effects you speak of are caused by the cheap and underselling
she finds both in a Gentleman, who sees in her qualities which promise system. The generality of the labourers and artisans cannot, at the present bigh prices of provisions, high rents and heavy taxes, keep | to make him a happy man. The law will not allow their marriage themselves and families with less than 13 or 14 hours per day hard they live however together as man and wife-and the union is cemented labour--and when the Manufacturers can control these things, then, if by offspring—when, after a lapse of pine years, an action is commenced they alter not, let them bear the blame. But when work is light and by her Honourable Spouse, on the ground of the injury he has sascomfortable, as in most Factories, I do not see any hardship should they tained by her criminal conduct ;-he has moreover the astounding work 12 hours. A word as to beating–I disapprove and find it unne- assurance to ask for large damages, in order to facilitate the procurecessary--but are not the sons of our Gentry flogged at most of the public ment of a divorceand to our utter surprise, twelve men were found schools-aye, and more disgracefully, with rods? Winchester College L in London. who considered it just and decent and moral and I will name for one place, where I know it is so.
religious—“ Those whom God has joined, let no man put asunder") Will you not now say, Mr Editor, that Cotton Factories are not the only places where the poor are exposed to great heats and that lace
|-o reward him for his past and encourage him in his future promakers are not the only children corporal punishment is exercised on?
ceedings, by giving him Five Hundred Pounds damages! I am, Sir, respectfully yours,
FAIR PLAY Now, we very humbly submit, that no man in Middle Life-none
but a person “highly connected"--one of the Corinthian Pillars of [We believe that the hours which Printers usually labour do not ex- Polished Society,"-in a word, the Son of a “Right Honourable," ceed ten; and ourCorrespondent should remember, thai they obtain a reason
would have dared a course like this, and, so daring, would have turned able remuneration for their services.-As for Domestics, does Fair PLAY
round upon the ill-treated party with charges of criminal conduct, seriously maintain, that the females employed in Factories,—who get a
and called upon the astonished public to consider him an injured piltance for their week's drudgery which can hardly procure them the
pe zon! Where is the “ equal justice" of all this?-How is the common necessaries of life are better off than household servants, who
weaker sex” protected or crime punished, or morality or religion are for the most part well lodged, well fed, and well clothed? Those employed as Cooks, of whose sufferings Fair Play bas drawn such a
| advanced, by this application of legal power? No; it is cruelty and glowing picture, are proverbially “fat” and what are termed comfort. barefaced oppression in every stage. The interests of women under able-looking " personages ; and as for the Kitchen-maids who are said the laws of England,-laws which men both make and administer, are to stand shivering for hours in damp sculleries, is not our Correspond too often shamefully violated; and the consequence is, unhappiness to ent's description a little overcharged ?- It is quite true, that female all parties,-to the strong oppressor and to the weak oppressed; for domestics have not much time at their own disposal ; but they are not whatever the law of man may be, it cannot change the law of Nature, ill-paid, and are certainly not injured in their health by excessive labour which ordains that, in some way or other, the doers of evil shall be the in unwholesome places. --Of the poor little helpless children, who, de
sufferers of evil. prived of fresh air and necessary recreation, are wasting away by thousaods in the heated rooms of the factories, our Correspondent is wholly
This is one sample of the superior Morality of the Higher Orders! silent: and certainly, if a “constant reader" of our paper could defend
The experience of all ages proves, that those who are the most tempted this part of the manufacturing system, we should begin to suspect that
will fall the oftenest; that those who possess the most frequent opour labours at least had been most deplorably inefficient.-Examiner.] portunities of sensual enjoyment, will lead the most sensual lives; for
one indulgence demands another, until the power of self-controul, * Better word than corporeal, because more military.
without which there can be little virtue of any sort—is utterly subHIGH-LIFE MORALITY.
dued; the man becomes the slave instead of the master of his desires;
his whole life passes in a soul-subduing career, miscalled “enjoy. Mr Theodore Hook asserts that the Morality of the Higher Orders is
ment;" and thus “ bathed in wicked bliss and wanton joy,” the eren superior to that of the Middle Classes, and far beyond that of the
voluptuary, feeble in body, feeble in mind, drags on an unsatisfied Lower; but we cannot help suspecting that this great authority has
and wretched existence, for “ to be weak is to be miserable ;" so, formed his judgment from a partial observation of the select few,
| after running his vapid and comfortless career-useless, unrespected, He has, we imagine, fixed his loyal eye upon that very highest
disreputable,-he dies unregretted, leaving his titles and “honours," circle,* in which the Majesty of England moves with equal grace
his example and his infirmities, to the Right Honourable Son, who in and purity. But is this a fair sample? Without doubt, if the
his turn becomes “ the tenth transmitter of a foolish face," unless nobility and gentry at large led such dignified, retired, chaste, spot
indeed an accident occurs to mend the breed, by some maternal slip less, and, if we may so speak, alabaster lives, as our most gracious
not recorded in the chaste annals of the Ecclesiastical Courts ! Sovereign, their Royal Highnesses of York and Clarence, bis Grace
Notorious therefore as are the habits of the “ Upper Orders," a the Duke of Wellington, the Venerable Marquis of Headfort, &c. then
Court Judge, like the late Lord Ellenborough, may talk as he pleases indeed Mr Hook might safely insist on the superior morality of the about “the imputed vices of the Great,” and a Court Seribe, like . And yet see how a writer in the Edinburgh Revier speaks of this
Mr Hook, may write his pen to a stump in praise of their superior he very highest class :"_“ It is at least abundantly evident, that, in
morality,—the legal and the literary sycophants only expose Themgrossness of idea, in coarseness of expression, in a familiarity with
selves and their patrons the more by their ill-judged endeavours, thoughts that are impure, and a proneness to make those thoughts the
Admitting, as we fully admit, that in such a body there are many subject of conversation, in language alike degrading to the speaker and honourable exceptions, we are satisfied, that, as a class, an equally the hearer,--the very highest class of all approaches closely to the lowest frivolous, beartless, insolent, and sensual body does not exist under of the valgar."
