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THE following pages really are what they purport to be, extracts from the note-book of a geologist much engaged in various economic inquiries which are connected with and arise out of scientific investigations. In the course of his inquiries, the Author has often noted down in greater or less detail those events and facts that seemed to him at the time important, whether bearing directly on his immediate object, or affecting the practice of geology in other departments, or worthy of remark from their novelty or general interest. It has sometimes happened that accidental delays in travelling have enabled him to write down his impressions at once, and at some length; while not unfrequently points of the greatest


interest have been very slightly touched upon, simply from want of time to record observations.

The mixed tone of scientific discussion and narrative that prevails in this book may seem tedious to some readers; while others may be willing to excuse, if they do not actually approve of it. It must be left for the critic and the public to determine whether the matter will justify the manner.

Most of the actual statements made can be depended on, as they are either the result of personal investigation or strict local inquiry. For the opinions and conclusions the author alone is responsible; and, with regard to these, he is anxious to have it understood that he is wedded to no theories, and is only desirous of bringing out the truth.

17 Manchester Street,

London, 31st July, 1854.



PLATE 1. A street in Madrid.....



2. View of the Pic du Midi de Pau.........To face page 42

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FIGURE 1. Section across the coal-field of Ancenis (Brittany)
2. Section across the thick coal and lower seams in the
Aubin coal-field (Aveyron).........





3. Section across the middle seams of the Aubin coal-
field (Aveyron)


4. Section across part of the Mondaluzac iron-field


5. Square arch in the Gallery of the Knights at Nîsmes,
formed of solid blocks of stone

6. View of the Pont du Gard, near Nîsmes

7. View of the town and château of Pau.......


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8. Costumes of fisherwomen, St. Jean de Luz, near
Bayonne, on the Spanish frontier...

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9. Group of ancient Roman vases, from the Western
coast of the island of Sardinia


10. Plan of a house at Gonnos Fanadiga, a village in the
island of Sardinia


11. Group of Sardinian villagers in their national costume 176 12. Ancient monoliths in the island of Sardinia ............ 178

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