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***** COMBINATION OF WORKMEN. ***** | must end. As it is, with a law probihiting cheap food, ts On a former occasion in writing on the subject of the Com- mechanic cannot live on the miserable" pittance which hi bination Laws, we expressed a hope that the tumultuous pro- employer is obliged to restrict him to, if he would keep hi ceedings of the operative classes would subside before the manufactured article at such a price as shall enable him to authorities of the country were irritated into a re-enactment enter the market on the same moderate terms as his foreig. of the old laws, which were felt so oppressive to the skill and rivals. The mechanic cannot exist decently, if at all, on this industry of the mechanic. We have been disappointed inļittle,—the master, if he would profit by his trade, canect this hope. Combinations to a great extent have been organ- give more. Here is the dilemma. This is one of the many ized, and confusion spread in all the manufacturing districts. evil consequences of a restriction on the importation of coro. Every branch of trade has been seriously affected and the How far, -to continue the chapter of political paradoxes,– commercial prosperity of the country appears to be endangered,

| this measure is necessary for the preservation of the agricul. if some conciliating measures cannot be devised to reconcile

tural interest, for the collection of the taxes on home consumpthe conflicting interests of the master and the man. Hann tion, for the raising the value of money commensurate with

The violent and uncompromising spirit displayed by the the vast nominal amount of the national debt, is the considerlabouring classes in the present dispute, the arbitrary means to ation for another time. - To return to the Combination Lawi. which they have resorted to enforce the accomplishment of It is generally understood that measures will be taken to pretheir aim,-though in a degree to have been expected in vent the association of the working classes for the purposes men who have long suffered, and whose minds cannot be sup- they at present contemplate. It appears from what we have posed to be disciplined into philosophic' forbearance,-have before stated, that one class must be sacrificed to the otherbeen most injurious to their future welfare.

the rich to the poor, or the poor to the rich. The rich hold We fear it will be found when the question next comes the power--the poor then will be the victims. That they before the Legislature, that they have frightened and alien- will obey the mildest legislation that the unfortunate circumated many of their former friends, and confirmed in their stances of the country permit, we trust—that they will resist, prejudices many of their old enemies, who were willing | firmly but not riotously, any unnecessary and harsh or vindic perhaps to abate something of the rigour of the law, which tive enactments, we hope. Let them at once desist from the had long placed the poor labourer at the mercy of his measures most complained of, let them petition Parliament oa haughty employer. We are surprised and disappointed that the subject of the grievances—let them point out the hardthe information which is now so generally diffused among the ships--the difficulties-of their situation, let them appeal to useful classes, did not point out to them the fatal consequences the country-to its justice, to its humanity, for such protecof their conduct. It was easy to foresee that the wealthy and tion as their usefulness is most indisputably entitled tothe powerful would be on the watch for, and ready to avail Kent Herald. themselves of the slightest irregularity and inconvenience arising from measures which oppose their interests ; much

POSTSCRIPT. more, then, will they now. insist on the necessity of curbing their refractory workmen, since the first use of their freedom,

MONDAY, OCT. 17. has been productive of a national embarrassment and dis- Some days ago a paragraph in a Paris paper stated that

| M. de Damas, the French Minister for Foreign Affairs, had But while we regret the circumstance of their misconduct, I given a dinner to the black Envoys of Hayti. No mention we can scarcely blame the unfortunate mechanics, who are was however made in the paragraph of the presence of the the victims of the discordant state of affairs in this country. diplomatic corps. A letter from Paris describes the difficulIn the natural contest between rich and poor, between the ties with which their sable Excellencies had to contend before employer and him he employs, while combinations on either they could approach the Ministerial table, and mentions the side are made illegal—though it will be recollected that it is important negotiations which took place before the members much easier in this respect to watch over any controul the of the Holy Alliance could settle the point whether the repre: many workmen, than the few masters who may conspire sentatives of revolted slaves could be admitted to eat and almost in secrecy,while things are in a healthful and fair drink in the presence of their legitimate ambassadors. It is condition, labour will ever obtain from wealth its just reward. the usual custom with the Foreign Minister in France to But when, as is now unfortunately the case with England, a invite a pew Envoy to dinner immediately on his arrival, and long course of misgovernment has deranged the social state, to introduce him at the King's levee on the Sunday following: and implicated the different interests in never-ceasing con- | The Haytian deputies coming to France with a large purse it ficts, Jwhen a national encumbrance has been entailed, to their hand, remembering the enthusiasm which the French support which from time to time all sorts of ruinous expe- squadron expressed at the admission of the Royal ordinance dients have been adopted; when restrictions are one day for their independence, and trusting that there was some imposed and the next taken off, to ease some temporary pres- meaning in the toast of " Charles the Liberal," imagined sure which is directly felt in an opposite direction; when the that every official saloon in Paris would be open for their best-disposed and most sagacious Ministers would be (say, reception, and that his Majesty would be impatient if it so pleaseth, are)—confounded between their liberal incli- welcome despatches from his sovereign brother and all nations and the necessity for harsh measures, well may, in the President of the Black Republic. But the taste of this distempered and chaotic state of the political elements, the King was completely mistaken. He neither likes a black the humble and suffering mechanics deviate into error and face nor a liberal sentiment, having been taught, by the cry injustice, while endeavouring to secure their rights, while of the absolute and legitimate party in Spain, to confound å struggling for their bread-for their existence.

