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houses now remaining with similar constructions. The oak room opens upon a large Gothic library, the chimney-piece of which is ornamented with the arms of the Lyttons, St. Johns, Beauchamps, Robinsons, Stanleys of Hooton, and Grosvenors. A double flight of stairs leads to the state-rooms, the carved balustrades of which support the lion rampant, one of the ancient crests brought in by the alliance with the Strodes. The staircase itself is hung with trophies, of armour of the time of Henry VII. and Henry VIII., as well as various family and other pictures. The windows are blazoned with the descents from the alliance with Barrington and the alliance of the St. Johns.
The first state room is very ancient; it is small, and the walls are covered with curious old stamped leather, richly gilt, and in high preservation, while the woodwork is grotesquely carved in pannels, and upon the ceiling the arms are painted of Sir Rowland Lytton, as heir general to the families of Booth, Godmanster, Oke, Burnavil, and Drereward.
From this is a communication with the long state room, which is hung with bugle tapestry, perhaps the only specimen to be found in England. You next pass through the oval drawing-room into the old presence chamber, which modern fashions have metamorphosed into a principal drawingroom. Upon the ceiling and windows of this apartment are introduced ninety-nine quarterings, which were brought in through the ancient families of Norreys and Robinson in the time of Anne, and the frieze below shews the arms of the descents from the ancient British kings, through Sir Owen Tudor and Elystan Glodrydd, the Plantagenets through Ruth Barrington, and the Tudors through Sir William Norrey's marriage with Anne Tudor, aunt to Henry VII. Many relics of the olden time are preserved here, giving to the room a marked air of antiquity; amongst other precious remains, are two Gothic cabinets of the time of Henry VII., sets of chairs of the old cloth of gold, a very curious carved and gilt procession of our Saviour to the cross, the workmanship of the fourteenth century, and some ebony tables, in their original state, of the time of Elizabeth. Other curiosities are also preserved in this room, of a very different character: such, for instance, as a chair of solid ivory and gold, that once belonged to the redoubted Tippoo Saib. But the antiquary will, perhaps, dwell with more real satisfaction upon the rare old pictures, the memorials of men who form a portion of our national history. There, in the midst of his kindred companions, is the portrait of Sir Philip Sidney, his own gift to Sir Rowland Lytton-the vera effigies of Edward VI., which acquires a double value when we are told that the royal hand presented it to William De Lytton, his Governor of Boulogne Castle the likenesses of Lord Strafford and his wife-and many other genuine old portraits, preserved as heir-looms in the family. But the portraits do not form the sole pictorial ornaments of this chamber; there are a few paintings of another class, valuable as works of art, from which we may be allowed to select an exquisite Magdalene by Galleyo, a Spanish painter,-a beautiful Nativity, by Albert Durer,-several Dutch pictures, and some very valuable specimens on wood, of the earliest period of Dutch, and perhaps of English, art. It must not, however, be imagined that the treasures of antiquity are confined to this one spot. In other parts of the mansion are collections of armour, ranging in date from the time of the Crusades to the period of the Civil War, some of the best and most perfect specimens being those in the banquetting hall; they
date variously from the reigns of Henry VII., Henry VIII., and James I.
Another flight of stairs conducts to the music gallery over the hall, which communicates with the round tower chamber, fitted up with gold and stamped leather, after the fashion prevailing in the age of Charles the Second. In this is the portrait of Viscountess Falkland, daughter of a Sir Robert Lytton, and it communicates with the Falkland chamber, containing portraits of the same date, as well as with a corridor that opens into the Hampden room, where the illustrious John Hampden once slept, if we are to believe the family tradition. The same passage leads to Queen Elizabeth's room, wherein is a very curious old oak bedstead, the only thing probably of the kind in England, if we except one in Berkeley Castle. The ancient tapestry, which at one time had been removed from the walls, has latterly been replaced, and the same good taste has also brought back the old chimney-piece, a very curious sample of the workmanship of other days. It bears the following inscription :
"Hic anno devictis armis Hispan: memorabili requievit Elizabetha, R.A. 1588."
