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appeared to have been no original entrance but by the opening to the north-west, which descends to the spring called Cæsar's spring. Some have imagined this was the camp Julius Cæsar made when the Britons gave him the last battle; others have supposed this to have been the remains of the first Roman station from London towards Dover. A third conjecture is, that it was the place where Aulus Plautius the prætor, after his fourth action with the Britons, encamped with his forces, whilst he awaited the arrival of the emperor Claudius. But however antiquaries may differ as to the person by whom this celebrated camp was formed, they all concur in stating it to have been originally a strong and considerable Roman station, though not of the larger sort; but rather from its commanding situation and short distance from the Thames, a camp of observation, or castra oestiva. To Mr. Kempe, who carefully investigated the antiquities of Holwood Hill, and favoured the public with the result of his labours, through the medium of the Military Register, in 1814, we are indebted for the few following remarks :—
"Cæsar's camp is situated on that side of Holwood Hill which forms a sort of inclined plane in a northerly direction; and the site commands a fine view into the Counties of Kent, Surry, Middlesex, and Essex. It was about a mile in circumference; and partook in some degree of the ordinary plan of Roman encampments, oblong, with rounded corners. The whole extent of the remains measured along the interior vallum is about eight hundred paces. The western side is double-ditched; on the northern only one foss is discernable. The inner trench is about fiftyfour feet in width, the outer forty-two; the depth of the inner trench may be about thirty feet, that of the outer considerably less. The camp has two entrances; one to the north, the other to the west. It appears probable that the former was not original, but may have broken through in later days, to form the high road which formerly passed through the centre of the camp. The western aperture conducted the garrison down to the source of the river Ravensbourn. South of the spring there runs out for six or seven hundred yards, in a westerly direction from the camp, an elevated ridge, ditched on the southern side. This ridge might have been a sort of military way, or perhaps was intended as an outwork for the protection of the watering place."
Mr. Kempe, in conclusion, suggests the idea that what is generally known by the name of Keston Camp, was primarily a British town, and the following extract from Cæsar's Commentaries tends in a great measure to confirm his opinion :—
"Oppidum autem Britanni vocant quum sylvas impeditas vallo atque fossâ muniêrunt, quo incursionis hostium vitandæ causâ convenire consueverunt. Eò proficiscitur cum legionibus locum reperit egregie naturâ atque opere munitum. Tamen hunc duabus ex partibus oppugnare contendit. Hostes paulisper morati militum nostrorum impetum non tulerunt,, seseque ex aliâ parte oppidi ejecerunt. Magnus ibi numerus pecoris repertus."-Cæsar, lib. v. cap. 7.
It may be that the fortifications were originally British, and that the Romans upon their arrival, finding the situation commodious, occupied it as a permanent station. The outlines do not conform to the known character of Roman castrametation, yet there can be no doubt of its having been one of their strongholds. A variety of articles have, from time to time, been dug up, which, although of great antiquity, do not afford any precise date of Roman occupation.
In the rear of Holwood the proprietor has formed a vineyard, which, if conducted with the judgment and circumspection that mark the commencement, may prove that the climate of England is suited to the open culture of the grape. Ten sorts of vines, five black and five white, from different parts of the Rhine and Burgundy, have been imported. They are planted on a slope towards the S.S.E. Difficulties and partial failures are to be expected on the outset of the experiment, and are to be overcome, in its progress, by enlarged experience and information respecting the treatment of the plants in foreign countries. That the vine flourished here several centuries ago can be proved historically. There is likewise evidence of it in the old names of places still existing. For instance, in London there is "Vineyard Gardens," Clerkenwell; and in Kent, there is a field near Rochester Cathedral, which has been immemorially called "The Vines." Many examples of this nature might be adduced. But far stronger than presumptive testimony is the fact, that, in some parts of the weald of Kent, the vine grows wild in the hedges.
Appleton-upon-Wiske, co. York.