negro with a lover of freedom. He was therefore exceeding : The Corn Laws are most intimately connected with this wroth with Baron Mackau for allowing his health to momentous difficulty, if not the cause of it. The operation is drunk with such an addition to his title, and turned his back obvious enough. If the free importation of corn were per- upon him when he appeared at St Cloud. M. de Villele, la mitted, nobody doubts that the price of bread, and of provi. order to show that he had not taught this diplomatic bird in sions generally, would be infinitely lower. The mechanic wrong lesson, imitated the example of his master... then could afford his labour at such a price as would enable Mackau, however, did not forget his Haytian friends, aze his employer to compete successfully with the foreign manu- seeing it impossible to introduce them at Court, exerted facturers, without which in these times of general peace and self both with the Minister of Marine and the Minister in universal intercourse, the commercial greatness of Britain Foreign Affairs to get them an official dinner. The forums

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POETICAL WORKS OF THE LATE LORD BYRON.

THE TWO CONCLUDING VOLUMES of the WORKS of the some time inflexible. Couriers were dispatched to Vienna, The LORD BYR

| late LORD BYRON, uniform with both the 'octavo and foolecap Editions, Petersburgh, and Madrid. At last Baron de Damas con- and accompanied by double Title-pages and Labels, so as to complete BV ERY

EDITION of the Works now in circulation:

11: Wy

Persons possessing Editions of the Works issued before the later Pieces were Envoys bad a kind of concealed repast, like that given by a written, should

written, should, in their orders to their Booksellers to complete them, specify

what Editions they have, how many volumes, and what is the last poem or play. rich man to his poor relations. These gentlemen are far from The following POEMS may be had separately, as at first published: being satisfied with their treatment, and now find a more 1. The Age of BRONZE; O Carmen Seculare et Annus haud Mirabilis.

2. The ISLAND; or Christian and his Comrades. Hitoa"} congenial society in the contractors for the new loan which 3. The DEFORMED TRANSFORMED ; a Drama.

Published by Hunt and Clarke, Tavistock street, Covent garden. they are empowered to negotiate.

WORKS published by HUNT & CLARKE, Tavistock street, Covent garden :OSTEND, Oct. 12.-An extraordinary report has reached LA GENERAL BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. To be com

In Monthly Parts, price One Shilling, us here from Brussels. It is said that an Englishman of A pleted in one thick volume, 8vo. by the publication of a part every month.

« Among the many cheap and useful publications now issuing from the press, rank has suddenly set off post from thence for Italy, leaving w

we have scarcely seen one which unites so many excellericies as this Biographical Dictionary. It exhibits a fine specimen of typography, and has a merit which belongs to very few low priced works. The editor, who is evidently'a person of learning and talent, has drawn his materials from a very great

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Larticles from books not in general circulation, translated or abridged others gentleman's unexpected flight.— Evening paper.

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2. The HISTORY of NAPOLEON'S EXPEDITION to RUSSIA. By General

Count PHILIP de SEGUR..
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The Publishers conceive that little explanation need be given of the reasons Beasts .. ....... 3383 Pigs ....