Adjoining this is the room that was occupied by the mother of the present Sir Edward. It contains many of her drawings and paintings, for it appears that she inherited her full portion of the family taste, and was an accomplished artist. Here also is a cabinet with many curiosities and antiquities, the collected heir-looms of different periods. Altogether this is a noble apartment to those who take a delight in the solemn splendour of our ancestors-a splendour so grave and massive that we have often felt tempted to doubt if they ever laughed outright, like their more lighthearted or more frivolous descendants. There is something in an ancient hall that seems to forbid a jest, as altogether out of place; one would as soon think of dancing the Polka in a cathedral cloister. And here, amidst the grave ornaments, the panels of white and gold, the dark painted ceiling, one would feel more inclined to pore over some ancient tome of severe philosophy, than to read the last new novel. Nor is this serious tendency at all lessened by the following beautiful inscription over the chimney-piece :—"This room, for many years occupied by Elizabeth Bulwer Lytton, and containing the relics most associated with her memory, her son trusts that her descendants will preserve unaltered. LIBERIS VIRTUTIS EXEMPLAR!" There are few who will not heartily respond to the spirit of this inscription, when they reflect how much this fine estate has been indebted for its preservation to her taste, energy, and talent. She it was who redeemed it from a century of neglect, and with unwearied patience and assiduity saved the mansion from the total ruin that must otherwise have ere long fallen upon it. That she removed what was too decayed for preservation, and repaired and fitted up in the most appropriate style whatever remained, we have already seen; but her improvement did not stop here. Out of the old gateway that had of necessity been removed, she formed a curious and picturesque lodge to the entrance from the London road, and erected a very elegant stone mausoleum in the park. The church itself is of ancient date, and is dedicated to St. Mary, containing a private chapel belonging to the Lyttons, in which are some beautiful monuments, and three of the oldest and rarest helmets in England, surmounted with a Lytton crest,-" a bittern among reeds."
But in this, as well as so many other respects, Mrs. Elizabeth Bulwer Lytton would appear to have been a woman of no ordinary mind, combining in herself qualities that are seldom found united in the same person. She had the talents of a writer both in prose and verse, painted more like an artist than an amateur, and yet was a thorough woman of business, who transacted all her affairs for herself, with less need of an agent than many men. Nor was she at all deficient in the gentle spirit of charity; for, though saving in herself, she was munificent to others, and all the time, her generosity was pure and free from ostentation. This noble and kind-hearted woman died December 19, 1843, preserving her activity, both of mind and body, to the last. Requiescat in pace!
The park belonging to the mansion is not large, but it contains some of the best deer of the county, and is celebrated for the view from the east. It stands on very high ground, broken by dells, and has several avenues of the reign of Elizabeth; and if this do not afford sufficient amusement to the owners, they have a right of free warren over the whole of the surrounding districts, granted to them in the time of James I.
It may be easily supposed that so noble a remnant of the olden days is not without its traditions. In the beginning of the present century, a very interesting little book was published, called "Jenny Spinner, or the Hert. fordshire Ghost," the scene of which was laid at Knebworth, and the plot founded upon a popular story of a spinning phantom that haunted the old mansion. It is not above thirty or forty years ago that the very spinning-wheel was still extant which served the ghost in her nightly occupations, though it has since that time been destroyed, and likely enough by some one who sagaciously thought to put an end to the phantom's visits, by destroying the cause of them.
Other traditions there are that haunt the old mansion, and though not impossible, nor even very improbable, yet perhaps not a whit more real than this of the spinning phantom. Thus it has been said that the unfortunate Earl of Warwick, beheaded by Henry VII., was at one time confined at Knebworth under the care of Sir Robert De Lytton; but history makes no mention of such a fact, nor does a place so beautiful in itself, and allied with so many high and noble recollections, stand in need of any spurious fancies to enhance its interest with those who love the memory of their forefathers.
Holwood, co. Kent.
"Oh, dread was the time, and more dreadful the omen,
Oh, then in her triumph remember his merit,
THERE is a charm attached to the abode of greatness, whether living or departed, that never can belong to the most splendid structures if unhallowed by such recollections. The noblest specimens of architecture excite at best a cold unsympathizing admiration if considered only as such; they are like Pygmalion's statue ere it was animated by a living
soul-mere stone-finely shaped indeed, yet still nothing but a chiseled and dextrous production of the human hand: but once let us be able to say, "This was the home of Shakspere, or of Milton, or of Newton, and even the rudest pile assumes a something sacred to our imagination. If the reader should say with Horatio, "This were to consider too curiously," we must borrow our reply from Hamlet: "Not a whit." Even the American, who may be said to live in a world of yesterday, who has no antiquity whether historical or otherwise, is yet found to be touched by this feeling; and when he visits England, sympathizes as warmly with the relics of other times as the most enthusiastic among ourselves. Analyze and philosophize as we will, there is a charm in these matters, which is not the less real because it does not square with the maxims of the logician.
