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my notion by the fact that yol, or yule, so repeatedly occurs as a simple exclamation, either to express boisterous mirth or as an accompaniment to some superstitious ceremony. As to Todd's derivation of the word from the Hebrew GNOUL, a child, it is too absurd for argument.


Among the Anglo-Saxons this day was the beginning of the year; and in the shows of a later, but still remote, time, Christmas was personified in his pageant by an old man hung round with savoury dainties.'


"No sooner had midnight passed, and the Day of the Nativity commenced, than the people hastened to welcome it with carols, and these, as Bourne tells us, were generally sung with some others from the nativity to the Twelveth Day, the continuance of Christmas.' In the present day, the place of the carols is supplied amongst the higher and middling classes by tunes played just before midnight by the so-called Waits, whilst the carols themselves are annually published in the humblest form, and with the coarsest wood cuts, for amusement of the people.

"On the Christmas Day these carols used at one time to take the place of psalms in the churches, and more particularly at the afternoon service, the whole congregation joining in them. At the end of the carol the clerk would declare, in a loud voice, his wishes for a merry Christmas and a happy new year to all the parishioners.


'Carol-singing was, and still is, a custom on the continent, as we find mentioned in Lady Morgan's ITALY; and, though now it is confined with us to the humbler classes, yet in former times it amused the highest. At the table,' says Leland, in the medell of the hall sat the Deane and thoos of the king's chapell, whiche incontynently after the king's furst course singe a carall.'

"In conclusion, so far as regards this part of my subject, I am tempted to say a few words upon the etymology of CAROL. Johnson would seem to be unquestionably right in deducing it from the Italian, carola, though carola does not mean a song, but 'a round dance accompanied by song,' being itself derived from the Greek xopos or the Latin chorus, both of which equally signified mixture of song and dance. It is true that carol is restricted in its meaning to song only, but precisely the same limitation of sense has happened with the word chorus, which has been borrowed from the same original, and which yet, with us, excludes all idea of dancing. The only thing that appears to militate against the supposition is, that we have in the middle-age Latinity the word carola with four very different meanings. In the barbarous language of the cloisters, it signified :—1st, a balustrade or railing-2ndly, a procession around chapels enclosed within railings-3rdly, a chest to hold writing materials, with a lock and key, such as was forbidden to be kept in the monks' dormitories without especial permission of the Abbot-and lastly, it was used for some smaller specimens of gold or silver work, but of what particular kind it is impossible to say. Now the connexion between this word and our carol is by no means evident, and yet, the two being so exactly similar in sound and spelling, one cannot altogether get rid of the idea of their somehow being the same, though to all appearance so completely sundered by difference of meaning.

"The earliest known collection of carols supposed to have been published is only known from the last leaf of a volume, printed by Wynkin de Worde in 1521. It is now in the Bodleian Library, and has two carols upon it; the one a caroll of huntynge' reprinted in the last edition of Juliana Berners' Boke of St. Albans; the other, a Caroll on bringing up a bore's head to the table on Christmas Day,' which is given by Ritson in the second volume of his Ancient Songs, p. 14. The carol, however, as it is now heard at Queen's College, Oxford, differs much from the old version, and is sung every Christmas Day in the Hall to the common chaunt of the prose version of the psalms in Cathedrals.*

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The bores-heed in hand bring I,
With garlands gay and rosemary;
I pray you all synge merely,
Qui estis in convivio.

The bores-heed, I understande,
Is the chefe servyce in this lande;
Loke wherever it be fonde,

Servite cum cantico.

Be gladde, lordes, both more and lasse,
For this hath ordeyned our stewarde

To chere you all this Christmasse,

The bores-heed with mustarde.

The Carol as sung at Queen's College, Oxford, and given in Dibdin's Ames. Vol. ii. p. 252.

The boar's-head in hand bear I,

Bedeck'd with bays and rosemary;
And I pray you, my masters, be merry,
Quot estis in convivio.
Caput Apri defero

Reddens laudes Domino.

