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fines Caviars “ a kinde of salt meat, used in Italie like black sope; it is made of the roes of fishes.” Ital. Dict. 1598. “ Caviale, Ital. in old Fr. Cavial, is adopted from the barbarous and vulgar Greek xassagı or xaviags. Todd's Dict. Mr. Steevens cites “ He doth learn to eat anchovies, macaroni, bovoli, fagioli, and caviare." Cynthia's Revels.
"- the pleasure that I take in spending it,
Muses' Looking Glass. 1638.
a man can scarce eat good meat,
Marston's What you will, 1607. “ Likewise of ickary or cavery, a great quantitie is made upon the river of Volgha out of the fish called bellougina, the sturgeon, the leveriga and the stirlett, wherof the most part is shipped by French and Netherlandish marchants for Italy and Spaine, some by English marchants.” Giles Fletcher's Russe Commonwealth, 12mo. 1591, p. 9.
“ The caviare is the spowne of the stirlett, a fish of the sturgeon kind, which seldom grows above 30 inches long." Bell's Journ, from Petersb. to Ispahan.
“ Those whom Pancirollo hath recorded in his Commentaries for the invention of porcellan dishes, of spectacles, of quintant, of stirrups, and of caviari." Donne's Ignatius his Conclave, 12mo. 1653. p. 178. “ To dresse a kind of meate of the spawne
of sturgions, called chaviale.
“ Take bread and tost it untill it begin to change colour, and cut some of the spawne in peeces as great as the quantity of the bread, but somewhat thinner; and lay it upon the bread : then sticke the tosts upon a knife's point or some other thing, and hold them to the fire, until the spawne waxe hard and somewhat change colour. You may doe it another way by washing the spawne of the sturgion in warme water, that it be not too salt: then take hearbs chopped with the crums of white bread grated, and onyons minced small and fried with a little pepper and a dish of water: then mingle all these things together with the spawne, and it will be like a pancake, and so frie it like a tansie
And to prepare this chaviale, you must take the spawnes of sturgions, when the sturgion is best in season ; and take out the sinews that are in them; then wash them in white vinegar and let them dry upon a table; then put them into some ves: ell and salt them with discretion, and stir them with your band, but very warily, that you breake them not: that done, take a linnen bag somewhat thinne, and put the chaviale into it for a day and a night, that the salt water may run out;
then put them into some vessell or other, and press them very well with thy hands, making three or foure little holes in the bottome of the vessell, by the which the moisture may issue out; and, being well strained, keepe the vessell very close. And so you may eat of them at your pleasure.” Epulario or the Italian Banquet, 4to. 1598.
Mr. Douce tells us, that in a treatise on the worms of the hu. man body, Dr. Ramsey, physician to K. Charles II, cautions us against it, and quotes this Italian proverb :
“ Chi mangia di caviale,
“ Eats salt, dung and flies." Illustr. II. 237. The General is the many, the ot to do.. “ This last Mask hath received such grace from his Majestie, after the Queene and Prince, and such approbation from the generall.” Dedication to Sir Francis Bacon Attorney General of the Maske of Flowers, presented by the Gentlemen of Graies Inne at the Court of White-hall in the Banquetting House upon Twelfe night, 1613. 4to. 1614.
In Galateo of Manners we have the moste used in the same sense. “ In speech a man must not move any question of matter that be to deepe or to subtile : because it is hardly understoode of the moste,” 4to. 1576. p. 29. And in this scene a similar use is made of this word, “ And cleave the general ear with horrid speech," as it is in 17. 7. “ The great love the general gender bear him." King.
Mr. Malone cites Lord Clarendon, B. V. p. 530. « And so by undervaluing many particulars (which they truly esteemed) as rather to be consented to, than that the general should suffer.” And Puttenham uses " the popular” in the same sense : “ Among men such as be modest and grave, and not delighted in the busie life and vayne ridiculous actions of the popular." Arte of Engl. Poesie, 4to. 1589. p. 14.
(46) Indite the author of affectation] indict, or found a reasonable charge against him for. The quartos gire affection : a reading very well supported as the language of the day. Mr. Steevens cites Castiglione's Courtier, 1556. “ Among the chiefe conditions and qualities in a waiting-gentlewoman," is, " to flee affection or curiosity :" and Chapman's Preface to Ovid's Banquet of Sense, 1595 : “ Obscuritie in affection of words and indigested concets, is pedanticall and childish.”
From the use at that time of the Latin, it may seem that the English, word was first introduced. “ Thy maner of wrytynge is darke with over moche curyosyte. Stylus tuus affectione obscuratur nimia.” Vulgaria Hormanni, 4to. 1530. signat. R. iii. See Tw. N. II. 3. Maria.
(47) These warm commendations of Hamlet cannot be other than the real sentiment of Shakespeare. But whose this rejected play was, or whether our author had any interest in it, is neither shewn, or is even any conjecture made upon it, by any one of his commentators.