I the sun ; a class in which the extreme of what is contemptible and
pernicious is oftener found than in any other; in which we see daily Take an example from the Edinburgh Times newspaper : examples of
“ Jury Court, Monday, July 11.-The Court met to try an issue, in the “ Meanness that soars, and pride that licks the dust ;"
cause in which James Renton, resident at Coldingham-law, was pursuer, and from which less of improvement is to be hoped for either of a and Thomas John Fordyce, Esq. of Ayton, Joseph Marshall, Esq. of public or private nature.
Edrington, and John Swinton, Esq. of Broadmeadows, were defenders.
county of Berwick; and that on the 7th March 1823, the pursuer was SIR FRANCIS BURDETT.
brought before them at Ayton, upon an application, made by one Jane TO THE EDITOR OF THE EXAMINER.
Fair, for payment of her in-lying expences; and that the Justices gave SIR, The passage quoted by you on the 4th inst. from the John Bulldecree against the pursuer for the sum of 10L. 13s.6d. The question for in reference to Sir F. Bardett, induces me to address you. I am no consideration was, Whether, in violation of the law, and of their duty as tenant of Sir Francis, nor have I the honour to be known to him ; but I Justices of the Peace, the defenders did grant a warrant for immediately admire the excellence and consistency of his character, and I have it in incarcerating the pursuer in the gaol of Greenlaw, until payment of the my power to do justice to his conduct as a landlord, which is now said sum ? and whether the pursuer was incarcerated in the said gaol on assailed, I believe for the first time, by that dirty and contemptible the 7th March, and therein detained till the 13th April, 1823, or any part libeller of every thing that is estimable in society. I reside near one of of the said period, by virtue of the said warrant, to the injury and damage the estates of Sir Francis, and have heard much of the state of his tenants of the said pursuer Damages were laid at 10001. sterling, besides the from the very best authority: he did not lower his rents, as Master Bull penalties inflicted by the Act of Parliament for wrongous imprisonment for once truly asserts; but mark the reason :-he did not raise his rents, -being 20001. Scots; but before the Jury were sworn in, the case was like many other great land owners, and they were always below the compromised; the defenders agreeing to pay the pursuer 2001. in name average of others, so that when the period of soffering on the great of damages, besides costs.” scale came, his tenants were still able to pay their rents without com- So much for the difference between our Justices of the Peace and those plaint. When a farmer can obtain land under Sir Francis, he knows he l of England. I could expatiate on the remarkable benefit derived from is settled for life ; it rarely happens that any event, except death, sets his lour small debt courts : that is, Courts of Justices of the Peace, held in land at liberty, and then only when no proper person of the family is fit different districts of each county of Scotland, to determine questions of to hold it. Two or three years back, one of his farms was to let, when a debts under bl. The expense of the case exceeds not eighteen-pence, and person, of whom I have knowledge applied for and engaged it; but peither lawyer nor attorney is allowed to open his mouth, or give in a being a strong Tory, he thought it proper to make this known to his
scrap of writing. future landlord, when Sir Francis told him he had nothing to do with
Now the upshot of this long epistle, is my advice to the good people of his politics, and should only expect the proper treatment of his land.
the South, which will never be followed :-Firstly, Strike out of the ComThe person alluded to now lives upon the farm, and I dare say will never
ver mission of the Peace all Clergymer.--Secondly, Appoint Sheriffs bred to quit it until he leaves this world. What will Theodore say to this ? !
the law, to hold County Courts for civil and minor criminal cases, If I find it needful, I shall, upon a future occasion, state other facts
| Thirdly, Transfer half the powers of your Justices of the Peace to the upon this subject, reflecting the highest honour upon Sir Francis, which
said Sheriffs, and keep the other half under a tight curb-rein.-Fourthly, I now with hold only because I think that such disclosures might not be
Let no Judge be able to put aside a simple petition to his Court, of injusagreeable to the delicacy of bis feelings. Your obedient servant, tice done by a Justice or a Quarter Session ; and make it imperative on September 5, 1825.
the Judge to try the complaint by a Jury. When Reform comes, these SCOTCH AND ENGLISH MAGISTRACY CONTRASTED. I por
points may be taken into consideration, but not till then.- Farewell. Glasgow, August 15, 1825.