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highest interest of romance to the truth of history, will be acceptable to the Public. A prodigious number of the Original have been sold in France in a few

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of the previous English translations, to which it will not be inferior in paper or
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* Twenty-two thousand copies of M. de Segur's work are scattered over . GBOR CKHARD, M.D. Chairman.

France in every direction. For forty years we have had nothing so interesting Rev. C. Benson,'M.A. Henry Earle, Esq. F.R.S.

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3. A HISTORY of the FRENCH REVOLUTION. Translated from the French Ashby Smith, M.D.

A. R. Sutherland, M.D. Thomas Davis, Esq..

of A. F. MIGNET. Sir Charles Des Voeux, Bart. | George Vance, Esq.

A good History of the greatest political revolution in modern times has long,

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Everson. pensable utility, are likely to attain an unparalled circulation, the most liberal enouragement will be given to Agents whose activity enables them to procuro exteusise subscriptions.

London: printed by John HUNT, in Broad street, Golden square, and published Paternoster row, Lond

by him at the Examiner Olice, 38 Tavistock street, Coront garden,-Price id

TO MECHANICS, BUILDEDANT BOOKS, is an the Useful Arts, at the

No. 925. MONDAY, OCT. 24, 1825.

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is of the report:

1 WORK.

" THE POLITICAL EXAMINER. I'work disgusting? Again, this system does nothing for the prisoner on

his release. He may, if docile in temper, be more inclined to inParty is the madness of many for the gain of a few.—Popz.

dustry, from the mere habit of work, and the healthful result; but

we fear this effect is seldom produced by compulsory and odious PRISON-DISCIPLINE-GLASGOW BRIDEWELL. labour upon the stubborn and ignorant persons who form the majority Toe Glasgow Chronicle contains a report from the managing Com- of the inmates of gaols. The system of which Pennsylvania has had

mittee to the Commissioners of the " County and City Bridewell,” the honour of setting the example, and Glasgow that of adopting. a - furnisbiog a description of the establishment as completed by exten- goes upon a finer and wiser principle: it treats prisoners as human IL sive new buildings last year, and an account of its income and beings, having the same feelings, and for the most part the same rights,

expenditure during a period of 63} weeks, ending on the 2d of as their fellow men at large; it acknowledges the labourer in prison August last. This report has interested us very much; and we think to be as worthy of his hire as the peasant in the field, burdened of; an abstract of its principal facts will be acceptable to our readers. course with the charge of his own maintenance and confinement. It

Every prisoner has a sleeping cell to himself, ten feet high, nine does not turn him out of the walls, at the expiration of his period of long, and seven wide, furnished with a hammock, blanket, sheet, and imprisonment, pennyless, friendless, with a ruined character, to becoverlet, and a small chest, constructed so as to answer for a seat, and shunned by all prudent people, and forced by absolute necessity to recontain the prisoner's clothes, books, and other nécessaries. Some

necessaries. Some enter the paths of crime ;-but it rewards his industry with the profits.' of these cells have fire-places for such prisoners as may require them. of his work, it gives him a little stock to begin the world with again, The females occupy a separate building, under the control of officers

it furnishes him with a certificate of good conduct while in gaol,-and of their own ser,--a most important provision to guard against the thus at once makes him taste the sweets of labour, and affords him a total loss of modesty and decorum which the employment of males in fair chance of encouragement in society. It has been found in Phila- , the like capacity is so likely to cause. The whole prison is supplied delphia, that discharged prisoners, possessing certificates of good with means for carrying on various manufactures; and the scope for conduct from the governor of the penitentiary, have a preference in classification is so great, that there are fifteen apartments for the obtaining employment, women (averaging about forty in number) to work in-so that there . A system of prison discipline which really reforms the prisoners. need not be more than two or three together. The building is well would be cheaply purchased even at double the expence of the exista , provided with store rooms, washing houses, &c.; nor have the ing barbarous modes; but as all the results of a sound principle are

judicious contrivers of the place forgotten baths, so necessary to more or less gratifying, it is not one of the least benefits of the philo - cleanliness and health, though unfortunately so little used by the sophic system, that it is extremely cheap; indeed, it may be reasonably

people of this country, whether in or out of prison. The grand calculated, that if generally adopted, the confinement and governments 3-particulars however respecting work and instruction, in which this of criminals, instead of being as at present a grievous charge to every

establishment resembles the Pensylvanian gaols, we shall transcribe county, would after a time cost the community nothing. Some years and in the words of the report: .

