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Pallman-Standard:

AT&SF rail car M190, May 28

Besseraur (Ala.) plant power, Mar 13, Oct 14
Hydrotraine-00 cars, Dec 12, Jan 10

L&N alanunun 18-2's, Mar 9

L&N orders 100-ton-capacity box cars, Jul 7
100,000th PS-1 box car, Jul 11

Rahway Valley Railroad, Oct 14

Rail Trails, Sept 10

Railfan, Mar 20

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Strikebound, Dec 14, Feb 6, Apr 14, Jun 16

S

Sacramento Northern, May 12

Safe Harbor Water Power, Oct 8

Safety statistics, Aug 14

Sagle, Lawance W., article by:

Lights! Camera! Action! Apr 34

St. Louis-San Francisco:

GE U23's, Apr 8, 14, Sept 24

Main Street U.S.A., Jul 10

Pools power with AT&SF. Apr 14. Jun 17

Stranger on Cajon, Jun 17

St. Louis Southwestern:

FMD FT units, Mar 46

Operating ratio in 1961, May 6

St. Marys Railroad, Jan 54

Salt Lake, Garfield & Western, Jun 11
Sandersville Railroad, May 12, Jul 11

Santa Maria Valley Railroad:

2-8-2 No. 21 makes farewell run, Jun 15, Aug 11
2-8-2 No. 100. Aug 15

Savannah & Atlanta:

Photo, Nov 34

4-6-2 No. 750, Aug 10, 15

Seaboard Air Line:

Aluminum sheathing on diesels, Aug 9

Baldwin cab unit No. 2700, May 48

Baldwin diesel No. 4500, May 49
Baltimore Steam Packet Company, Jul 7
EMD FT units, Mar 46

Merger with ACL proposed, Feb 3, 7, Oct 7
Passenger units used on hotshots, Dec 3
Photo, Nov 35

Raleigh (N. C.) freight station, Mar 11
TOFC special, Mar 10

Seattle World's Fair, Jul 8, Oct 7

Shaughnessy, Jim, article by:

Short Line They Call the Hoot, Toot & Whistle, Sept 25

Short Line They Call the Hoot, Toot & Whistle, Sept 25

Sidewinders and a Singing Engineer, Jan 25

Sierra Railroad:

Nos. 34 and 36 go to White Mountain Scenic Railroad, Aug 15, Sept 10

Photo, Mar 26

R&LHS excursions. Feb 11
Signaling rules reviewed, Sept 4

Simple to Compound to Simple, Apr 49
Simplon Express, Feb 7

Simplon-Orient Express, Feb 7, Jun 14
Six Flags Over Texas Park, Sept 11
Slides:

Blackhawk-TRAINS Slide Sets, Apr 32
Railway Colourviews, Sept 53

So This Is Steam! Jun 18

Solomon, Thomas W., painting by:
ACL 4-4-0 No. 34, Jun 36

Some Engines Vanish, Oct 17
Soo Line:

Alco DI-640's, Feb 12, Jul 9

Alco units sold to Sydney & Louisburg, Mar 9 Business car 54 sold, Aug 8

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Fast freight schedule St. Louis-Los Angeles, Sept 4 Freight cars:

Alcan aluminum tank-hoppers, Dec 8

Convertible flat, Jan 9

Fast-dump gondolas, Dec 8

100-ton-capacity hoppers, Jun 13

GE U25B's, Jul 9, Sept 24

Hay, John I., Company purchase request, May 6
Hill Lines merger objections, Nov 10, Apr 4
Krauss-Maffei diesel-hydraulics, Jan 8, 32, Feb 8,
Apr 9, Jun 30, Aug 7

Merger with Rock Island proposed, Sept 3
Merger with UP discussed, Sept 3

Oakland Pier, Feb 8

Overland cutback proposed, Apr 4

Portland Railroad & Terminal Division, Aug 15
Sign in San Francisco taken down, Jan 56

EN SP 4-10-2 No. 5021, Mar 12, May 51, Sept 11
Taylor Yard, Los Angeles, Mar 8

Texas & New Orleans, Oct 49

Western Pacific control sought, Nov 10, Jan 6,

Feb 7, Jul 7, Sept 3

Southern Pine Lumber Company, Apr 15

Southern San Luis Valley Railroad, May 12

Southland Paper Company, Apr 15

Spanish National Railways:

Garratts, Nov 13

Modernization program, Oct 12

More Talgos ordered, Jun 14

Speed survey, annual, Jun 40

Sperry Products detector car, Mar 9
Spokane International, May 12, Oct 14
Spokane, Portland & Seattle:

Hill Lines merger proposed, Nov 10, Jan 4, Feb 3,
Apr 4, Jul 3, Sept 3

Vernonia, South Park & Sunset Steam Railway
Association, Jun 15

Staten Island Rapid Transit, Oct 3
Staufer, Alvin F., Oct 36

Steam Steel & Limiteds (excerpts), Dec 18
Steam Success Story, Oct 42
Steamtown, U.S.A., Oct 14
Steffee, Donald M., article by:

Central Keeps the Cake, Jun 40

Stone Mountain Scenic Railway:

