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play was, to ride against the broad end with a lance, and
pass by, before the sand-bag, coming round, should strike the tilter on the back.” He cites Cambrian popular Antiquities, 1815, by the Rev. Peter Roberts; who states it to be one of the games at a Welsh wedding. “ The gwyntyn (literally the vane), corrupted in English into quintain, is an upright post, on the top of which a spar turned freely. At one end of this spar hung a sand-bag, the other presented a flat side. The rider in passing struck the flat side; and, if not dextrous in passing, was overtaken, and, perhaps, dismounted by the sand-bag, and became a fair object of laughter. I rather think it was not in use amongst the Romans. The name is, I think, decisive of Welsh origin.” He adds from Feltham's Sermon on Eccl. II. 2. “ The highest contentments, that the world can yield, become to me like the country quintanes : while we run upon them with a hasty speed, if we post not faster off than we at first came on, the bag of sand strikes us in the neck, and leaves us nothing but the blueness of our wounds to boast on." Todd's Dict.
These blocks were in different forms, and the upper part very often in the shape of a man. Prints of such are given in Mr. Reed's edition, and to such Orlando must have here alluded.
(15) And yet, indeed, the shorter is his daughter] Although all the early editions concur in reading taller, there must have
been an error in so giving it; for in the next scene Rosalind describes herself as more than common tall," and thence assuming the dress of a man, which her friend did not: and in IV.3. Oliver describes Celia “ low and browner than her brother," who was Rosalind.
(16) swashing outside) Ratcling, blustering.
" To swash, or to make a noise with swords against tergats. Concrepare gladiis ad scuta. Liv.” Baret's Alv. 1580. In H. v. the boy says, “ as young as I am, I have observed these three swashers." III. 2.
Swashing abbottes, which will be called and regarded as princes, and kepe a state, as if they were lordes." Antichrist. 12mo. 1550, p. 147. “ What a quarrelling swash-buckler, Mars?" Melion's Figure Caster, 4to. 1620, p. 15. (17) outface] Brave it.
“ He fronted danger in the fearful'st storme,
“ And outfac't death in his most uglie forme." Christ. Brooke's fun. Poem on Sir Arth. Chichester. Brit. Bibliogr. II. 239.
“ Take state upon them and outbrave a man to his face.” Sir Wm. Cornwallis's Prayse of the French Pockes, 410. 1606. “ Taught me to face me out of his acquaintance."
Tw. N. V. 1. Ant. See Haml. V. 1. Haml.
(1) Which, like the toad, ugly and venomons,
Wears yet a precious jewel in his head] It was the current opinion in Shakespeare's time, that in the head of an old toad was to be found a stone, or pearl, to which great virtues were ascribed. This stone has been often sought, but nothing has been found more than accidental or perhaps morbid indurations of the skull. Johnson.
In a book called A Green Forest, or a Natural History, &c. by John Maplett, 1567, is the following account of this imaginary gem : “ In this stone is apparently seene rerie often the verie forme of a tode, with despotted and coloured feete, but those nglye and defusedly. It is available against envenoming." Again, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas, 1639,
in most physicians' heads, “ There is a kind of toadstone bred." Again, in Adrasta, or the Woman's Spleen, 1635 :
“ Do not then forget the stone
In the toad, nor serpent's bone," &c. Pliny, in the 32d Book of his Natural History, ascribes many wonderful qualities to a bone found in the right side of a toad, but makes no mention of any gem in its head. This deficiency however is abundantly supplied by Edward Fenton, in his Secrete Wonders of Nature, 4to. bl. 1. 1569, who says, " That there is founde in the heades of old and great toades, a stone which they call Borax or Stelon : it is most commonly founde in the head of a hee toad, of power to repulse poysons, and that it is a most soveraigne medicine for the stone."
Thomas Lupton, in his First Booke of Notable Things, 4to. bl. 1. bears repeated testimony to the virtues of the “ Tode-stone, called Crapaudina." In his Ševenth Booke he instructs us how to procure it; and afterwards tells us—" You shall knowe whether the Tode-stone be the ryght and perfect stone or not. Holde the stone before a Tode, so that he may see it; and if it be a ryght and true stone, the Tode will leape towarde it, and make as though he would snatch it. He envieth so much that man should have that stone." Steevens.
“ Some report, that the toad before her death sucks up (if not prevented by sudden surprisal) the precious stone (as yet but a jelly) in her head, grudging mankind the good thereof." Fuller's Church History, p. 151. Douce's Illustr. I. 285.
It is, perhaps, rather a figure in speech, than a fact in natural history; and it is its eye, proverbially fine, that is the “ precious jewel in his head."
(2) Finds tongues in trees, &c.] “ Thus both trees and each thing else, be the bookes to a
funcie." Arcadia, B. I. Steevens.
(3) it irks me] From yrk, work, Island. The authors of the accidence say, Tædet, it irketh. Johnson.
He also interprets it, “gives pain,” which seems to be its proper sense. “ Whom erketh not the scoulde (Scylla) with barking?"
Studley's Seneca's Medea, 4to. 1581, p. 127. “ Quis non totos horruit arlus “ Toties uno latrante malo?” II, Chor. ad fin.
