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During the days of steam locomotive operation a maze of water, air, and steam hoses were connected between the locomotive and the locomotive tender. A single hose for the brake pipe had to be connected between the locomotive and a freight train. A passenger locomotive would have, as a rule, two additional connections. One was the steam connection for heating the train, the other a signal line to enable the conductor to communicate with the engine crew. On some railroad suburban service the steam locomotive would generate the electric current for lighting the commuter trains. There would then be an electrical jumper cable between the locomotive and the suburban coaches.

Double-heading of a pair of steam locomotives required a locomotive crew in both locomotives. The lead locomotive controlled the operation of the brakes on the train and on the helper locomotive. The helper locomotive engineer had the job of matching his locomotive to the lead engine.

The advent of the diesel locomotive made a radical change in train operation and also necessitated many changes in locomotive air brake equipment. The fact that trailing or helper diesel locomotive units do not have an engine crew requires an altogether different control system from that used on steam locomotives.

It is necessary that the trailing diesel locomotive units obey the lead unit instantly when the throttle, air brake, or sanding controls are operated. The method for controlling the trailing diesel units requires both electric jumper cable and air hoses for pneumatic controls.

The electric control is carried between units by a jumper cable. On the end of every EMD diesel locomotive equipped for multiple-unit operation is at least one jumper cable receptacle. Because of special requirements there can be more than one jumper cable receptacle. Some Union Pacific locomotives have six jumper cable receptacles on each end of a unit. The electrical jumper cables transmit all control and signal circuits between the lead and trailing units.

Directly under the coupler is a steam line on diesel units equipped for passenger service. The steam line is a 2-inch inside diameter line and usually comes from behind or under the unit instead of through the end plate. The steam line

connection can be present on units which are not equipped with boilers so that steam can be passed through them to a passenger train when the unit is being used in multiple with a steam-generatorequipped unit. Mexico recently received some short-hood GP-18 locomotives equipped with a steam train line.

The largest air hose on the end of a diesel locomotive and usually the only one with an angle cock in front of the end plate is the brake pipe hose for the train brake. Air pressure in this hose is controlled by the automatic brake valve in the cab. The brake pipe hose is to the right of the coupler as you face the end of the locomotive.

Just below the brake pipe is the usual location for the signal line used on passenger trains. This hose is smaller than the brake pipe hose.

The engineer can control the flow of sand from the sandboxes in the locomotive to the rail by an independent sander valve in the locomotive cab. The sander valve operates the sanding equipment of the lead unit. A pair of hoses transmit the sanding control to the trailing units. The sanding control hoses are the hoses closest to the outside edges of the end plate.

Between the sanding hoses and the coupler pocket are the multiple-unit air connections. These hose connections are duplexed - that is, there is a connection on each side of the coupler for each hose. The majority of diesel locomotives in use today are equipped with either 6BL, 24RL, or 26L air brake equipment. 6BL air brake equipment is used on EMD switchers and some of the GP and SD models. The 24RL air brake equipment was the standard equipment used on EMD E-series passenger units, F-series freight units, and on GP and SD units. No. 26L air brake equipment was applied to the GP and SD models in 1958. Since that time some E units have been rebuilt with

26L. A number of remanufactured switchers were also equipped with 26L air brakes.

The type of brake equipment on a locomotive determines the number of M.U. hoses. The first hose out from the coupler pocket on each side is a main reservoir equalizing line and is used to equalize the main reservoir air pressure between units. The main reservoir equalizing line is required on any diesel locomotive used in M.U. operation.

On a diesel locomotive with 6BL brakes, there is an equalizing hose next to the main reservoir equalizing hose. This line applies and releases the locomotive brakes on trailing units.

Locomotives using 26L or 24RL brakes have two hoses in addition to the main reservoir equalizing hose. The hose next to the main reservoir equalizing line is an actuating line. Air pressure in this line releases the locomotive brakes on trailing units.

The second hose on 26L is a brake cylinder equalizing line. This same line is called an independent application and release line on 24RL equipment. On either equipment this line controls the application and release of the locomotive brakes when the lead unit's independent brake valve is being used.

Some railroads modified their 6BLequipped locomotives to use with 24RL brakes. This modified 6BL equipment is known as 6BLC brakes. 6BLC air brakes have both the actuating line and independent application and release line, as on a 24RL brake-equipped locomotive.

