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SCENE I I.
The Street before the Prison.
Enter Duke as a Friar; to him Elbow, Clown, and
Elb: Nay, if there be no remedy for it, but that you will needs buy and fell men and women like beasts, we shall have all the world drink brown and white bastard. +
DUKE. O, heavens! what stuff is here?
Clo. 'Twas never merry world, since, of two usuries, 'the merriest was put down, and the worser allow'd by order of law a furr'd gown to keep him warm ; and furr'd with fox and lamb-skins too,
-haftard.) A kind of sweet wine, then much in vogue, from the Italian bastardo. WARBURTON.
See a note on King Henry IV. Part I. A& II. sc. iv. Steevens.
*Bastard was raisin-wine. Sec Minshieu's Di&. in v. and Cole's Latin Did. 1679. MALONE.
- Jince, of two usuries, ] Here a satire on usury turns abruptly to a satire on the person of the usurer , without any kind of preparation. We may be assured then, that a line or two, at least, have been loft. The fubje& of which we may easily discover was a comparison between the two usurers; as, before , between the two usuries. So that, for the fugure, the passage should be read with asterisks, thusby order of law, *** a furr'd gown, &c. WARBURTON.
Sir Thomas Hanmer corre&ed this with less pomp , then since of two usurers the merriest was put down, and the worfer allowed, by order of law, a furr'd gown , &c. His pun&uation is right, but the alteration, small as it is, appears more than was wanted. Usury may be used by an easy licence for the profesors of ufury. Johnson.
—and furr’d with fox and lamb-/kins too, &c. ] In this pafsage the foxes skins are supposed to denote craft, and the lamba skin: innocence. It is evident therefore that we ought to read, ne furred with fox on lamb-fkins , ' instead of sand lamb-skins;' for otherwise, craft will not stand for the facing. M. Mason.
Fox-skins and lamb-skins were both used as facings to cloth in Shakspeare's time. See the Statute of Apparel, 24 Henry VIII.
fignify, that craft, being richer than innocency, stands for the facing.
ElB. Come your way, fir:-Bless you, good father friar.
Duke. And you, good brother father :? What offence hath this man made
Gir? ElB. Marry, fir, he hath offended the law; and, fir, we take him to be a thief too , fir; for we have found upon him, fir, a strange pick-lock, which we have sent to the deputy.
DUKE. Fie, firrah; a bawd, a wicked bawd!
c. 13. Hence fox-furr'd llave is used as an opprobrious epithet in Wily Beguiled, 1606, and in other old comedies. See also ChaTačlerismi , or Lenton's Leasures, &c. 1631 : « An Usurer is an old fox, clad in lamb-skin, who hath pray'd (prey'd] so long abroad,” &c.
MALONE. --and you, good brother father : ] In return to Elbow's blundering address of good father friar, i. e. good father brother, the Duke humourously calls him, in his own style, good brother father. This would appear still clearer in French. Dieu vous bénisse, mon père frère. Et vous aussi , mon frère ,père. There is no doubt that our friar is a corruption of the French frère. Tykwhitt.
Mr. Tyrwhitt's observation is confirmed by a pallage in The Strangest. Adventure that ever happened, &c. 4to. 1601:
« And I call to mind, that as the reverend father brother, Thomas Sequera, Superiour of Ebora , and mine auncient friend, came to visite me, "&c. STEEVENS.
strange pick-lock , ] As we hear no more of this charge, it is necessary to prevent boneft Pompey from being taken for a house-breaker. The locks which he had occasion to pick, were by no means common, in this country at least. They were probably introduced, with other Spanish cuftoms, during the reign of Philip and Mary; and were so well known in Edinburgh, that in one of Sir David Lindsay's plays, represented to thousands in the
open air , such a look is a&ually opened on the stage. Ritson.
I drink, I eat, array myself, and live.
CLO. Indeed, it does stink in some fort, fir; but yet, fir, I would
proveDUKE. Nay, if the devil have given thee proofs
for fin, Thou wilt prove his. Take him to prison, officer; Correction and instruction must both work, Ere this rude beast will profit.
Elb. He must before the deputy, fir; he has given him warning: the deputy cannot abide a whoremaster : if he be a whore-monger, and comes before him, he were as good go a mile on his errand.