(4) native burghers of this desert city] In Sidney's Arcadia, the deer are called “ the wild burgesses of the forest.” And we have, " Where, fearless of the hunt, the hart securely stood, And every where walk'd free, a burgess of the wood."
Polyolbion, Song 18. STEVENS. So Lodge's Rosalynde, 1592:
“ About her wond'ring stood
« The citizens o' the wood.” Our author afterwards uses this very phrase :
“ Sweep on, you fat and greasy citizens." MALONE. (5)
as he lay along
“And pore upon the brook that babbles by.” Elegy. (6) the big round tears, &c.] It is said in one of the marginal notes to a similar passage in the 13th Song of Drayton's Polyolbion, that.“ the harte weepeth at his dying : his tears are held to be precious in medicine.” SreeVENS.
See Douce's Illustr. I. 296.
(7) kill them up] This was a phraseology peculiar to the day. “ Killed up with cold and pinde with evil fare."
Davison's Poems, 4to, 1621, p. 122. “ Killed up with colde.”
Adlington's Apuleius's Golden Asse, 1582, fo. 159, 8vo. “ The remembrance of theire poore, indigent, and beggerlye old age, kylleth them up." Robynson's More's Utopia, 1598, 8vo. p. 128. “ The Spaniardes, which were quite slaine uppe of
the Turkes arrowes.” Ascham's Toxoph. 4to, 1589.
. “ They have gone afore all worldlye tyrauntes in the murthering up of &c." Pref. to Bale's Actes of Engl. Votaries, 1560, 8vo. p. 7. “ The great deluge, which drowned them up, as it dyd all other quarters." Ib.p. 12. Our author has “poisons up,” L. L.L. IV. 3. Bir., “flatter up," V. 2. King, and “ stiffes up,” K, John, IV. 3. Bast.
(8) roynish clown] Rogneux, Fr, mangy, scurvy. The word is used by Chaucer, in The Romaunt of the Rose.
“ That knottie was and all ruinous." 988.
“ This argument is all roignous—;" 6190. G. Harvey, speaking of Long Meg of Westminster, says “ Although she were a lusty bouncing rampe, somewhat like Gallemetta or maid Marian, yet she was not such a roinish rannel, such a dissolute gillian-Airt." Pierce's Supererog. 4to. 1593
We are not to suppose the word is literally employed by Shakespeare ; but in the same sense that the French still use carogne, a term of which Moliere is not very sparing in some of his pieces. Steevens.
See Tooke's Divers. of Purley, II. 241., and Macb. I. 3, 1 Witch.
(9) quail] Slacken, remit, endeavours. “ To represse and quaile. "Restinguere, retundere.” Baret's Alv. 1580.
“ There is no quailing (shrinking, retreating) now;
“ Of all our purposes.” I H. IV. Hotsp. IV. 1. Minshieu identifies it with quell, and derives it from the Saxon. (10) O
you memory of old sir Rowland) Memorial, recol. lection. “ I knew then how to seek
B. and Fl. Humorous Lieutenant. « And with his body place that memory « Of noble Charlemont.”
Turner's Atheist's Trag. 1611. - That statue will I prize past all the jewels “ Within the cabinet of Beatrice, “ The memory of my grandame." Byron's Tragedy.
STEEVENS. « Be better suited : « These weeds are memories of worser hours."
Lear IV. 7. Cord. “ Their fame in stories happened, and so did many like memories of menne men,” &c. Puttenham's Arte of Eng. Poesie, 4to. 1589, p. 35.
(11) I never did apply
Hot and rebellious liquors
" In idleness.” F.Q. VI. II. 31. Rebellious is inflammatory,
(12) I should bear no cross, if, &c.] Carry no penny in my purse. One sense of this word was, money stamped with a
Mr. Steevens instances R. III.
“ You mean to bear me, not to bear with me." And as to the play upon the piece of coin, we read in John Heywood's Epigr. upon Proverbs :
“ Of making a crosse. Epigr. 289.
Drant's Hor. 4to. 1566, signat. A. 3.
(13) Wearing thy hearer in thy mistress' praise] The fo. of 1632 reads wearying ; but Mr. Whiter well supports 'the old reading by citing Jun. Etymol. Angl. Quoniam quotidiano usu conteri solent ea, quæ assidue gerimus, hinc Anglis etiamnum to wear or waste away, est " tabescere ;" atque adeo quoque ab hac postrema verbi acceptione, to weary, cæpit accipi pro “ fatigare ;" quod lassitudo corpora nostra maxime frangat, atque ipsos quoque spiritus vitales maxime imminuat. And Jonson's Masque of the Gypsies :
Only time and ears out-wearing.” Specim. p. 17.
(14) two cods) In a schedule of jewels in the 15th vol. of Rymer's Fædera, we find, “ Item, two peascoddes of gold with 17 pearles." FARMER.
Peascods was the ancient term for peas as they are brought to market. So, in Greene's Groundwork of Cony-catching, 1592:
went twice in the week to London, either with fruit or pescods." And in B. and Fletch. Honest Man's Fortune : “ Shall feed on delicates, the first peascods, strawberries."
STEEVENS. In the following passage, however, Touchstone's present certainly signifies not the pea but the pod, and so, I believe, the word is used here: “He (Richard Il.] also used a peascod