We have been involuntarily led into these remarks-and we would fain hope not too discursive remarks-by the mansion of Holwood, near Bromley, in Kent, the seat of John Ward, Esq., about fourteen miles from London, in the parish of Keston. How many recollections cleave to the site of the old building that has disappeared, and which still fling their glorious shadow-light, rather-upon the beautiful structure which has succeeded it! While admiring the modern building for its architectural elegance, the spectator is yet more attracted by the idea that on this very spot stood the favourite residence of William Pitt, the civil competitor of the warlike Napoleon, and whose plans, though long after his death, were destined to be the overthrow of his soldier rival. Never was Cicero's saying of "Cedunt arma toga" more realized to the letter, though in a different meaning from what was originally intended.
At present Pitt is only a name to us ;-but what a name! In regard to this extraordinary man, there can be but two opinions-a presiding genius, or a devil: he has either saved or he has ruined England, the greatest country of ancient or of modern times. For our own part, we heartily coincide with the opinion of the best and wisest, who think that England would have sunk under the tremendous energies called forth by the French revolution, except for the genius and the indomitable spirit of William Pitt; and whether we are right or wrong in this idea, it is quite plain, and more to our present purpose, that the history of Europe, if not of the world, must for many, many years to come turn upon him and Napoleon Buonaparte. The counsels and the actions of either have left a legacy for after times-a riddle, which the wisdom and the experience of our far-off posterity must solve.
The present mansion occupies the place of the old house, which was pulled down in 1823. The latter was a small old plastered brick building, but had long been tenanted by various gentlemen who delighted in fox-hunting, at the time the Duke of Grafton kept a pack of hounds in this neighbourhood. It afterwards came into the hands of the late Mr. Calcraft, and served as a house of rendezvous for the heads of one of the parties which at that time divided the House of Commons. From Mr. Calcraft it passed into the possession of the Burrell family; by them it was sold to Captain Ross; and purchased of him by Mr. Burrow, nephew of the late Sir James Burrow, who stuccoed the house, added greatly to the grounds by various purchases, grubbed and converted considerable woods into beautiful pasture and pieces of water, and planted those ornamental shrubberies which rendered it so justly admired. An
eminent ship-builder, named Randall, purchased it of Mr. Burrow, and he afterwards disposed of it to the Right Hon. William Pitt, who was a native of the adjoining parish, and under whose own personal superintendence most of the ornamental plantations were made, which rendered the park so justly admired. As to the interior, the house underwent no other alteration than the addition of a small drawing-room covered with pantiles, and facing the whole with a curious new-invented variegated stucco. Mr. Decimus Burton has preserved a sketch of this old house, such as it was when taken down to make room for the new mansion; and which, as connected with the history of this great statesman, may hereafter prove an object of interest.
The history and structure of the modern building may be thus described: It was erected in the year 1825, by the present proprietor, from the designs and under the superintendence of Decimus Burton, Esq., architect. The exterior presents an uniform architectural elevation in the Grecian style; the walls faced with the light-coloured bricks from Southampton; the columns, pilasters, entablatures, window-dressings, and the plinth, of solid Portland stone.
The south front extends 180 feet in length, and has a circular portico of four columns of the Grecian Ionic order, the height of the building; in the wings are Doric columns in recesses. The principal apartments are in this front, and consist of the dining-room, saloon, library, drawingroom, billiard-room, and conservatory, en suite. The kitchen offices also occupy part of the south front, but so concealed under the same elevation as to avoid the incongruity sometimes observed, where, either from injudiciousness, or with the idea of economy, the domestic offices are seen attached to the mansion in a character of architecture totally different. A handsome conservatory, principally constructed of Portland stone and iron, and 40 by 17 feet wide, forms the termination of the western wing.
The north, or entrance front, is of the same extent, but of a plainer character than the south front, with a recessed portico of two Doric columns. The interior presents several well-contrived vistas through the suites of apartments. The saloon, which has an extremely pleasing appearance, occupies the centre of the house, and extends two stories in height, surmounted by a large lantern light, and supported by columns.
Although the rooms are not large, yet it may be truly said that Holwood is one of the most ornamental, convenient, and substantial mansions in the county of Kent. The scenery around is very beautiful, varied, and extensive, owing to the elevation of its site, the broken and undulating surface of the ground in the immediate vicinity, and other local advantages. The present proprietor has likewise been at great expense in embellishing the park and pleasure grounds, and has entirely enclosed. the former with a strong oak fence, extending about four miles in circumference; he has also built two ornamental rustic lodges, rebuilt the farmery, and put all the premises in perfect condition.
But the ground itself has yet older recollections than any that belong even to the former building. It is supposed to have given a name to the parish of Keston, of which it forms a part, from the camp commonly called Julius Cæsar's camp at Holwood Hill. The remains of this fortification are of an oblong form, commanding an extensive view on every side. It consisted of a circular double, and in some places treble, entrenchment, enclosing about twenty acres of land; into which there