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Wrench awe from fools, and tie the wiser souls
To thy false seeming? Blood, thouftill art blood:
Let's write good angel on the devil's horn,
'Tis not the devil's creft.


- O place and greainess! millions of false

eyes « Are stuck upon thee. We have all heard of Town-buils, Town-halls, Town-clocks, and Town-tops ; but the vane o' the place (meaning a thing of general property, and proverbially distind from private ownership) is, to me at least, an idea which no example has hitherto countenanced.I may add, that the plume could be no longer idle, if it seived as an index to the wind : and with wliatever propriety the vane in fome petty market-town might be distinguished, can we conceive there was only a single weathercock in so large a city as Vienna, where the scene of this comedy is laid? STEEVENS. 5

cale, ] For outside; garb; external fhew. JOHNSON. 6 Wrench awe from fools, and tie the wiser fouls

To thy false seeming? | Here Shakspeare judiciously diftinguishes {he different operations of high place upon different minds. Fools are frighted, and wise men are allured. Those who cannot judge but by the eye, are casily awed by fplendour; those who consider men as well as conditions, are casily persuaded to love the appearance of virtue dignisied with power. JOHNSON.

Blood, thou still art blood :) The old copy reads -- Blood, thout art blood. Mr. Pope, to supply the syllable wanting to complete the metre, reads - Blood, thou art but blood! But the word now introduced appears to me to agree better with the context, and therefore more likely to have been the author's. Blood is used here, as in other places, for temperament of body.

MALONE. 8 Let's write good angel on the devil's horn, 'Tis not the devil's crest

. ] i. e. Let the most wicked thing have but a virtuous pretence, and it shall pass for innocent,

This was his conclusion from his preceding words :

0 form!
How often dost thou with thy case, tły habit,
Wrench awe from fools, and tie the wiser souls

To thy false seeming? But the Oxford editor makes him conclude just counter to his own premises ; by altering it to,

Is't not the devil's crefi? So that, according to this alteration, the rcasoning stands thus : False seeming, wrenches awe from fools, and deceives the wise.


Enter Servant.
How now, who's there?

One Isabel, a sister.
Defires access to you.

Teach her the way. (Exit Serv. O heavens!


Therefore, Let us but write good avgel on the devil's horn, (i. e. give him the appearance of an angel;) and what then? Is't not the devil's, weft? (i. e. he shall be esteemned a devil.) WARBURTON.

I am still inclined to the opinion of the Oxford editor. Angelo, refleđing on the difference between his seeming chara&er, and his real disposition, observes, that he could change his gravity for plume. He then digreffes into an apostrophe, O dignity, how doft thou impose upon the world! then returning to himself, Blood (says he) thou art but blood, however concealed with appearances and decorations. Title and character do not alter nature, which is still corrupt, however dignified :

Let's write good angel on the devil's hoin ;
Is't not?
or rather


the devil's creft. It may however be understood, according to Dr. Warburton's explanation. O place, how doft thou impose upon the world by falle appearances ! so much, that if we write good angel on the devil's horn, 'lis not taken any longer to be the devil's creft. In this sense,

Blood, thou art but blood ! is an interje&ed exclamation. JOHNSON. A Hebrew proverb seems to favour Dr. Johnson's reading:

'Tis yet the devil's creft. « A nettle standing among myriles, doch notwithstanding retain the name of a nettle. STEEVENS.

This paffage, as it ftands, appears to me to be right, and Angelo's reasoning to be this:

• O place! O form! though you wrench awe from fools, and tie even wiser souls to your falso seeming, yet you make no alteration in the minds or constitutions of those who possess, or assume you. - Though we should write good angel on the devil's horn, it will not change his nature, so as to give him a right to wear that crest. It is well known that the crest was formerly chofen either as emblematical of some quality conspicuous in the person who bore it, or as alluding to some rea markable incident of his life; and on this circumstance depends the justness of the present allusion. M. Mason.

It should be remembered, that the devil is usually represented with horns and cloven feet. The old copy appears to me to require no alteration. MALONE. Vol. VI.


other parts

Why does my blood thus muster to my heart;
Making both it unable for itself,
And dispossessing all my
Of necessary fitness ?
So play the foolish throngs with one that swoons;
Come all to help him, and so stop the air
By which he should revive: and even so
The general, subject to a well-wilh'd king,

to my heart;] Of this speech there is no other trace in Promos and Cassandra, than the following: - Both hope and dreade at once my harte doth tuch."