A CONSTANT READER, [From the Political Register. ]
TO MR. COBAETT.
THE KING'S BENCH PRISON. men, but in the present question of the conduct of Justices of the Peace TO F. BUXTON, ESQ, M.P. &c. &c. AUTHOR OF A WORK ON PRISON in England, it is, perhaps, worthy of attention to inquire into the conduct,
DISCIPLINE. power, and control, of the gentlemen in the peace of Scotland :
Ego te intus et in cute novi,"PARSIUS. * Remark, in the first place, that no Clergyman is, in this country,
" I know thee to thy bottom, from within allowed to be in the commission of the peace. If he were, and ventured
“ Thy shallow centre to thy utmost skin."-DRYDEN. to act, he would soon find himself a preacher to empty pews. We, in SIR,-Notwithstanding the scenes of calamity which are perpetually Scotland, cannot admit that a elergyman of our church has any concern presenting themselves to our view, we look, for the most part, upon the with temporal affairs. He must pray and preach every Sunday; visit general mass of wretchedness with very little regard; for how many his parishioners, to remonstrate with some, and comfort the afficted; thousands are tlrere, who, from their rank and station in society, might and, lastly, deal out to the poor, assisted by his elders, the weekly funds with comparatively little exertion alleviate the sufferings of their fellowfor their support. His stipend is fixed, and we have neither tithes por creatures? But no; they like not the melancholy attendance upon tithe-proctors.
misery, nor can they brook any interruption of their rest and pleasure, Our Justices of the Peace, whether acting individually or assembled but seem perfectly satisfied if their failings escape contempt, though they in Quarter Session, are extremely cautious in exercising their authority ; never attain sufficient excellence to excite much regard : this, however, and where any doubt exists, the case is sent to the public prosecutor for like every other general rule, admits of exceptions; in illustration of the county. He again advises with the crown lawyers, whether to which, better examples cannot be adduced than the kind and humane bring the case before the Sheriff of the county, or before the high crimi-efforts of yourself and colleagues in the cause of the distressed. Butino pal court of justiciary. The Sheriff holds courts at the county town, for claim has the individual about to be mentioned to such distinction, the the trial of civil or minor criminal causes; in the latter, by jury trial. Marshal of the King's Bench Prison. To give the correct amount of his
Should a Quarter Session of Justices of the Peace trespass in their enormous income is impracticable, since every obstacle is and ever has judgment the least beyond the letter of the law, the injured person, been thrown in the way, to prevent such information being obtained. however poor and friendless he may be, can bring an action of damages That it greatly exceeds that of the Lord Chief Justice (to whom Mr Jones against the whole Bench, nor is it in the power of our Judges of the is no more to be compared than “ Hyperion to a Satyr”) there remains Court of Session to refuse a full and complete hearing of the cause. not the slightest question; and my readers will doubtless be astonished And, I may add, that this injured person is certain of obtaining ample when the source whence this income arises is discovered to them. redress. It is no matter whether the Bench of Justices acted from igno- Will it be believed that an introduction to the King's Bench Prison costs rance of the law, hasty temper (vide a late debate), or wilful oppression, every unfortunate individual 1l. Os. 6d, viz. 6s. 2d. on entering, and our Judges have no leaning towards the man of the Peace. They are 14s. 4d. on being discharged from the custody of this Leviathan of the acutely jealous of his dealing too deeply in criminal cases ; and this is law? It is surely impossible to conceive a more flagrant act of injustice, 50 strongly felt, that it has a most salutary effect in curbing any inclina- | What! take from the pocket of a man, who has been confined weeks or tion in our country Squires to lord it, by law authority, over the country- months, perhaps years, the last few shillings which are to enable him mao. We would not suffer, for a month, the petty meddling interfer- and his family to exist till employment can be procured; aye, even so, ence of Squires and Reverends of the Peace, in affairs relating to the and were it not for the assistance extended by that highly valuable amusements and sports of the people.
institution, the Society for the Relief of Personis confined for Small Debts, If ever you come within a hundred miles of the Tweed, cross the bor- | and subscriptions amongst their fellow prisoners, who invariably come der for once in your life, and describe, with your usual powers, the forward on such occasions and contribute their mite, many would be now difference between a Quarter Session of Hampshire, and one in Scotland.lingering in a gaol in a state of positive starvation, who by their industry
Here, the prisoner is brought in Court without chains or handcuffs. are enabled to support themselves and families in comfort. To those The Justices speak mildly and feelingly to him; urge him to have a compelled to take the benefit of the Insolvent Act this more immediately defender; and uniformly lean to a mild punishment. If he be injured applies, and I think, Sir, you will agree with me, that if this was the only by their sentence, he can, however poor, prosecute the whole Bench abuse existing and would to heaven it was !) it must fully demonstrate before the Court of Session, by a simple summons, followed by a “'peti- the propriety of the suggestion contained in a former letter, viz. the tion and complaint.”. We have a fund for a poor man's cause, “The fixing of the Marshal's income. I remain yours obediently, ! Poors' Roll,' i by which the poor can obtain justice.