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IN the present volume I have endeavoured to explain, in simple language, some difficult problems in “Animal Mechanics.” In order to avoid elaborate descriptions, I have introduced a large number of original Drawings and Diagrams, copied for the most part from my Papers and Memoirs “On Flight,” and other forms of “Animal Progression.” I have drawn from the same sources many of the facts to be found in the present work. My best thanks are due to Mr. W. Ballingall, of Edinburgh, for the highly artistic and effective manner in which he has engraved the several subjects. The figures, I am happy to state, have in no way deteriorated in his hands.

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Motion associated with the life and well-being of animals, Motion not confined to the animal kingdom; all matter in motion; natural and artificial motion; the locomotive,

steamboat, etc. A flying machine possible, - • Weight necessary to flight, • - - - The same laws regulate natural and artificial progression, • Walking, swimming, and flying correlated, . • •

Flight the poetry of motion, . - - - Flight a more unstable movement than that of walking and swimming; the travelling surfaces and movements of animals adapted to the earth, the water, and the air, • The earth, the water, and the air furnish the fulcra for the levers

formed by the travelling surfaces of animals, • • Weight plays an important part in walking, swimming, and flying, -

The extremities of animals in walking act as pendulums, and
describe figure-of-8 curves, - • -
In swimming, the body of the fish is thrown into figure-of-8
curves, . • - • - •
The tail of the fish made to vibrate pendulum fashion,
The tail of the fish, the wing of the bird, and the extremity of
the biped and quadruped are screws structurally and
functionally. They describe figure-of-8 and waved tracks,

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Walking of the Quadruped, Biped, etc., • • •

Locomotion of the Horse, • • • • •

Locomotion of the Ostrich, - - - • •

Locomotion of Man, - - - - •






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