The boar's-head, as I understand,
Is the rarest dish in all this land,
Which thus bedeck'd with a gay garland
Let us servire cantico.

Caput Apri defero

Reddens laudes Domino.

Our steward hath provided this
In honour of the King of Bliss,
Which on this day to be serv'd is
In reginensi atrio.

Caput Apri defero

Reddens laudes Domino.


Anderson, Mrs. Mary, of Belle Vue, Coupar Angus, co. Perth, widow of Dr. John Anderson, 2nd Nov.

Ashwell, Mrs. James, of Tonbridge Wells, 15th Nov.

Attwood, W., Esq., of Brompton Row, 1st Nov., aged 65.

Bailey, Thomas, Esq., of Limehouse, Sur-
geon, 10th Nov., aged 59.
Banks, Lydia, wife of W. H. Banks, Esq.,
R.N., 29th Oct., at Gosport.
Barlow, Geo. Francis, Esq., of the Manor
House, Brompton, 6th Nov., aged 74.
Bassan, Mrs. Ann, widow of Joseph Bas-
san, Esq., Surgeon, R.N., 4th Nov.
Becket, Charles, only son of C. A. Becket,
Esq., of Gravesend, 9th Nov.
Beddington, Mrs. Edward, of Stockton
Court, co. Worcester, 4th Nov., aged


Begbie, Mary Hamilton, wife of Major

Thomas Stirling Begbie, 29th Oct., aged 56.

Berkeley, Mary, relict of the late Row

land Berkeley, Esq., of Benefield, co. Northampton, 30th Oct., aged 81. Bettesworth, James Trevannion, Esq., A.D.C. to Major Gen. Bambrigge, C.B., 14th Nov.

Blackett, Powell Charles, Esq., Surgeon,
R.N., 6th Nov., aged 60.
Bolland, the Rev. William, 29th May, at
New Plymouth, New Zealand, aged 27.
Brabant, Catherine Mary, dau. of W. H.
Brabant, Esq., 25th Oct., aged 5.
Brenchley, John, Esq., of Wanlass How,

co. Westmoreland, 10th Nov., aged 68. Brereton, Mrs. Sarah, of Richmond Terrace, Paddington, 23d Oct.

Brooks, Thomas Beedle, Esq., of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Law. 15th Nov.

Brown, John, Esq., of Sudbury Hill

House, Harrow, 27th Oct., aged 82. Brown, Thomas, Esq., late Surgeon at Berkhampstead, 5th Now.

Burn, Henry, Esq., of Brixton, 9th Nov., aged 60.

Burton, Lieut.-Col. of the Royal Marines,
26th Oct., aged 63.
Butler, Harriett, widow of Colonel R. W.
Butler, Bengal Artillery, 1st Nov.
Butler, Thomas, only son of the late Thos.
Butler, Esq., of Trinity Square, 13th

Byng, Miss, elder sister of the late Geo.
Byng, Esq., M.P., 29th Oct.
Chambers, William, Esq., Com. R.N.,
27th Oct., aged 45. Captain Cham-

bers was eldest son of the late Sir Samuel Chambers, of Bredgar House, Kent, by Barbara, his wife, dau. of the Hon. Philip Roper, and nephew of Mr. Chambers, the Banker, of Bond-street, whose misfortunes are so well known. Chisenhale, John Chisenhale, Esq.,at Arley Hall, Lancashire, 27th Oct., aged 58. This gentleman, whose patronymic was Johnson, assumed the surname of Chisenhale on succeeding to the es tates of his maternal ancestors, one of whom was the famous Colonel Chisenhale, so distinguished as one of the defenders of Lathom House, under the heroic Countess of Derby.

Chisholm, Alexander, Esq., Cor. Mem. F.S.A., Sc., at Rothsay, Isle of Bute. Clarke, Charlotte, relict of William Stanley Clarke, Esq., 12th Nov., at Letherhead, aged 70.