"Where Hamilton's far hills do westward rise,
A sylvan country, sweet, contiguous lies,
Those people came from fertile Cleveland's plain,
THE manor of Appleton-upon-Wiske, in Cleveland, in the North Riding of the county of York, at the time of the general survey, was in the hands of the Conqueror; in "Doomesday-book" we find it thus mentioned :
Manerium in Apeltune. Orme VI. Carucatas ad
It was afterwards granted by the Conqueror to Robert de Brus, Lord of Skelton, who gave the same to the famous Abbey of St. Mary's at York, founded by Stephen, Abbot of Whitby, about the year 1080. It continued part of the possessions of that rich monastery (whose annual revenues at the time of the dissolution were computed at £2085 1s. 53d.—an immense sum in those days) to the time of the general dissolution, when it was granted by King Henry VIII. to Charles Brandon, afterwards Duke of Suffolk. Male issue failing in this family, the manor was granted by King Edward VI., in 1551, to Charles Vincent, Esq. After divers alienations, Appleton-upon-Wiske came into the possession of the Ferrands, and was subsequently purchased by the Allans, of Blackwell Grange, in the county of Durham;" a family," says Ord, in his History of Cleveland, "illustrious not only in antiquity and honourable descent, but also in science, literature, and the achievements of the intellect; without which the glittering coronet is but an empty bauble, and the pomp of heraldry a ridiculous burlesque." It passed to James Allan, of Blackwell Grange, Esq., and descended to his son George Allan, Esq., F.S.A., the eminent antiquary, genealogist, and local historian, and then to his son George Allan, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., M.P., who died in 1828. Robert Henry Allan, of Blackwell Hall, Esq., F.S.A., a Justice of the Peace for the county of
Durham, and North Riding of the county of York, is the present proprietor and Lord of the Manor. It is a somewhat remarkable coincidence, that this gentleman should be directly descended from William the Conqueror as well as Robert de Brus, the ancient lords of Appletonupon-Wiske.-See "Burke's Royal Families, with their Descendants," Pedigree lxvii.
Appleton-upon-Wiske is famous as the reputed birth-place of Thomas Rhymer, the celebrated author of "Fœdera," who was educated at the grammar-school of the neighbouring town of Northallerton. He was afterwards admitted a scholar of Cambridge, then became a member of Gray's Inn, and was appointed historiographer to King William. To the severer studies of history was added an intimate acquaintance with the arts of polite literature, including poetic composition, which he exhibited in his "View of the Tragedies of the Last Age," and the production of a Tragedy founded on the history of King Edgar. His "Foedera ❞—a collection of all the public transactions, treaties, &c., with the Kings of England and foreign Princes-is esteemed one of the most laborious, authentic, and valuable of records, and is frequently referred to by the best English writers. This illustrious historian died in 1713. Two persons of the name of Rhymer still reside at Appleton-upon-Wiske, probably descendants of the same family-viz., John Rhymer, schoolmaster; and William Rhymer, innkeeper. One Thomas Rhymer, another schoolmaster, also resides at the neighbouring village of Crathorne.
AMONG the many changes which are occurring in the world around us, we have to notice the very great estimation in which the monks of old are held now, in comparison to the opinions that prevailed upon the subject of religious orders some few years back; and, as we mean to strengthen our assertion, we quote the following:
"Monastic orders were beyond all price in those days of misrule and turbulence, when (it may be imperfectly, yet better than elsewhere) God was worshipped-as a quiet and religious refuge for helpless infancy and old agea shelter of respectful sympathy for the orphan maiden and the desolate widow -as central points whence agriculture was to spread over bleak hills and barren downs and marshy plains, and deal its bread to millions perishing of hunger and its pestilential train-as repositories of the learning which then was, and wellsprings of the learning which was to be as nurseries of art and science, giving the stimulus and the means, and the reward to invention, and aggregating around them every head that could devise, and every hand that could execute."
Thus speaks a voice from the library of his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of the Church of England; and this is the conclusion arrived at by the Keeper of the MSS. at Lambeth.
This just tribute to the teachers of religion and learning in England, is from the pen of the Rev. S. R. Maitland, F.R.S. and F.S.A., Librarian to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Convents were usually placed in picturesque situations, often retired from the prying eyes of the worldly. They stood environed by woods or mountains, and commonly had, in Byron's words-
"A hill behind
To shelter their devotions from the wind."
Here the brethren dwelt in prayer and peace, surrounded by a happy and contented tenantry, and poured forth their store with bounteous hand to prince or peasant seeking them in need. Whether he came begirt by retainers, or making his lonely round, the wayfarer was sure of a welcome and refreshment. But you will say, what reference has this to Forglen House, the seat of Sir Robert Abercromby? Much, dear reader! for where now that splendid specimen of Tudor architecture stands, uprearing its turrets into the azure air, an ancient dwelling stood, and, with the lands of Forglen, belonged to the Monks of Aberbortwick.