Electro-Motive usually delivers diesel units with only one hose for each M.U. air line at each end. The other M.U. line connection is plugged with a pipe plug. Some railroads put hoses on all the connections after the locomotives are delivered. Each air line except for the brake pipe has a cutout cock to shut off the air to the hose. These cutout cocks are located in the underframe piping of the locomotive behind the end plate. I

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AND THE RAILROADERS AT WORK AFTER DARK NIGHT TRAIN brings the most extensive collection of nighttime railroad photographs ever gathered under one cover. It sheds a new graphic light on the railroad in action. A how-to-do-it section is presented, plus a description of each scene illustrated.

NIGHT TRAIN is a generous 128 page (8 x 11") book of the highest quality for perfect picture reproduction. Over 140 illustrations and two editions to pick from.

REGULAR EDITION - $5.75 - DELUXE EDITION - $7.00 Books postpaid on receipt of purchase price no COD's please. California Residents -Add your 4% State Sales Tax. PACIFIC RAILWAY JOURNAL

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Logging Railroads of the West, by Kramer Adams. 1961, 8" x 101⁄2", 164 pages. $12.50. Superior Publishing Co., 2809 3rd Ave., Seattle 11, Wash.

Railroads in the Woods, by John T. Labbe and Vernon Goe. 1961, 84" x 11", 269 pages. $10. Howell-North, 1050 Parker St., Berkeley 10, Calif.

THIS has been a bonanza book year for railroad readers, and not the least evidence of that fact is the publication of not one but two excellent titles on logging. They fill an empty space on the shelf, for the hauling of logs out of the woods by rail constituted a world unto itself as distinct from conventional common carrier operation as was the interurban. The logging pike, with few exceptions, was by its very nature temporary, and therefore it had to be cheap. Expediency was mandatory and it took the form of link-and-pin couplers, hand brakes, adhesion grades of 10 per cent and more (and inclines in excess of 70 per cent), creek-bed routes, and timber trestles towering 200 feet and more in the air. If the logger's right of way looked like a leftover from Brady plates of Civil War military railroading (with no ballast, wooden cribbing instead of fills, spliced rails), his equipment had no precedent at all. He invented as he cut deeper into the forests: tower skidders to drag logs of up to 80 feet to the railhead, loaders to lift them atop often disconnected trucks, geared and swivel truck engines to take the loads down to

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Add 10% Fed. Tax to All Items (Mail Check or M.O.-No C.O.D.'s)


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HUDSONS of the

Photographed by Gene Miller

Gene Miller's motion picture coverage of the Hudson goes clear back to the mid-1930's, and shows a wide range of differ ent engines all the way from No. 5233 to No. 5466, powering many of the famous name trains of the era. Two of the streamlined Hudsons are shown as they were originally delivered, and in the war years with their streamlined sheating removed. This film is all Hudson, and all action!

810-265, 8mm. version, black and white, about 200-feet, pp-18c

$6.98 $22.98

620-80, 16mm. silent version, black and white, about 400-feet, pp-14c VINTAGE STEAM RAILROAD 8mm. MOVIES FROM FOOTAGE IN THE COLLECTIONS OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

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the mill, houses-on-wheels for portable camp living and eating quarters. A few giants of the industry wound up emulating class 1 roads to the point of steel bridges and compound 2-8-8-2's whose economics hold diesel trucks at bay to this day, but the vast majority of operators railroaded in the awareness that engines and rails ate up 40 per cent of their total expenses and that logging was the original here-today, gone-tomorrow business.

The definitive pictorial tribute to this vanished age is Railroads in the Woods, a beautifully printed portfolio of 440 photos accompanied by informed and instructive comment and captions. Seldom has more absorbing railroad illustration been placed between hard covers. The content is regional - Washington and Oregon - but this is no handicap for the student of logging railroads per se, for in the Pacific Northwest timber transport ran the gamut from Bridal Veil Lumbering 0-6-0T's skidding logs between the rails to Weyerhaeuser Timber Mallets comfortably handling 90-car trains. Authors Labbe and Goe explore their subject in all of its ramifications, deftly including the odd (a homemade chaindrive locomotive with a donkey engine and a stationary boiler from China) and the tragic (a proud engineer with his Climax and the runaway of it that killed him three days distant) and the spectacular (Weyerhaeuser's still-in-service Baird's Creek Bridge, 1130 feet long, 235 feet high) without glossing over the fundamentals of right of way, equipment, operations, and economics. The photos not only suggest the strange proposition that geared railroading in the woods was far better photographed 50 years ago than was its rod-driven common carrier connections but indicate that whoever laid out Railroads in the Woods knows, instinctively, which prints deserve enlarging and which do not. A dandy.