STEEVENS. 3. The general, fubje& lo a well-wish'd king, ] The later editions

have subjc&s;" but the old copies read:

The general subject to a well-wish'd king. The general subje&t seems a harsh expression, but general subjects has no sense at all, and general was, in our author's time, a word for people; so that the general is the people, or multitude, subject to a king. So, in Hamlet : « The play pleased not the million : 'twas caviare to the general : JOHNSON:

Mr. Malone observes, ihat the use of this phrase o the general, ' for the people, continued so late as to the time of Lord Clarendon:w as rather to be consented to, than that the general should suffer. Hift. B. 'V. p. 530. 8vo. I therefore adhere to the old reading, with only a flight change in the punđuation.

The general, subject to a well-wish'd king,

Quit, &ic. i. e. the generalily who are subje&ls, &c. Twice in Hamlet our author uses fubjet for fubjeēls:

So nightly toils the subject of the land. A& I. fc, i, Again, Ad I. sc. ii:

- The lists and full proportions, all are made

* Out of his subject. The general subječt however may inean the subjects in general, So, in As you like it, A& II. sc. vii: 6 Wouldst thou disgorge into the general world."

STEEVENS. So the Duke had before (A& I. sc. ii.) expressed his dislike of popular applause: - I'll privily away.

I love the people,
" But do not like to ftage me to their eyes.

Though it do well, I do not relish well
$66 Their loud applause and eves vchement:


Quit their own part, and in obfequious fondness Crowd to his presence, where their untaught love Muft needs appear offence.


How now, fair maid?

ISAB. I am come to know your pleasure. ANG. That you might know it, would much better

please me, Than to demand what'tis. Your brother cannotlive. Isab. Even so? -- Heaven keep your honour!

[ Retning Ang. Yet may he live a while; and, it may

be, As long as you, or I: Yet he must die. Isab. Under



u Nor do I think the man of safe discretion,

That does affe& it. ' I cannot help thinking that Shakspeare, in these two passages, intended to flatter the unkingly weakness of James the First, which made him so impatient of the crowds that flocked to see him, elpe. cially upon his first coming, that, as some of our historians say , he restrained them by a proclamation. Sir Symonds D'Ewes, in his Memoirs of his own Liie, * has a rernarkable passage with regard t9 this humour of James. After taking notice, that the King going to parliament, on the 30th of January, 1620-1, " spake lovingly to the people, and said, God bless ye, God bless ye ; he adds these words, « contrary to his former hally and passionate custom, which often, in his sudden distemper, would bid a pox os a plague on such as flocked to see him. TYRWHITT.

Mr. Tyrwhirl's apposite reinark might find support, if it needed any, from the following passage in a True Narration of the Entertainment of his Royall Majestic, from the Time of his Departure from Edinbrogh, till his receiving in London, &c. &c. 1603, " - he was faine to publish an inhibition against the inordinate and dayly accefle of peoples comming," &c.

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* A Manuscript in the British Museum,

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Ang. Yea.

ISAB. When, I beseech you? that in his reprieve, Longer, or shorter, he may be fo fitted, That his soul ficken not.

Ang. Ha! Fie, these filthy vices! It were as good To pardon him, that hath from nature stolen A man already made, * as to remit Their fawcy sweetness, that do coin heaven's image, In stamps that are forbid: ' 'tis all as easy Falsely to take away a life true made, 6 As to put mettle in restrained means, To make a false one.

that hath from nature stolen A man already made, ) i. e. that hath killed a man. MALONE. 5 Their sawcy sweetness, that do coin heaven's image

In ftamps ihai are forbid : ] We meet with nearly the same words in King Edward III. a tragedy, 1596, certainly prior to this play:

And will your sacred self
« Commit high treason 'gainst the king of heaven,

« To stamp his image in forbidden metal ?" These lines are spoken by the countess of Salisbury, whose ( chastity like Isabel's) was assailed by her sovereign.

Their fawcy sweetness Dr. Warburton interprets, their fawcy indulgence of their appetite. Perhaps ic mcans nearly the same as what is afterwards called sweet uncleanness. MALONE. Sweetness, in the present instance has, I believe, the same sense

lickerishness.' Steevens. 6 Falsely to take

away a life true made, ]* Falsely is the same with dishonestly, illegally : false, in the next line but one, is illegal, illegitimate. JOHNSON.

- mettle in restrained means, ) In forbidden moulds. I suspect means not to be the right word, but I cannot find another.

JOHNSON. I should suppose that our author wrote,

in restrained mints, as the allusion may be fill to coining. Sir W. D'Avenant omits the passage. STEEVÈNS.

Mettle, the reading of the old copy, which was changed to metal by Mr. Theobald, (who has been followed by the subsequent editors, ) is supported not only by the general purport of the passage,



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