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PREFATORY NOTICE.

The following pages really are what they purport to be, extracts from the note-book of a geologist much engaged in various economic inquiries which are connected with and arise out of scientific investigations. In the course of his inquiries, the Author has often noted down in greater or less detail those events and facts that seemed to him at the time important, whether bearing directly on his immediate object, or affecting the practice of geology in other departments, or worthy of remark from their novelty or general interest. It has sometimes happened that accidental delays in travelling have enabled him to write down his impressions at once, and at some length; while not unfrequently points of the greatest

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interest have been very slightly touched upon, simply from want of time to record observations.

The mixed tone of scientific discussion and narrative that prevails in this book may seem tedious to some readers ; while others may be willing to excuse, if they do not actually approve of it. It must be left for the critic and the public to determine whether the matter will justify the manner.

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Most of the actual statements made can be depended on, as they are either the result of personal investigation or strict local inquiry. For the opinions and conclusions the author alone is responsible; and, with regard to these, he is anxious to have it understood that he is wedded to no theories, and is only desirous of bringing out the truth.

17 Manchester Street,

London, 31st July, 1854.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

LITHOTINTS.

PLATE 1. A street in Madrid......

..Frontispiece. 2. View of the Pic du Midi de Pau .......... To face page 42 3. The Silk Hall of Valencia

112

4. The Harbour of San Sebastian

136

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..........

WOODCUTS.

Page FIGURE 1. Section across the coal-field of Ancenis (Brittany) 7

2. Section across the thick coal and lower seams in the
Aubin coal-field (Aveyron).......

14 3. Section across the middle seams of the Aubin coal

field (Aveyron)
4. Section across part of the Mondaluzac iron-field
(Aveyron)

19 5. Square arch in the Gallery of the Knights at Nîsmes, formed of solid blocks of stone

34 6. View of the Pont du Gard, near Nîsmes

36 7. View of the town and châtean of Pau......

41 8. Costumes of fisherwomen, St. Jean de Luz, near Bayonne, on the Spanish frontier.

138 9. Group of ancient Roman vases, from the Western coast of the island of Sardinia

167 10. Plan of a house at Gonnos Fanadiga, a village in the island of Sardinia

175 11. Group of Sardinian villagers in their national costume 176 12. Ancient monoliths in the island of Sardinia

178

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FIGURE 13. A Nur-hag, or ancient round-tower, in the island of
Sardinia

179
14. Side view and intaglio of a curious scarabæus of green
jasper, from the island of Sardinia

............

180

15. Group of ancient Roman vases, from the island of

Sardinia

ib.

15 bis. Costume of the Arabs of Algiers

193

16. Ground plan of a mosque at Algiers

197

17. Fac-simile of an Arabic pass from Cherchel to Tenez.. 240

18. Section of Kanawha coal (Western Virginia) across

one of the lateral valleys

264

19. Illustration of the temporary dying out of a coal seam

in the Kanawha coal-field

274

20. General section across the Appalachian chain, from the

valley of the Ohio to the Atlantic.......

282

21. Section across the district worked for gold in the

Garnett and Mosely mines, in Eastern Virginia 289

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