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(30 slides), pp.95VDID


G. W. (26 slides), pp.9c


(30 slides), pp-96



THE D. & R.



(20 slides), pp-66


350-188, THE NEW HAVEN (16 slides), pp.6c


350-27, NORFOLK & WESTERN (32 slides), pp-9c 350-254, RAILROADS AROUND NEW YORK CITY (40 slides), pp-9c



350-17, RAILROADS, U.S.A. (47 slides), pp-12c 350-53, RIO GRANDE NARROW GAUGE (20 slides), pp-6c



350-147, ST. LOUIS TERMINAL (20 slides), pp-6c 350-253. SIERRA RAILROAD (13 slides), pp-6c 350-257, SOUTHERN PACIFIC NARROW GAUGE



(13 slides), pp-6c





CENTRAL (13 slides), pp.6c


350-173, STEAM LOCOMOTIVES ON THE NORFOLK & WESTERN (13 slides), pp-6c


350-167, TEHACHAPI (20 slides), pp-6c





Logging Railroads of the West leans toward a 50-50 mixture of text and photos, which gives author Adams (who handles Weyerhaeuser p.r.) a chance to unlimber a chatty typewriter. His is a conversational style that manages to produce a ledgerful of facts and figures without derailing readability. One finds that an erudite discussion of gauges (they ranged from 21 inches to 9 feet in the Western woods) keeps company in the same book with the hilarious explanation of an engineer who survived the fall of his engine from a trestle: "A candy run, boys. When she started to roll, I tried to figger out how many times she'd turn over and which way she'd land. I had to throttle her a couple of times to keep her on course, but she landed on her wheels just like I figured, though a big cedar damned near ruined my calculations." Kramer Adams, then, does a professional job of implementing the wisdom of the old-timer who advised him, "If you're going to write a book on logging roads, you can't lie fast enough to keep up with the honest facts." For the logger, the railroad was a means toward an end, so bothered not by regulatory commissions or the standards inherent in interchange, he rough-hewed his way back into the tall timber - by rails, gears, skylines, inclines. Adams commits to print the facts of Shay smoke and steam across 11 Western states in nine anecdote-studded chapters supported by a glossary, index, and (invaluable) a directory of the hundreds of pikes whose 3000 locomotives lugged logs out of Western forests. His work is generously illustrated, even though the cropping, selection, and reproduction of photos suffer somewhat from irregular quality control. The book is, on balance, a worth-while and substantial contribution to what Adams aptly terms the railroad logger's "ingenious, heroic, and sometimes comic methods of overcoming Nature."

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Each book complements the other. True, a few photos are duplicated, but this drawback to owning both is minor. Authors Labbe, Goe, and Adams have zeroed in on their subject matter from different angles and both approaches are rewarding to the reader.

The Beauty of Railways, edited by C. Hamilton Ellis. 1960, 8" x 102", 128 pages. $5. Max Parrish & Co., 55 Queen Anne St., London, W.1, England.

WE have at hand an interesting if unsatisfactory pictorial, a sort of English answer to Jean-Michel Hartmann's laudatory Magic of the Railways of 1959. To be sure, many of the 162 plates in The Beauty of the Railways are fetching; the content, while basically U.K., ranges to America and beyond to Australia even; and Ellis' introductory essay on the esthetics of the railroad makes pleasant reading. But the gravure-process book (on soft, brownish stock) lacks continuity, its few paintings do not mix with its photography, and quite inexplicable is the inclusion of (for example) a shot of shophands posed and/or smiling at the camera during the business of joining a boiler to a frame. Many photos are splendid, but too many others are hackneyed (a sea of freshly turned wheel sets), out of place (three-quarter stills of engines), or purely publicity (CN's Super Continental). Disappointing.

Steam Power of the New York Central System (Volume 1, 1915-1955), by Alvin F. Staufer. 1961, 84" x 11", 223 pages. $12. Alvin Staufer, Box 57, LeRoy, O.

NO other system in America, indeed on earth, so epitomized "standard railroading" as did New York Central in the full flower of its water-level route, four-track main, Great Steel Fleet, monumental stations, track pans, and Hudsons, Mohawks, and Niagaras. Central was a passenger-oriented road of speed and frequency and prestige, a road whose trademark was an extraordinarily handsome breed of six-coupled engine and whose signature was a Waldorf on wheels designated as Nos. 25 and 26. And until this year neither professional nor amateur had dared more than a magazine assay of the nearly 500 steam locomotives which Central's roster carried at its peak. It was a subject that simply seemed too big for the press. It remained for a highschool art teacher from an Ohio hamlet (LeRoy, population 504) who considers himself Central's most avid fan to try to cram the impossible between hard covers.