Ex-Central of Georgia 4-4-0 No. 349, Apr 10,
Jul 14

Georgia Railroad excursion, Aug 10

Ex-Louisiana Eastern 4-4-0 No. 1, Apr 10, Jul 14,

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Cedar Grove Tower, Spring 1937, Sept 33

Fast freight schedule St. Louis-Los Angeles, Sept 4
Operating divisions consolidated, Jun 13

Texas South-Eastern Railroad, Apr 15
Texas Transportation, Feb 13

Thai State Railways, Feb 13, Jun 15
Thousand Islands Railway, Sept 15
Thrall Car Manufacturing Company, Jan 9
Tirol, Feb 7

Toledo, Peoria & Western, Jun 9

Trailer Train, Feb 12

Train Riding in Japan, Apr 40
Train Time! Dec 18

Train-Watcher in Titoland, Sept 42

Trans Europe Express Merchandise, Jun 41
Trans Siberian Railway, Jun 11
Transportation Association of America, Oct 6
Transportation message to Congress, Jun 3
Trinidad, Jul 10

Turkish State Railways:

All Aboard for Ankara! Dec 34
Ankara Express, Dec 1, 34

Map, Dec 36

2-6-(2)-0 No. 34.002, Dec 39

Very Special 2-10-0, Jun 57

Twin Scams Mining Company, Jun 32

U

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics:
Baldwin C-C unit, May 45

Diesel-hydraulics built by West Germany, Aug 8, 14
Electrics built by Czechoslovakia, Nov 13
Electrics built by West Germany, Aug 14

French National Exposition, Dec 9
Railroads of the U.S.S.R., Feb 54
Russian Railroading Revisited, Jul 41
Trans Siberian Railway, Jun 11
Union Pacific:

Big Boy Digs In, Apr 17
Cabooses painted silver, Mar 50
City of Denver accident, Jul 7

City of Las Vegas name changed, Jun 13
City of Salina, Dec 20

City streamliner at Boone, Ia., Jul 8
8500 h.p. gas-turbines, Nov 8. Aug 6
EMD E7 units upgraded, Jul 7
EMD GP30's, Feb 9, Jul 7

4500 h.p. gas-turbines traded in, Jul 7
4-8-4 No. 844, Dec 11, Mar 30, Oct 6
4-6-6-4 No. 900079 (ex-3710), Oct 8
4-6-6-4 No. 3817, Jan 53

4-8-8-4 No. 4000 preserved, Nov 9, Sept 10
4-8-8-4 No. 4014 preserved, Apr 10
4-8-8-4 No. 4017 preserved, Nov 8
4-8-8-4's scrapped. Dec 12, Jan 13
GE U25B's, Feb 9, Jul 7, Sept 20, 24
Harriman, E. H., Memorial Award, Nov 10
Illini Railroad Club excursion, Dec 11
Joint movements with CB&Q, Apr 8
Las Vegas Holiday Special, Jun 13
Lincoln (Nebr.) yard, Jun 55
Maintenance costs, Nov 10

Meadow Violet and Wood Violet, Dec 21
Merger with SP discussed, Sept 3
M-10001, May 24

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Wadley Southern Railroad, Jun 15, Jul 14

Wadley Southern Railway, Feb 13, Jun 15, Jul 14

Wagons-Lits, Jun 13

Ward, Richard, Aug 54

Warden, William E. Jr., article by:

Steam Success Story, Oct 42.

Washington & Old Dominion, Feb 49

Washington, Idaho & Montana:

Control sought by Milwaukee Road, Dec 14, Jul 14
Photo, Dec 49

We Should Have Electrified 15 Years Ago! Apr 18
Week End in the Rockies with the KM's, Feb 34
West Coast Railfan Association, Dec 9
West Side Lumber Company, Jan 19
Western Maryland:

EMD GP9 rebuilt with low nose, Oct 10
Merger role, Feb 7, Sept 12, Oct 3
Time-Saver timings reduced, Sept 4

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NEWS & EDITORIAL COMMENT

edited/DAVID P. MORGAN

SUBSIDIES: THREE CHOICES

I IN a surprise opinion issued last
summer, the Interstate Commerce
Commission recommended Federal sub-
sidies to railroads to "preserve essential
passenger services." The Commission
would disburse the money which could
total 52 million dollars a year. It would
do so under a formula geared to mainte-
nance of way expenses on track, signals,
and other fixed plant required for pas-
senger schedules, thus leaving manage-
ment a "strong incentive" to cut costs
since subsidies would not be related to
deficits which totaled 485 million dol-
lars last year. Citing the bankruptcy of
New Haven as its Exhibit A, the I.C.C.
says other roads may follow; deficits of
Eastern roads, especially, look “ominous,
deep-seated and endemic" to the Com-
mission.

Said the Commission: "A nation that
is serious about propelling a man to the
moon should be able to solve the mun-
dane problem of moving its citizens de-
pendably and comfortably some 50 miles
or less from home to work without multi-
plying ribbons of concrete and asphalt
that would strangle the central cities they
are supposed to serve."