Cochrane, Maria, relict of James Coch

rane, Esq., at Wilton-street, 7th Nov. Cole, Lady Frances, relict of the late Gen. the Hon. Sir I. Lowry Cole, 1st Nov., aged 64. Her Ladyship was relict of the late eminently distinguished officer, Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole, and second dau. of James, 1st Earl of Malmesbury, the celebrated diplomatist of the reign of George III. Lady Frances was born 22nd of August, 1784, and married 15th June, 1815. She leaves three sons (the eldest, Arthur Lowry Cole, a Captain in the 69th), and four daughters.

Coleman, Mathew Leonard, Esq., of the
War office, 23d Oct, aged 67.
Collett, Christopher Theophilus, Esq., of
Magdalen Hall, Oxon., fourth son of
the late Rev. Robert Collett, M.A., of
Westerham, Kent, 19th Oct., aged 22.
Cooper, Major-Gen. George, command-

ing the Durapore division of the Bengal Army, 27th Aug., aged 67. Cornwallis, the Countess of, 4th Nov., aged 37. The death of this estimable lady took place at St. Leonard's-onSea, after a lengthened illness, at the early age of thirty-seven. Her Ladyship was fourth daughter of Thomas

Bacon, Esq., of Redlands, Berkshire, and became, on the 4th of August, 1842, the third wife of the present Earl Cornwallis, by whom she leaves an only child, the Lady Julia Mann Cornwallis, an infant of three years old. Courthope, the Rev. William, Rector of Westmeston, &c., 29th Oct., aged 79. Coverdale, Mrs. John, of Bedford Row, 16th Nov.

Crawley, John Richard, only son of Ambrose Crawley, Esq., E.I.C.S., Madras, at Rochlitz, Saxony, 26th Sept., aged


Crompton, Claude Alexander, son of Joshua S. Crompton, Esq., of Sion Hill, co. York, 18th Nov., aged 9. Cruden, Robert Peirce, Esq., at Milton, next Gravesend, 30th Oct., aged 72. Deason, Margaret, relict of the late Rev. Thomas Deason, Rector of Whitworth, co. Durham, 5th Nov.

Deffell, John Henry, Esq., of Upper Harley-street, 28th Oct., aged 70.

Dennet, Captain C., E.I.C.S., 16th Nov., aged 45.

Dibdin, the Rev. Thomas Frognall, D.D., Rector of St. Mary's, &c., Bryanstonesquare, 18th Nov., aged 72. Dick, Frederick Lacy, Esq., Magistrate of the Court of Negombo, Ceylon, second surviving son of Samuel Dick, Esq., of Upper Mount Bonchurch, Isle of Wight, 27th Aug., aged 32. He was shot by an unseen hand, while in pursuit of a notorious burglar. Dickenson, the Rev. Robert, M.A., Rector of Headley, Hants., 1st Nov., aged 78.

Dillon, the Rev. R. C. Dillon, D.D., 8th Nov., aged 52.

Dizi, F., Esq., of Albert-street, Regent's Park, at Paris, 23rd Oct., aged 67. Dobull, Richard John, Esq., at Plymouth, 13th Nov, aged 60.

Dorme, Edward John, only son of E. Dorme, Esq., of Woodlands, Sussex, and Upper Harley-street, 15th Nov., aged 28.

Dorville, Lieut.-Colonel Philip, C.B., 10th Nov., aged 74. Drinkwater, Mary Anne, late of Warrington, dau. of the late Peter Drinkwater, Esq., of Latchford, 2nd Nov., aged 75.

Dunn, Robert, Esq., at Howden, 29th Oct. Dyer, John C. W., Esq., Surgeon, eldest

son of Captain G. L. Dyer, formerly of the 65th Regiment, and of Alnwick, 15th Nov., aged 38.

Edwards, Edward, Esq., 14th June. Egelstone, Elizabeth, eldest dau. of the late James Egelstone, Esq., of Windsor, 17th Nov.