The house is a truly magnificent building, in the form of a hollow square, with a tower eighty-six feet high rising from the centre. It is more than 150 feet in frontage, but not above 120 in depth. The accommodation, however, must be very great, from the size of the mansion. The situation is exceedingly well chosen. Ascending from the river Doveron rises a lawn adorned with clumps of noble trees, and, on the ascent, stands Forglen House. The name is said to be derived from Forglen, signifying the hollow valley; and, if this be true, the appellation is very suitable. It appears likewise that Forber meant church lands, which probably Light be used to denote the proprietors. North and west is a range of highlands, clothed in wood, adding much to the beauty of the scene; and the lover of nature and art combined has a rich treat in visiting this domain. In the house is the gigantic head and antlers of one of the ancient Irish elks found in a bog under Cain Thurna Mountain, near Fermoy, Sir Robert's town in Ireland. These magnificent remains of a lost tribe of deer measure
As it was long considered to be an argument against Ireland being thickly wooded that these giant antlers were extant, which would have prevented the animal from making way through any wood, I happened to mention the subject on a late visit to the Royal Dublin Society house, and there learned that Providence provided for this very difficulty; for that muscles were placed near the root of each antler, by which the elk could project one and throw back the other, so as to form nearly a horizontal line, and thus get through any place the head could make way in. There are many fine oil-paintings adorning the sitting rooms.
The present dwelling was built by Sir Robert not many years ago, and occupies the site of a very ancient edifice erected about the middle of the
fourteenth century, and, as a stone over the doorway informs us, added to A. D. 1575--7. Several stones, rudely carved with moral maxims, somewhat in the style we observe now-a-days on Swiss cottages in the German cantons, have found preservation, being built into the walls of the present house. This place, and all the lands adjoining, were granted in the years 1178 and 1211, by William the Lion to the Monks of Abyrbrothoc, on the terms of their keeping and bearing the sacred standard, or breacbannoch, in the king's army. Stalwart men I ween were the monks of Abyrbrothoc to have such an honour conferred on them, and not inconsistent with the tonsured head was the steel morion. Churchmen lost nothing of their martial prowess in those days by their vows of religion, and in matters of civil, if not religious, controversy, shewed themselves
"Fire-eyed disputants, who believed their swords
The Know, a stout soldier-bishop, moved in the thick of the fight at Brannockburn; and, in Lord Campbell's entertaining "Lives of the Lord Chancellors of England," he mentions many a reverend chancellor, and grave lord keeper, who "led the brawls," and set lance in rest and sword in hand during the wars of the Roses. Even in our times a military ardour seems not inconsistent with the clerical habit, and it would cause no great surprise if the public prints announced that his holiness, Pius IX., appeared before Ferrara at the head of his legions, commanded by cardinals for generals, and other ranks of the hierarchy in relative positions throughout the army.
The estate of Forglen, and the honours thereunto appertaining, appear to have remained with the monks until the reign of Henry VIII. caused such a revulsion in monastic institutions. It seems, however, they were in the habit of granting these lands of Forglen in tenure with the conditions annexed, on which they held themselves, as appears by the following: "Instrumentum super homagio Alexandri Irwyn pro terris de Forglene, et quod tenentis Regalitatis cum dicto Alexandro ad exercitum Domini Regis, sub le Brebannoch meabunt et equitabunt." These grants were renewed from time to time, and in testimony of this royal distinction, the arms of Scotland were placed over the doorway of the mansion, above the heraldic honours of the family.
From the monks and their tenants, the broad lands and hills, with their woods and waters, passed into the hands of the Ogilvies of Banff, and, on the death of William, eighth lord of Banff, the property descended to Lady Abercromby, of Birkenbog, mother of Sir Robert. The present baronet is chief of his clan, which dignity, previous to the seventeenth century, belonged to another branch of this ancient family, who derived the name from a territory in Fifeshire, upon the extinction of which the chieftaincy came to the branch of Birkenbog. Sir Alexander Abercromby, the first baronet, created in 1637, took a very active part against the Stuart claims, and was so devoted an adherent to the Kirk against Prelacy, that he was styled "a main Covenanter." He took the field, and fought so stoutly against the Royalists at the battle of Auldearn, that Montrose vowed vengeance against him, and never rested until he quartered his army at Birkenbog.
View of the Diocese of Aberdeen, printed from the MSS. in the Advocate's Library, Edinburgh, and presented by the Earl of Aberdeen to the Spalding Club.