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ing their object, became a badge of the vocation of these devotees.
(24) Larded all with sweet flowers ;
Which bewept to the grave did not go,
With true-love showersj Larded, i. e. garnished or set out as a dish (a culinary term, found in V. 2. Haml. “ Larded with many several sort of reasons”) is also used by Jonson ::
“ All which a quiet and retired life,
“ Larded with pleasure, did avoid.” Sejanus, III. His shroud, or corpse, “ did not go bewept with true-love showers," for his was no love-case ; his death had the tragical character of fierce outrage, and this was the primary and deepest impression upon her lost mind : for, although her disturbed imagination, “ farded with images from love ballads," " speaking things in doubt,” and aiming at them “ by snatches," (" made to believe" by Hamlet, and thence crossed in the passion of love) dwelt principally upon these ideas, yet they were worked up by a wild process, and engrafted upon the groundwork, the more immediate, leading, and prominent feature and image of her father's tragical fate, and funeral rites.
Instead of grave, the quartos read ground.
(25) They say, the owl was a baker's daughter] This is a common story among the vulgar in Gloucestershire, and is thus related : “ Our Saviour went into a baker's shop where they were baking, and asked for some bread to eat. The mistress of the shop immediately put a piece of dough into the oven to bake for him; but was reprimanded by her daughter, who insisting that the piece of dough was too large, reduced it to a very small size. The dough, however, immediately afterwards began to swell, and presently became of a most enormous size. Whereupon, the baker's daughter cried out, · Heugh, heugh, heugh, which owl-like noise probably induced our Saviour for her wickedness to transform her into that bird.” This story is often related to children, in order to deter them from suchilliberal behaviour to poor people. Douce.
There can be little doubt but that the proverb used was founded upon some legendary tale, or popular story; but to point it, or give it any aim here, is not very practicable. The plumage of this melancholy bird, and the colour of the baker, in correspondence with that of her father's " white shroud," and probably her own habit, are coincidences, which, shooting across, and huddled together in the quick transitions of a be. wildered and feeling mind, might have suggested this singular allusion, the effect of which, though we know not how or why, is piteous and interesting ; while it produces " nothing sure, but a sad memorial of an “unhappy" daughter.
(26) Tomorrow is Saint Valentine's day] There is a rural tradition that about this time of year birds choose their mates.
Bourne, in his Antiquities of the Common People, observes, that “ it is a ceremony never omitted among the vulgar, to draw lots, which they term Valentines, on the eve before Valentineday. The names of a select number of one sex are by an equal number of the other put into some vessel ; and after that every one draws a name, which for the present is called their Valentine, and is also looked upon as a good omen of their being man and wife afterwards.” Mr. Brand adds, that he has " searched the legend of St. Valentine, but thinks there is no occurrence in his life, that could give rise to this ceremony." MALONE.
“ Valantynes be put and shocked in a close vessell, as is a cappe. Valantiniana conjiciuntur in cistellum.” Vulgaria Hormanni, 4to. 1530, signat. iiii. 4, b. Mr. Douce says, practice is derived from the Lupercal games, celebrated in February, in honor of Pan and Juno at Rome, when the names of young women were put into a box, and drawn by the men." Illustr. II. 252.
(27) By Gis] This is agreed to be an abbreviation or corruption of the name of Jesus. Mr. Steevens cites See me, and see me not, 1618:
“ By Gisse I swear, were I so fairly wed.” We shall add, “ Great lordes cherish them (fooles) by jysse a little better than they are wont to doo these frouning philosophers.” Sir Tho. Chaloner's Erasmus's Praise of Folie, 4to. 1549, signat. G 2. b., and see Douce's Illustr. II. 260.
(28) by Saint Charity] Saint Charity is a known saint among the Roman Catholicks. Spenser mentions her, Eclog. V.
“Ah, dear lord, and sweet Saint Charity!" 255. Again, in The Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington, 1601 :
“ Therefore, sweet master, for Saint Charity." Again, in A lytell Geste of Robyn Hode :
“ Lete me go, then sayd the sheryf,
“ For saint "Charytè," In the scene between the Bastard Faulconbridge and the friars and nunne, in the First Part of The troublesome Raigne of King John, 1779, p. 256: "the nunne swears by Gis, and the friers pray to Saint Withold, and adjure him by Saint Charitie to hear them.” BLACKSTONE.
(29) By cock] This also is a corruption of the sacred name. See M. W. of W. I. 1. Page, and II H. IV. Shal. V. 1.
(30) we have done but greenly] Like novices. Green is unripe, immature. Greenhorn is a familiar term, applied to those who, raw and inexperienced in the commerce of the world, are
overreached. Thus Ophelia is called by her father “a green girl, unsifted,” &c. I. 3.
“ Youthe withouten grenehed or folie."
Man of Lawe's tale Tyrw. Chauc. C. T. v. 4583. (31) In hugger-mugger to inter him] From Greene's Ground work of Coneycatching, 1592, Mr. Steevens says, it appears, " that to hugger was to lurk about ;" and from North's Plutarch he produces the word in the text used under similar circum. stances : “ Antonius, thinking that his body should be honourably buried, and not in hugger-mugger."
“ Dinascoso, secretly, hiddenly, in hugger-mugger." Florio's Italian Dict. 1598. MALONE.
In the Revenger's Tragædie, 4to. 1608, signat. H. 4. we have, “ How quaintly he died like a politician in hugger-mugger.".
“ Have brought it so much to knowledge, that it may be a marvell howe it should be kept in hugger-mugger.” Arth. Gold. ing's Jul. Solinus, 4to. 1587, Ch. 12. In tantum notitiæ obtulit, ut tacere de eo magis mirum sit. “ If shoting fault at any time, it hydes it not, it lurkes not in corners and huddermother." Ascham's Toxophilus, 4to. 1589, fo. 5, b.