Reaction to the regulatory agency's
proposal, which is expected to reach Con-
gress as a bill in early 1962, was split
both in Washington and among the rail-
roads. Frowning were Santa Fe ("A first
step toward eventual nationalization of
all transportation"); Rock Island ("We
don't favor any subsidies"); Sen. George
Smathers, Dem., Fla. ("Poorly timed and
poorly expressed"); Sen. Frank J.
Lausche, Dem., O. ("I'm not going to go
along with giving out the taxpayers'
money"), but pleased were Pennsy
("Gratifying"); Reading ("Highly en-
couraging"); Erie-Lackawanna ("Heart-
ening"); and Sen. Prescott Bush, Rep.,
Conn. ("The thought of Federal subsidy
to these railroads does not upset me so
much as it does some other people").

As for the rails, the Wall Street Journal
observed dryly in its news columns that
"their reactions jibed with their financial
health." That is, commuterless Santa Fe
with a net operating income of 21.1 mil-
lion dollars for the first half of 1961 was
opposed, but commuter-conscious Pennsy
with a deficit of 12.3 million for the same
period was very much in favor. The
Western position was summed up by Il-
linois Central's Wayne A. Johnston who
declared, "A subsidy is an expensive way
of hiding a problem, not of solving it. . . .
Allow the railroads the freedom to com-
pete, and they will need no help." For the
East, Pennsy's Allen J. Greenough re-
plied, "While the Commission uses the
word 'subsidy,' what they plan, we be-
lieve, will not subsidize the railroads but

will subsidize the people who are using
and need rail suburban and through
trains. . . . Everyone knows that the
Government is currently subsidizing
farmers, home builders, airlines, shipping
lines, and truckers, and yet we have
heard no talk about nationalizing these
important functions in our economy. To
my mind, the I.C.C. proposal is a big step
in the opposite direction from nationali-
zation."

*

*

Insofar as commuters are concerned,
TRAINS believes along with former New
Haven President George Alpert that they
do not constitute a business at all since
it is patently impossible for tax-paying
private enterprise to make any profit
hauling them. Example: North Western,
which cleared a tiny but much publicized
profit on commuters in 1959-1960, lost
more than 1 million dollars on them in
the first half of 1961 alone. Indeed, only
the political and social implications of the
commuter deficit have prevented its abo-
lition. If a Western line dropped huge
amounts of money on a long branch to a
played-out mining area, it would apply
for abandonment and doubtless win ap-
proval. The loss is just as real in the East
but a road just can't abandon, say, 30,000
riders a day no matter what. Again, free-
dom to compete isn't the issue. Businesses
compete but not public services such as
police and fire departments, sewage sys-
stems, schools, and if you adopt the
East's viewpoint — commuter movers.
In any event, there are but three al-
ternatives to the dilemma:

1. If Government forces the commuter
railroads to treat the service as a busi-
ness, they will either raise fares to cover
costs and taxes until the riders are driven

to expressways, or they will go bank-
rupt trying, as New Haven did.

2. If Government subsidizes commuter
railroads by direct aid and/or tax for-
giveness, it will save much more money
by thus resolving the automobile problem
than is ever allocated to the rails. How-
ever, the railroads will still be handi-
capped by owning plant and equipment
for and devoting management attention
to a traffic which is but a break-even
proposition at best.

or

3. If the commuter issue is faced
squarely, Government (directly
through an authority) will do the job
itself by buying the track (or trackage
rights) and cars required to move X
number of people to and from work.

If commuters are indeed a community
responsibility, then the third alterna-
tive of authority ownership and operation
of rail suburban systems is an answer
both Eastern and Western railroads
should be able to agree on without cav-
Continued on page 10

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WHAT, NOT ALREADY?

OUR regular waiter downtown a
Deutsch & Graun, a gentleman by name of
Everett, has a happy habit of calling out
"What, not already?" whenever we depar
this commendable bar-restaurant-whether
it's 6 p.m. or after midnight. Which is the
way feel about concluding our round
the-world articles in this issue. One re
ward of a writer is that he gets to relive
his journey as he turns notes into maga
zine copy, but more satisfying than that is
the chance to say in word and photo-
to someone who hasn't or won't or can'
I think you'll like this
Garratt, that 2-footer, those Japanese in
terurbans. And judging by the mail
we've won a convert or two.
We hope you're one of them.

go

Overseas:

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Kalmbach Publishing Co. 1961. Title reg. Pat. Off.
Published monthly by Kalmbach Publishing Co., 1027
N. 7th St., Milwaukee 3, Wis., U.S.A. BRoadway
2-2060. Western Union and cable address: KALPUE
Milwaukee. A. C. Kalmbach, President. Joseph C
O'Hearn, General Sales Manager. Ward Zimmer, Ad-
vertising Manager. TRAINS assumes no responsibility
for the safe return of unsolicited editorial material.
Acceptable photographs are held in files and are paid
for upon publication. Second-class postage paid at
Milwaukee, Wis.
Printed in U.S.A.
YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION, $6; 2 YEARS, $11; 3
YEARS, $15. For life. $60. Outside the Americas,
50 cents a year additional (for life, $5 additional).

MEMBER

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