Elliott, Captain H., E.L.C.S., at Wormley, Herts., 9th Nov., aged 73. Elsgood, Mrs. Martha, of Brook-street, 15th Nov., aged 63.

Enony, Mr. John William Joseph, jun., Student of Medicine, University, London, 25th Oct.

Escombe, William, Esq., Bombay Civil
Service, at Marseilles, 23d Oct.
Fagan, Maria, widow of Major-General
Christopher Fagan, E. I. C. S., and se-
cond dau. of the Rev. Charles Gibbon,
of Lonmay, N.B., 5th Nov.
Flood, Valentine, Esq., M.D., formerly of
Dublin, 19th Oct.

Fortescue, Hester, Dowager Countess of,
13th Nov., aged 87. The Right Hon.
Hester Countess Fortescue, was third
daughter of the famous politician,
George Grenville, and sister of George,
first Marquis of Buckingham. Her
Ladyship was born the 30th Nov. 1760;
she married the 10th May, 1782, Hugh,
third Baron and first Earl Fortescue,
by whom she had three sons and six
daughters. The present Earl is her
eldest son, and among her daughters
are Lady King, Lady Newton Fellowes,
Lady Ann Wilbraham, Lady Williams,
and Lady Courtenay. The Countess
Dowager Fortescue died, after a pro-
longed illness, at Meare Gifford, the
family seat, in Devonshire, at the ad-
vanced age of nearly 87.
Fourdrinier, Mr. Sealy, one of the paten-
tees of the paper machine, and the chief
introducer into this country of the pre-
sent manufacture of paper, 27th Oct.,
aged 76.

Freeman, Mrs. Margt,. eldest dau. of the late Arthur Freeman, Esq., of the Island of Antigua, 8th Nov.

Gardner, Isabella, relict of the late Richard Gardner, Esq., of Mecklenburghsquare, and of Stokeshall, Essex, 20th Oct.

Gibb, Lieut. H. W., Bombay Artillery,
second son of H. S. Gibb, Esq., of
Rugby, 3rd Sept., at Kuralec, Scinde.
Gillmore, Capt. John, Bengal Engineers,
24th August, at Mhow, India.
Glenie, the Venerable Archdeacon, 23rd
August, at Ceylon, aged 64.
Grassett, William, Esq., late Capt. 7th
Hussars, eldest son of the late William
Grassett, Esq., of Ovenden House,
Kent, 31st Oct., aged 34.

Grissell, Thomas de la Garde, Esq., late of the East India House, 28th Oct., aged 70.

Grover, Capt. John, F.R.S., &c., 6th Nov., at Brussels.

Haggard, Elizabeth, relict of William Haggard, Esq., of Bradenham Hall,

Norfolk, and dau. of the late James Meybhon, of St. Petersburgh, 1st. Nov. Haines, Parton, Esq., of Devonport, 26th Oct., aged 71.

Hall, Walter, Esq., of James-street, and Ruffside, co. Durham, 14th Nov., aged


Hall, Benjamin, Esq., of Buxted Lodge, near Uckfield, Sussex, 10th Nov., aged


Hall, Robert Willis, Esq., of Ravensbourne Park, Lewisham, 9th Nov., aged 64.

Hamilton, J. J. E., Esq., only son of Ad-
miral Sir Edward Hamilton, Bart.,
K.C.B., 2nd Nov., aged 39.
Harrison, Mary Beale, second dau. of R.
Tarrant Harrison, Esq., of the Middle
Temple, 17th Nov., aged 14.
Hay, Mrs. Anne, of Upper Seymour-
street, Portman-square, 11th Nov., aged


Hexter, William, Esq., late of Eton College, J. P. and D. L. for Bucks, 8th Nov., at Cheltenham, aged 76. Hibbert, Lieut.-Col. George, C.B., com manding 40th Regt., 12th Nov., aged 57. Hick, Mary, relict of William Franklin Hick, Esq., of Lewes, 10th Nov., aged