“ If we do nothynge besyde the lawe, it shal be done moche better in open court, and in the face of all the worlde, thanne in hugger-mugger.” Rich. Taverner's Garden of Wysdom, 12mo. 1539, signat. C 4, b.
“ By subtill means, by craft and divelish guile
“ In hugger-mugger close to keepe.” Studley's Seneca's Hippolytus, 4to. 1581, fo. 58. Astu doloque tegere, A. I. sc. 2.
" And there in hucker-mucker hyde
Drant's Hor. 4to. 1566, signat. A. iii, Furtim defossa timidum deponere terra. Sat. I. 1. 42. And see Lichefield's Castaneda's Conq. of the East India, 4to, 1582, fo. 86, b.
From the above it appears, that it was not without reason that Dr. Johnson, in restoring this word, has said, “ that the words now replaced are better, I do not undertake to prove; it is suf. ficient they are Shakespeare's : if phraseology is to be changed, as words grow uncouth by disuse or gross by vulgarity, the history of every language will be lost; we shall no longer have the words of any author, and, as these alterations will be often unskilfully made, we shall in time have very little of his meaning." This is a doctrine that cannot be too strongly inculcated, and hardly too often repeated.
(32) Feeds on his wonder] The folios read “ keeps ;" probably an error arising from this word following in the same line. The quartos give “ Feed on this wonder.”
(33) a murdering piece] "A case-shot is any kinde of small bullets, nailes, old iron, or the like, to put into the case, to shoot out of the ordnances or murderers." Smith's Sea Grammar, 1627.
“ And, like a murdering piece, aims not at one,
B. and Fl. Double Marriage. STEEVENS. Mr. Ritson cites Sir T. Roe's Voiage to the E. Indies, at the end of Della Valle's Travels, 1665 : “ the East India company had a very little pinnace ... mann'd she was with ten men, and had only one small murdering-piece within her.” Probably it was never charged with a single ball, but always with shot, pieces of old iron,
(34) my Switzers] The guards attendant on Kings are called Switzers, without any regard to the country where the scene lies.
was it not “ Some place of gain, as clerk to the great band “ Of marrow-bones, that the people call the Switzers ? " Men made of beef and sarcenet ?”
B. and Fl. Noble Gent. III. 1. Regd. The reason is, because the Swiss in the time of our poet, as at present, were hired to fight the battles of other nations. So, in Nashe's Christ's Teares over Jerusalem, 4to. 1594: “ Law, logicke, and the Switzers, may be hired to fight for any body."
(35) impitious haste] Swallows up, engulphs not the low lands with more unpitying fury. One of the quartos reads inpitious; another, as does the folio of 1632, reads impetuous.
(36) 0, this is counter, you false Danish dogs) Hounds run counter when they trace the trail backwards. Johnson.
Puttenham, in describing “ an importune and shrewd wife," whom he calls “ overthwart Jone," has the verb:
“ So shrewd she is for God, so cunning and so wise,
Arte of Engl. Poesie, 4to. 1589, p. 176.
(37) There's such divinity doth hedge a king,
That treason can but peep to what it would,
Acts little of his will] Such divinity encompasseth about a king, that treason cannot distinctly see, cannot fully point its aim to its object.
However, at first view, we may be led to think, that here either the language sinks under the idea, or in dignity and even in decorum, the conception itself is no way adequate to the oc
casion, or the personage made to figure in the drama, this will, in part at least, be found to arise from our not being enough conversant with the phraseology of the day. Without in. stancing the use of words by different authors, and those treating different subjects, as appears from the word grunt, III. 1. Haml., it will be extremely hazardous to pronounce upon the fashionableness or vulgarity, upon the degree of estimation, in which any word or phrase was formerly had.
The word hedge is used by the gravest writers upon the highest subjects : Satan, approaching the Deity, addresses him respecting Job, in these words. “Hast thou not made an hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath on every side?” Job. I. 10.; and in III. 23. Job speaks of himself
man, whom (in another sense indeed) God hath hedged in;" as in speaking of the Deity, the word is used in the Lament. of Jeremiah, III. 7.
(38) life-rend'ring pelican] So, in the ancient Interlude of Nature, bl. 1. no date :
“ Who taught the cok hys watche-howres to observe,
“ For she nolde suffer her byrdys to dye?” Again, in the old play of King Leir, 1605 :
“ I am as kind as is the pelican,
“ That kils itselfe, to save her young ones lives.” It is almost needless to add that this account of the bird is entirely fabulous. STEEVENS.
(39) Nature is fine in love : and, where 'tis fine,
It sends some precious instance of itself
After the thing it loves] Fine, or of an ethereal character and nature-partaking of immortality, of the soul's essence: for, as love is the highest refinement of which our nature is capable; as it detaches us from ourselves, extinguishing that selfishness otherwise inseparable from us, by making the beloved object dearer to us than our own preservation or existence; where it is found in purity and sincerity, its aerial spirit, some effluvia or diviner particles of the flame, some emanations of soul, subtilizing and dissolving their links with the grosser and more material substance of our frame, will (or eagerly we persuade ourselves that they will) Ay off, aspire after, make their effort to blend themselves with that to which they are most congenial, and with which, in idea at least, they only can assimilate. This must, of course, take place in a case, where, by an abrupt severance, the soul is suddenly bereft (and whatever other causes might with her co-operate, or be principal, this, from his last interview with Ophelia, would, to Laertes, appear the leading one) of the partner of its being, its other self; for