DUKE. That we were all, as fome would seem to be, Free froni our faults , as faults from seeming, free! *
9 I drink, I eat, array myself , and live.] The old editions have,
I drink, I eat away myself, and live. This is one very excellent instance of the sagacity of our editors, and it were to be wished heartily, that they would have obliged us with their physical solution, how a man can eat away himself, and live. Mr. Bishop gave
me that most certain emendation, which I have substituted in the room of the former foolish reading; hy the help whereof, we have this easy sense : that the Clown fed himself, and put cloaths on his back , by exercising the vile trade of a bawd. THEOBALD. 2 That we were all, as some would seem to be,
Free from our faults, as faults from seeming, free! } i. e. as faults are deftitute of all comeliness or seeming. The first of these lines refers to the deputy's fan&tified hypocrisy ; tlie second to the Clown's beastly occupation. But the latter part is thus ill expressed for the sake of the rhyme. WARBURTON. Sir Thomas Hanmer reads:
Free from all faults, as from faults seeming free. In the interpretation of Dr. Warburton, the sense is trilling, and the expression harsh. To with that men were as free from faults, as faults are free from comeliness, [instead of void of comeliness) is a very poor conceit. I once thought it should be read :
o that all were , as all would seem to be,
ElB. His neck will come to your waist , a cord,
So in this play:
- O, place, 0, power-how doft thou
- To thy falje seeming!”
Free from all faults, or faults from seeming free. that men were really good, or that their faults were known , that
were free from faults, or faults from hypocrisy. So Isabella cal's Angelo's hypocrisy, seeming, seeming. JOHNSON, I think we should read with Sir T. Hanmer :
Free from all faults, as from faults seeming free. i. e. I wish we were all as good as we appear to be; a sentiment very naturally prompted by his refledion on the behaviour of Angelo. Sir T. Hanmer has only transposed a word to produce a. convenient sense. STEEVINS.
Hanmer is right with respect to the meaning of this passage, but I think his transposition unneceffary. The words , as they stand, will express the same senise, if pointed thus :
Free from all faults , as, faults from, seeming free. Nor is this construction more harsh than that of many other senteuces in the play, which of all those which Shakspeare has left us, is the most defe&tive in that respeć. M. MASON.
The original copy has not Free at the beginning of the line. It was added unnecessarily by the editor of the second folio, who did not perceive that our , like many words of the same kind, was used by Shakspeare as a disfyllable. The reading , - from all faults, which all the modern editors have adopted, (I think, improperly , ) was first introduced in the fourth folio. Dr. Johnson's conje&ural reading, or, appears to me very probable. The compositor might have caught the word as from the preceding line. If as 'be right, Dr. Warburton's interpretation is perhaps the true one. Would we were all as free from faults, as faults are free from, or deftitute of comcliness, or foeming. This line is rendered harsh and obscure by the word free being dragged from its proper place for the lake of the rhyme. MALONE.
Till I meet with some decisive instance of the pronoun-our, used as a diflyllable, I read with the second folio, which I cannot suspea of capricious alterations. STEEVENS.
3 His neck will come to your waist, a cord, fit. That is, his neck
Clo. I spy comfort; I cry bail : Here's a gentleman , and a friend of mine.
Lucio. How now, noble Pompey? What, at the heels of Cæsar? Art thou led in triumph? What, is there none of Pygmalion's images, newly made woman,* to be had now, for putting the hand in the
will be tied , like your waist, with a rope. The friars of the Fran. ciscan order, perhaps of all others , wear a hempen cord for a girdle. Thus Buchanan :
6. Fac gemant suis
14. Variata terga funibus." JOHNSON. 4 Pygmalion's images, newly made woman, ] By Pygmalion's images, newly made woman, I believe Shakspeare meant 10 than-Have you no women now to recommend to your cuftomers, as fresh and untouched as Pygmalion's statue was, at the moment when it became fleth and blood ? The passage, may, however, contain some allufion to a pamphlet printed in 1598, called, The Aletamorpkosis of Pygmalion's Image, and certain Satires. I have never seen it, but it is mentioned by Ames, p. 568; and whatever its fubje&t might be, we learn from an order signed by the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, that this book was commanded to be burnt. The order is inserted at the end of the second volume of the entries belonging to the Stationers' Company.
STEEVENS. If Marston's Metamorphosis of Pygmalion's Image be alluded to, I believe it must be in the argument. - --- The maide I by the power of Venus) was metamorphosed into a living woman.
FARMER. There may, however, be an allusion to a passage in Lylly's Iloman in the Moone, 1597. The inhabitants of Utopia petition ' Nature for feinales , that they may, like other beings, propagate their specics. Nature grants their requeft, and
they draw thic curtins from before Nature's ihop, where stands an image clad, and some unciad, and they bring forth the cloathed image," &c.
STEEVENS. Perhaps the meaning is Is there no courtezan, who being newly made woman, i. c. lately debauched, flill reiains the appearance of chaitity, and looks as cold as a statue, to be had , &c.
The following paffage in Blurt Mafier Constable, a comedy, by Middleton; 1602 , seems to authorize this interpretation:
“ Laz. Are all these women?