Hinrich, Sir Henry Bromley, of Court

Garden, Marlow, 19th Oct., aged 56. Sir Henry was son of Charles Robert Hinrich, Esq., by his wife, Anne Charlotte Thwaits. The honour of knighthood he received 13th Sept., 1831, at the coronation of William IV., being then Lieutenant of the Band of Gentlemen-at-Arms. He married in 1828, Miss Eliza Susanna Dent, and had issue two sons and five daughters. worthy Knight resided, chiefly, at Bisham Cottage, near Marlow, Bucks. Holt, Jane, relict of the late F. L. Holt,


Esq., Q.C., Vice-Chancellor of the co. Palatine of Lancaster, 25th Oct. Hough, the Rev. James, M.A., Minister of Ham, Surrey, 2nd Nov., at Hastings.

Houghton, George Murray, only son of George Houghton, Esq., of Leicester, 15th Nov., aged 27.

Hubbock, Helen, dau. of the late Thomas Hubbock, Esq., of Wellclose-square, 11th Nov.

Hunt, Miss Mary Caroline. of Wadenhoe,

co. Northampton, 30th Oot, Hunter, Mrs. Sarah, relict of Thomas Hunter, Esq., of Jersey, 5th Nov., aged 76.

Jackson, Thomas, Esq., of Upper Park-
street, Islington, 9th Nov.
Jackson, Mr. Postle, Proprietor of the
Ipswich Journal, 15th Nov., aged 69.

Johnston, Maria, relict of Sir William Johnston, Bart., of Hiltown, co. Aberdeen, 27th Oct.

Kay, Thomas, eldest son of the late Thomas Kay, Esq., Merchant, Antwerp, aged 29, at Alexandria.

Keene, Charles, Esq., of Sussex-place, Regent's Park, 26th Oct.

Kelaart, Fanny Sophia, wife of Dr. Edw. Frederick Kelaart, Medical Staff, dau. of the late Phineas Hussey, Esq., of Wrysley Grove, co. Stafford, aged 31, Oct. 31. Her infant son died two days previously.

Kenderley, George, Esq., at Whitechurch, Oxon., 30th Oct., aged 81.

Lake, Rev. Atwill, Rector of West Walton, Norfolk, 8th Nov., aged 72. Lake, Clara Montagu, dau. of Capt. A. Lake, Madras Engineers, 2nd Nov., aged 10 months.

Laughton, Ann Agnes, wife of Richard Laughton, Esq., East India Company's Service, 5th Nov., aged 60.

Lewes, Alfred Thomas Sayer, son of the late Samuel Lewes, Esq., of Deptford, 26th Oct., at Penzance, aged 30. Lewis, Mrs., of Peckham Rye, 6th Nov. Ley, Mary, dau. of John Henry Lee, Esq., of Richmond Terrace, Whitehall, 4th Nov. Lindsell, Henrietta Sarah, youngest dau. of W. B. Lindsell, Esq., of Dane John Grove, Canterbury, 26th Oct. Lloyd, Henry, Esq., of Hastings, formerly of the East India House, 12th Nov., aged 43.

Long, John, youngest son of the late James Long, Esq., of the Royal Exchange, 16th Nov., aged 46.

Lowrey, Camilla, relict of the late Robert Lowrey, Esq., at Farnham, Surrey, 22nd Oct.

Luke, John, eldest son of the late John

Luke, Esq., of Camberwell, 7th Nov., aged 26. M'Cullagh, James, L.L.D. The melancholy death of this learned and distinguished professor, who perished by his own hand, at his rooms, in Dublin College, on the 23rd Oct., has cast a deep gloom over the literary and scientific circles in which he moved. Dr. M'Cullagh, who was only forty years of age at the period of his decease, was formerly Mathematical Professor in the University of Dublin, and succeeded, in 1843, on the elevation of Dr. Lloyd to the Senior Fellowship, to the Chair of Natural Philosophy. It would appear from the evidence at the inquest that his reason had been unsettled by intense application to some intricate problem, unaccompanied by that due

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