ago, we know this was the case in the Transatlantic penitentiary, and

must be so now, unless some mismanagement has crept in, not at all! " The inmates are employed in weaving, winding, twisting, twining, affecting the principle of the experiment. The Glasgow Bridewell, E and warping yarns, making shoes and stockings, tambouring, sewing, even in its infancy, nearly approaches this desideratum. By the aca

veining, spinning, picking cotton, &c. &c. &c. A separate account is count appended to the Committee's report, it appears that the priTest kept for each prisoner; from the amount of their earnings, the expenses soners (averaging daily 200 in number) in the period referred to

of food, clothes, wasliing, &c. are deducted; small sums are sometimes | manufactured articles which sold for ... - - - 2016. 13. advanced while in confinement, to encourage industry; and the surplus

Add to this sums received for aliment or board of sy is paid at the end of their confinement, on leaving the establishment.

prisoners detained on warrants in that part of Bridei « INSTRUCTION.

. "A permanent and efficient teacher has been appointed to watch over well which has been declared a legal prison, but not in the morals of the prisoners; to instruct those who cannot read; and to sentenced to work ...... . . ... .. 95 6 10 :

communicate instruction to all. His whole time and talents are devoted to this eod. The Committee have fixed his hours of attendance every

£2,111 .19 10 week day, from 1st November to Ist March, at 8 o'clock morning till If that total be deducted from the gross expenditure (2,7041, 19s. 10d. LIL 5 o'clock afternoon; the other eight months at 7 o'clock morning till 6 including 3341. 58. 11d. paid to prisoners for surplus earnings) the je afternoon, allowing him reasonable time for his meals. On Sabbath, lie

e balance will be 5931.; being the whole cost to the public for the Bridecollects the females into different classes, when he performs worship, reads a portion of scripture, and concludes with an exhortation. The

well, which gives a rate of 21. 88. 9d. per annum for each prisoner. males are taught and exhorted each in his own cell, and at no time are With this example before their eyes, we should hope that,certain they allowed to congregate or have any intercourse."

Parliamentary and magisterial persons will be cautious how they This imitation of a plan which has long been practised in the sneer at, “ as wild and visionary," the endeavours of the excellent prisons of several states of the North American Union, reflects the individuals who spend their time and money in attempts to mend our greatest credit on those who have put it in operation in Glasgow. The prison discipline.

success has been correspondent to the wisdom. The unreflecting and we love the brutal in society may content themselves with locking up criminals | EASTER “ OFFERINGS"-CLERICAL GREEDINESSbin in indiscriminate.confinement, and maintaining, that when a guilty

MAGISTERIAL DESPOTISM. wretch is once in prison, they need trouble themselves no more about For many years past the ambiguous demand by the Church of what him. But sooner or later the victim of bad education and bad laws are ludicrously misnamed “ Easter Offerings" has been very partially must be set free again ; and what can be expected from him but a | levied in Birmingham, owing to the reluctance with which the popu

terrible retribution on the community whom he views merely as lation (a considerable portion of whom are Dissenters) paid that con- his enemies and oppressors? The “ wisdom of our ancestors" was no tribution to the wealthiest of all Ecclesiastical Establishments. This

better, in respect to criminals, than this shortsighted calculation : the reluctance has been increased lately by the spirited resistance made gaols were crowded with miserable beings, of all ranks and all degrees to the demand by Mr Peter Watson, a shoemaker of Chester-le-street of criminality, huddled together with scarcely a distinction, perfectly in Durham, who still has an appeal pending against the enforcement idle, the hardened criminals corrupting the novices, and all leaving of the claim. In consequence, the Rev. Charles Curtis (brother of their common den of profligacy worse than they entered it. Even in Sir William) a Pluralist, being a rector in Birmingham parish, and later times, and under more humane and considerate management, holding a lucrative vicarage in the neighbourhood, the two livings the nature of the human mind was little consulted in the treatment yielding him together from 7,000l. to 10,000l. per annum, hit upon of prisoners. They were set to work certainly; but it was the expedient of farming the “ Offerings;" and strange to say, a work of the most mechanical and oppressive kind-picking wealthy Nonconformist undertook the agency, and commenced a

hemp, or (latterly) walking up an eternal step, to turn a mill hid general and vigorous enforcement of the full contribution of fourpence u prirodne from their sight, their toil not cheered by the sight of its operation a-head for each individual above 16 years of age, exclusive of eight

and product. This is a fatal error: the object of prison discipline is pence for every householder and his wife. Hundreds of summonses to reform the prisoner; but how shall his idleness (and crime may were issued; the magistrates were occupied with contested cases; and generally be traced to an aversion to labour) be cured by rendering many inhabitants, from scruples of conscience, resisted the magisterial

order to pay, the claim, choosing rather to suffer the amount to be unjust and arbitrary; and we doubt if it would have been hazarded levied by distraint upon their goods.