If Alvin Staufer's Steam Power of the New York Central System isn't the total answer, then it will certainly tranquilize NYC devotees until a more comprehensive work appears. Steam Power is, by its publisher's estimate, a collection of photos, not a history or a technical manual, and as such it scores high marks. Builder broadsides, in-service stills, and frankly atmospheric shots of virtually every class of engine at work from 1915 until diesels are stirred well with a fine display of action from La Salle Street Station to Har

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of an Uncommon Carrier

By Carl Fallberg

THE GIFT BOOK SUPREME The complete collection of Artist Fallberg's famed cartoons of 19th Century Narrow Gauge. Only 123 Copies Left, each

$7.95 postpaid (California residents add 32c tax) HUNGERFORD PRESS 6949 Reseda Blvd.

Reseda, Calif.


Steam still serve these days on The Great Western Railway in Northern Colorado and you can be there to behold present operations with views of the past in 78 photos on 48 big pages, plus maps, timetables and scale drawings a rare item for your collection for the very rare price of only... $1.50 POSTPAID . . from



CPR 4-4-0 NO. 136

on the Famous triple-headed excursion of May 1, 1960. Return with us on a Sentimental Journey as we ride up the Caledon Hills through the Forks of Credit and Cataract region. Hear mellow whistles and barking exhausts you'll never forget. All on pure vinyl 12" L. P. record. Delivered for Christmas! $5.00 (U. S. $5.50). RAILFANS UNLIMITED, 1-A Pritchard Avenue, Toronto 9, Ontario.

Railroad Record Club

Authentic Steam and Electric Railway Recordings Sampler record with over 20 excerpts from 8 different records $4.00 (refunded on first order) or sampler included free with standard Soo Line-I. C. introductory record at $4.00. Both postpaid. 10 Inch 331⁄2 1. p. m. Send for free literature. Railroad Record Club, Hawkins, Wisconsin



Seven articles by short-line admirer and TRAINS columnist William S. Young. The lives and times of Cassville & Exeter (Mo.), Flemingsburg & Northern (Ky.), Lakeland Ry. (Ga.), New Haven & Dunbar (Pa.), Pacific Coast R.R. (Wash.) Suncook Valley (N. H), and Waco, Beaumont, Trinity & Sabine (Tex.). Slick paper, photos, maps. $1.00 from Starrucca Valley Publications, Box 231, Susquehanna, Pa.



A 12" LP Recording

33-1/3 RPM


VOL. 1


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mon. The mass-production classes, particularly the passenger power, naturally consume most of the pages, but all the oddities are here as well (e.g., P&LE's compound 0-8-8-0 hump power, IHB's three-cylinder 0-8-0's, B&A's tankers, NYC's own high-pressure 4-8-4 of 1931). Supplementing the photos (and the unabashed enthusiasm of Staufer's comments and captions) are side-elevation and end drawings of principal types, the 1944 roster (with additions) which appeared in Railroad Magazine, two fullcolor paintings by the author, and blackand-white reproductions of 11 Walter L. Greene calendars. Letterpress reproduction is reasonably good; and if certain action shots are fuzzy, they make up in spirit what they lack in focus.

Steam Power of the New York Central System is Staufer's first book and it represents a one-man job of photo selection, writing, artwork, paste-up, and production. Typographical errors are in evidence and the Spartan type face of the captions is formidably heavy. What matters, though, is that someone overcome with concern for a rare race of handsome locomotives has succeeded in placing that enthusiasm on paper and, in so doing, placing all of us who recall Central's J-1's and their brethren in his debt. I

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STATEMENT REQUIRED BY THE ACT OF AUGUST 24, 1912, AS AMENDED BY THE ACTS OF MARCH 3, 1933, JULY 2, 1946 AND JUNE 11, 1960 (74 STAT. 208) SHOWING THE OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, AND CIRCULATION OF TRAINS, published monthly at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, for October 1, 1961.