With respect to the fragment, from whatever quarter it came, we think ourselves warranted in saying, that it affords a decisive proof of what was our author's taste in this department of the drama. Prompted also to think, that he had some near interest in it, we are further led to imagine, that, comedy being his untaught and natural vein, his ambition was to achieve something of a higher range, and corresponding with his own ideas of excellence; and though, in what he offered to the public for representation, it was necessary for him to write, as Dr. Farmer says he did, “populo ut placerent fabulæ," he might here have chosen to give his conception of the true and just swell of tragedy; how she was
“ To tread aloft in buskin fine
“ With quaint Bellona in her equipage." Our author's peculiar use of the word “ declined," as presently pointed out, favours the supposition that the fragment comes from the pen' of Shakespeare; and the introduction of the simile that we find in his Venus and Adonis; “ Even as the wind is hush'd before it raineth,” seems to have its weight with Mr. Malone in making the same conclusion. This topic would not have been insisted upon, had not Mr. Dryden in his Preface to Troilus and Cressida, and Mr. Pope in his note on this place, concurred, as Dr. Warburton tells us, in thinking; that « Shakespeare produced this long passage with design to ridicule and expose the bombast of the play from whence it was taken; and that Hamlet's commendation of it is purely ironical.”
Upon the subject of the good sense of poetry, it must be admitted, that two higher authorities are not to be found: but critics have taught us, that it is no unusual thing for great authors to contrive in this way to pass commendation upon such parts of their works as might in their estimate challenge it. It is not without reason supposed, that Shakespeare has made this use of Ferdinand, and through him sounded the praises of the “ charmingly harmonious and majestic vision" of his Masque in the Tempest, IV. 1.; and he could not have made a better choice than he has here, that of another accomplished prince to be the organ or vehicle of his opinions. Neither are any sufficient reasons, either in a private or public view of the question, offered, why Hamlet should chuse to make men, whom, at the time, he was treating with every mark of respect, and labouring to improve by inculcating a just and subdued carriage and action
upon the stage, to fret and strut in characters, the extravagance
of which could not fail in part to throw ridicule upon their performance, as well as in some sort to exact a departure from the very rules that he inculcated: and when he was also
about to make use of them as agents to further his higher and public aims; and would thence be induced to ingratiate him, self with, and to conciliate them.,
And as, in the advice he offers, he expatiates at great length and with great earnestness, and no less apparent sincerity, what, sufficient reason can be assigned for caprice and inconsistency in this part of his conduct?
It may be added, that no play has been discovered, of which this fragment can with any propriety be considered a ridicule; and that in his Comment on the Commentators Mr. Pye says, “ The praise bestowed by Hamlet on this speech is sincere.” P. 315.
(48) Now he is total gules, horridly trick'd] Gules is technical in heraldry for red. The reading is that of the quartos. “ With man's blood paints the ground; gules, gules.”
Timon. IV. 3. Tim. Mr. Steevens instances the use of it as a verb in Heywood's Iron Age, Part II.
« Old Hecuba's reverend locks
“ And that small model of the barren earth,
Rich. II. (III. 2.) K. Rich. We have been careful to notice all the terms and passages in this speech, that bear any resemblance to the known writings of Shakespeare ; because, on our hypothesis, they may be reasonably considered as imitations of himself; of which his works present continual examples : they are therefore arguments in support of our conjectures as to the origin of this fragment.
(50) Declining] In quick descent upon. This use of the word “declined,” which is frequent in Shakespeare, we have not observed in any contemporary writers : He had before put it in the mouth of the Ghost.
“ And to decline upon a wretch.” I. 5. We have also
“ Death, that dark spirit, in's pervy arm doth lie,
Coriol, II. 1. Volumn. And the following passage is applicable to more than this term in the present text:
“ When thou hast hung thy advanc'd sword i' the air
Tr. & Cr. IV. 5. Nestor.
(51) And never did the Cyclops' hammers fall
On Mars's armour, &c.] “ Vulcan, when he wrought at his wive's request Æneas an armour, made not his hammer beget a greater sound than the swords of those noble knights did” &c. Sidney's Arcadia, B.III. STEEVENS.
Proof eterne is impenetrability throughout all time: being more than “ adamantean proof." Sams. Agon. 1314.
(52) Break all the spokes and fellies from her wheel] The engrafting also of this image, and nearly in similar terms, into another
part of his works, has very little the appearance of conipliment paid ironically: “ That the false huswife Fortune break her wheel.”
Ant. & CI. IV. 13. CI.
(53) A jig, or a tale of bawdry] A ludicrous interlude. “ Frottola,
a countrie jigg or round, or countrie song or wanton verses.” Florio's Ital. Dict. 1598.
“ For approbation
Prol, to Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. From his use of this word again in Polonius's presence (III. 2.) in answer to Ophelia, who telling him he is merry, he says, “0, your only jig maker," it seems to be applied here in the sense of a ludicrous composition: and the subsequent scene of the gravediggers appears to have been an interlude, in some sort, of this description. And Mr. Steevens in III, 2. quotes from Shirley's Changes, 1632.
“ Many gentlemen
“ The play, they look to be serv'd up in the middle." He adds, that in The Hog hath lost his Pearl, 1614, one of the players comes to solicit a gentleman to write a jig for him: and refers to these entries in the books of the Stationers Company: “ Philips his Jigg of the Slyppers, 1595. Kempe's Jigg of the Kitchen-Stuff Woman, 1695.”
(54) Mobled queen] Such is the reading of the fol. 1632, and also of the quartos in every instance in which the word occurs. Inobled, the word in our folio, is in this place unmeaning; and was probably a misprint. A woman's
cap of that form, which ties under the chin, is called a mob. It was formerly written mob or mab indifferently. It means here covered up or muffled ; of which last term Mr.