in the metropolis. It is true, that it does not belong to a magistra:e Mr Russell, a bookseller, pretty well known as a sufferer in the to decide upon the general question of the legality of any demand like cause of Reform, was early assailed with a summons, and appeared in that of “ Easter Offerings;" but surely, when one man summons November last to answer the poor rector's complaint of his non-pay- another for non-payment of an alleged debt, the magistrate is bound ment of one shilling and fourpence, being the amount alleged to be to call upon the plaintiff to prove the debt, not upon the defendant to due for two years' “ Offerings." He resisted payment on the ground disprove it. It cannot be proper for him to settle the point in dispute that the contribution was only claimed from * communicants," and with a simple we are satisfied of the justice of the demand," withthat he was none. The clerical justice present, however, made an out even requiring the plaintiff to state the nature of the claim—as it order for payment; in pursuance of which an officer speedily visited appears by the above statement furnished to us (upon the accuracy of bis house with a warrant of distraint. Instead of levying however, which we rely) that he did not. the officer on several occasions merely urged payment verbally, as if So strongly is the injustice of this clerical extortion felt in Birmingthere was some irregularity in the proceeding which made him afraid ham, that we are told it is very probable a petition from a considerable of pushing the matter to extremity. Thus it remained till the 3d inst. body of the inhabitants will be presented to Parliament against it next when, in consequence of a summons differing in form from that of last session. year, Mr Russell appeared before T. Lee and W. W. Smith, Esqrs. in their private room, accompanied by his shopman; and the following dialogue occurred :

THEATRICAL EXAMINER. Magistrate. Well, Mr Russell, what have you to say in answer to the Rev. Mr Curtis' complaint against you for default of payment of

DRURY LANE. 1s. 4d. due to him?

" The grandest theatrical treat perhaps we ever had, was on that Mr R. Please your Worship, I deny his right to any payment

famous evening when Messrs Kean and Booth played in conjuncfrom me, and request you to demand of his agent to show on what

tion. The former the part of Othello, the latter that of Iago ; and we ground he rests the claim.

never recur to the effect that exbibition produced on us without wishMagistrate. We do not sit here to expound the law: we are satis

ing that the whole world could have been spectators. Mr BOOTH fied of the correctness of Mr C.'s claim. He might take out a man

was brought out as a competitor with Mr KEAN: their equal height damus, if we neglected to enforce his just demand.

and similar style of performing provoked comparison. Here then Mr R. This is most strange. I always understood that a claimant

was the opportunity, when they came foot to foot, for KEAN to show by process, in the first instance, was required to produce proof of his

the great inequality of the powers of the two men; and this be did right. I deny his right, and am prepared to show that I am not in

by an effort-an (as it were) intellectual bound, which must have the situation on which, on the former occasion, it was said the right

satisfied every spectator then present, that competition was out of the claim was founded.

question :-and, with all the wonderful colouring of that performance Magistrate. Do you mean to deny that Mr Curtis is rector of this

as fresh in our minds as if it were at this moment an embodied painiparish?

ing by Titian, we are compelled to say, that if Mr Boots on this Mr R. I mean to deny no such thing. When I was her last, the

re-appearance has intended to fill up the chasm left by Mr KEAN'S demand was said to be lawful against all Communicants above the

retreat, he has greatly overrated his own powers. By the plain and age of 16 years. I deny that I am a Communicant, and consequently

unequivocal manner in which we have spoken of this disproportion in maintain that I am not liable to the demand.