1 The names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing editor, and business manager are. Publisher, A C Kalmbach, 4625 N. Cramer St., Milwaukee, Wis, Editor, David P Morgan, 7838 Harwood Ave, Wauwatosa 13, Wis. Managing Editor, Rosemary Entringer R. 4. Box 340, Pewaukee, Wis, Business Manager, None. 2 The owner is Kalmbach Publishing Co., 1027 N 7th St, Milwaukee 3, Wis., stockholders owning or holding 1 per cent or more of total amount of stock are: Elizabeth K. Cole, 255 North St, Iowa City, Iowa; Alexander L. H. Darragh, 242 Greenleaf Ave., Wilmette, Ill., Finat and Co. c/o First National Bank of Chicago, Chicago 90, Ill., George F Hirschmann and Helen M Hirschmann, 635 Glenridge Dr, Glenview, Ill.. Albert C. Kalmbach, 4625 N. Cramer St, Milwaukee 11, Wis, James King, 4900 N Berkeley Blvd, Milwaukee 17, Wis. Raymond J Leannah or Leanor Jean Leannah, 93253 W Auer Ave, Milwaukee 16, Wis. Kathryn Mahnke, 2622 Sobrante Way, Rancho Cordova, Calif Ray J Mertz. 9317 Stickney Ave., Wauwatosa 13, Wis. Joseph C O'Hearn, 1609 N. Prospect Ave, Milwaukee 2, Wis, M. D Thornburgh or Norma Thornburgh, 50 Carlisle Pl, Chillicothe, Ohio, Linn H Westcott, 1255 Lakeside Dr, Elm Grove, Wis, Linn H Westcott and Regina H. Westcott. 1255 Lakeside Dr., Elm Grove, Wis. 3. The known bondholders. mortgagees nd other security holders owning or holding 1 per cent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities are None 4. Paragraphs 2 and 3 include. in cases where the stockholder or security holder appears upon the books of the company as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation. the name of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is acting: also the statements in the two paragraphs show the affiant's full knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and conditions under which stockholders and security holders who do not appear upon the books of the company as trustees. hold stock and securities in a capacity other than that of a bona fide owner.

5. The average number of copies of each issue of this publication sold or distributed. through the mails or otherwise, to paid subscribers during the 12 months preceding the date shown above was: 37,835. A C Kalmbach, Publisher.

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 19th day of September 1961. Betty J. Jacobsen, Notary Public (My commission expires April 25, 1965.)


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Grizzly Flats 2-6-0 didn't rate inclusion, nor did N.R.H.S.'s 1960 Johnson City (Tenn.) convention, but photographer Farrell Grehan came up with some de luxe stuff on East Broad Top, Reading, and Strasburg (plus just a peek no engine - at the Milwaukee Road special behind an ex-IC 2-8-0 in Iowa). Aside from a mural-like impression of revolving drivers, the one different view was a head-on shot of Bud Swearer handling Strasburg 0-6-0 No. 31 at speed. Accompanying copy and captions were expectedly bland, but then, few enthusiasts care much about the image they project or are credited with so long as it's not raining at the photo stops. At least the writer didn't call an engine a "train."

Speaking of the Reading, I finally satisfied a since-1959 ambition to ride the 2124 a few hours last September during research on a story which, under another and more interesting by-line, will appear in the magazine next spring. On the evening before, I chanced to hear General Road Foreman of Engines Erv Watters observe that the 4-8-4 would "load water" on arrival in Reading. Now, one normally thinks of water as a fluid to pour or fill but not load. And yet there it was. Which makes me wonder if any student of English is taking down the language of railroading - and not just the words peculiar to the game (e.g., hotshot, hoghead, Johnson bar, caboose) but also the colloquial usage of what's already in the dictionary. The dispatcher thinks aloud into his phone to a yardmaster, "Looks as if he'll get out of there in good shape, eh?" and the "he" refers not alone to the engineer but the crew, the diesel, the train, and the caboose all 6000 tons of them. If a train gets late and invalidates a meet, the DS "busts" the orders. Or again, if a train becomes late, the engineer may be expected to "run off" the lost minutes and “go in on time." These are semantics deserving of preservation in a glossary.


P.S. We Americans take it for granted that we operate the world's most luxurious passenger trains. All in all, we do, I think, but the news from Australia is a bit disturbing. Down there the Victorian Railways' overnight Overland on the 483mile Melbourne-Adelaide run includes sleepers with roomettes and twinettes in its consist (as well as leg-rest chair cars). The twinette appears to be the equivalent of our double bedroom except that each such accommodation includes a private shower! A shower aboard a U. S. train is still a rarity confined to the master rooms of the Broadway and the Crescent, perhaps a full-length Pullman lounge here and there, and office cars. But

on the Overland every twinette occupant rates the amenity - plus a Continental breakfast in bed and the morning newspaper! I

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