the two actors, let not Mr Booth charge us with unfairness; we are Magistrate (Mr LEE). I know nothing about what you are urging,

so far from feeling anything like prejudice against him, that indeed and do not believe it relevant in answer to the demand. [At this

our inclination is to his advantage. There were many touches the stage of the business, the officer in attendance notified to the Magis

other evening which lead us to think of his understanding with more trates, that the defendant's servant was taking a minute of the pro

than common respect--though the result of our opinion of the perceedings, and wished to know if their Worships allowed it.--Mr

formance as a whole, is, that it wanted power. The speech before SMITH said--No: make him desist, and turn him out of the room.

the senate was delivered off hand, as if he had learned it by rote; Mr RUSSELL said- I protest against this; I am alone in a private

not as if it were the spontaneous effort of one who felt that he could room, making my defence, and I require his assistance in order cor

“ little grace his cause in speaking for himself.” The third act—the rectly to refer to the proceedings, if I find it eligible hereafter to appeal

memorable and most trying part of the character, went off rather to a superior Court. Mr Lee however assented to the order, and the

tamely. But the last scene was by far the best of the whole performofficers forcibly turned the defendant's shopman out, and closed the

ance; and our impression is, that it was nearly as well as we ever door upon him.)

saw it played. We still say that Mr Booth will benefit the estaMagistrate. Have you anything more to say why we should not

blishment that we hope he may be offered an engagement to his make an order for payment?

advantage; and we wish him success in the public favour. Mr R. There is now a similar case removed by appeal froin the

WALLACK played some parts of Iago very creditably : so did Magistrates in Durham by à Mr Peter Watson : it comes on for

Brown the difficult character of Roderigo: for it is difficult to convey decision in the next term, in the King's Bench. This is a reason for

the discrimination between weakness of understanding and sheer staying the present proceeding for the short period that will elapse

fatuity; which latter quality, as it is more gross and palpable to come between this and the decision on Watson's case, which will set at rest

mon eyes, so is it the favourite reading of the character by common the legality of the demand.

actors. PENLEY's Cassio was sad work. Mrs WEST made a toleMagistrate. We cannot suspend proceedings on any such ground rably good Desdemona, and evidently exerted herself to do her best. Mr R. This demand has not been generally collected lately. The

And last, Mrs BUNN was respectable in Emilia. This lady has a fine objection to it is very great-it should be a voluntary offering, not a

and commanding person. Does she stoop on purpose to detract compulsory assessment. It is not a legal demand; and I have docu

from her height of stature; and does she imagine that she appears ments here to show, that if the plaintiff was required, as I insist-I|

uncouthly tall? If so, she only changes hands, and transfers the beg pardon, I submit-he ought to be

uncouthness from her stature to her carriage. Mr LEE. Hear me !—To my knowledge this demand was paid by my father in this parish upwards of 60 years ago; and I believe you

We may observe, in addition to the above favour from a Corremust know, from the connexion that would not have been the case spondent, that Mr Bootu, in expressing some very natural and wellhad it not been legal.*

I grounded resentment at certain mean and false attempts to lower his Mr R. Your father, Sir, paid willingly: my case is different: private character, seems inclined to go to war with the newspapers in have not attended the Church, and deny that the rector possesses any

general. That an actor's opinion of his own merits should differ from right to enforce it against me, who am not a Communicant.

those of other people, is no way surprising, and must pass; but the After some further remarks, Mr Russell withdrew; the order was

other sort of injury is as base, perishable and malignant, as the quarter made against him for payment; and be daily expects to suffer a dis

whence it chiefly emanates. It was quite amusing to read the Jots traint for the amount.

Bull of Sunday last, in reference to Mr WARDE, from whose merits and After witnessing the shameless avarice exhibited by the City Clergy

respectability we have no sort of disposition to deteriorate; but it is in the recent attempt to revive an obsolete claim against the citizens

quite absurd to exalt level acting in the abstract beyond exalted of London, we cannot of course be surprised at a proceeding on the

genius; and, in talking of histrionic talent, to be formally alluding to part of the Birmingham incumbents so entirely in accordance with the private character. This sermonising in reference to the subject, is spirit of our greedy and oppressive Church Establishment. But the

monstrous twaddle at best, and, if carried higher, would at once be procedure of the magistrates, as above detailed, does appear to us very

found so by John himself. From the Treasurer of the Mauritius, it is

indeed the sublime of the ridiculous,--the very negro girls of that * Mr Loo's father, a well as himself, was an Vaitarian and a lawyer, 1 işland would smile at ito

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