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monk of St. Albans as " a romance rather than a history," on the ground of the great discrepancy which he asserts he has found between it and authentic records or contemporary writers, in most instances when he could confront the one with the other.* The 'Historia Major' of Matthew Paris was first printed at London in 1571, under the care of Archbishop Parker; and it has been republished at Zurich in 1606; at London, under the care of Dr. William Wats, in 1640; at Paris in 1644; and at London in 1684. All these editions are in folio. An excellent French translation, by M. A. HuillardBr6holles, has lately been published under the superintendence, or at the cost, of the Due de Luynes, in 9 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1840-41, with a few notes by the translator, but without the Introduction by the duke, promised on the title-page—at least in the only copy of the work that has fallen in our way. An English translation, by Dr. J. A. Giles, has also been announced, but we believe it has not yet appeared. To the edition published by Dr. Wats, and those that have followed it, are appended some other historical pieces of the author; and there also exists, in MS., an abridgment of the 'Historia Major,' drawn up by himself, and generally referred to as the 'Historia Minor.' The History of Matthew Paris was continued by William Rishanger, another monk of the same abbey, whose narrative appears to have come down to the year 1322 (the 15th of Edward II.), although no complete copy is now in existence, and only the earlier part, extending to the death of Henry III. (a.d. 1272), has been printed. It is at the end of Wats's

* Dr. Lingard, Hist. of Eng. iii. 160, edit. of 1837.

edition of Matthew Paris. Rishanger is also the author of several other historical tracts, one of the most curious of which, his Chronicle of the Barons' Wars (preserved in a single MS., with the title of ' De Bellis Lewes et Evesham'), has been lately printed for the Camden Society, under the care of Mr. James Orchard Halliwell, 4to. Lond. 1840. To Rishanger's narrative Mr. Halliwell has appended a collection of miracles attributed to Simon de Montfort, from another MS. in the Cotton Library. What is commonly called the Chronicle of John Bromton, and is printed among the Decem Scriptores (pp. 721-1284) under the titles of 'Chronicon Johannis Bromton,' and 'Joralanensis Historia, a Johanne Brompton, Abbate Jornalensi, Conscripta,' has been shown by Selden, in his most learned and curious preface to that collection, not to be either the composition of Bromton, or in any sense a Chronicle of Jorevale or Jerevaux, of which monastery in Yorkshire, Bromton, Brompton, or Bramton, was abbot. The book was merely procured for the library of that house while he presided over it, and probably through his means. It does not appear from Selden's account when Bromton lived; but he has proved (p. xli.) that the Chronicle must have been written in or after the year 1328, or the second of Edward III. At the commencement the author intimates that it is his design to bring it down to the time of Edward I., but it terminates with the death of Richard I. (a.d. 1199), having set out from the conversion of the Saxons by St. Augustin. It is not therefore, in any part of it, a contemporary history; but the writer has gleaned from some authorities which we do not now possess, and he gives many details which have not elsewhere been preserved. Among the other Latin chroniclers of this period, whose works have been printed, the following are the principal:—Thomas Wikes, or Wycke, in Latin VV'iccius, canon regular of Osney, near Oxford, whose chronicle, otherwise called the Chronicle of the Church of Salisbury, fills from p. 21 to p. 129 of Gale's 'Scriptores Quinque,' and, as there printed, extends from the Conquest to the year 1304, although it is afterwards intimated (p. 595) that the last ten pages of it are by another hand; Walter Hemingford, or, as Leland calls him, Hemingoburgus, a monk of Gisborough in Yorkshire, the portion of whose work extending from the Conquest to the year 1273 (being the first three books) was printed by Gale in the same collection (pp. 453-595), and the remainder, comprehending the reigns of Edward I., Edward II., and the first twenty years of that of Edward III., by Hearne, in 2 vols. 8vo., at Oxford, in 1731; Robert de Avesbury, register of the court of the Archbishop of Canterbury, whose history of the reign of Edward III., ' Historia de Mirabilibus Gestis Edtvardi III.,' which is esteemed for its accuracy, but comes down only to A.d. 1356, was published by Hearne, in 8vo., at Oxford, in 1720; Nicolas Trivet, whose clear and exact history of the reigns of Stephen, Henry II., Richard I., John, Henry III., and Edward I. (or from A.d. 1135 to 1307), is printed in both editions of Father d'Achery's 'Spicilegium' (1671 and 1723), and was also published separately by Anthony Hall, with the title of ' Nicolai Triveti Dominicani Annales Sex Regum Angliae,' in 8vo., at Oxford, in 1719; Adam Murimuth, whose short chronicle, extending from A.d. 1303 to 1337, along with a continuation by an anonymous writer to 1380, was printed by Hall as a second volume to his Trivet in 1721; Henry de Knyghton (or Cnitton, as he himself spells the name), a canon of Leicester, the author of a History of English affairs from the time of the Saxon King Edgar to the death of Richard II., which is printed among the 'Decem Scriptores' (pp. 22972742); and the two ecclesiastical historians, Thomas Stubbs and William Thorne, the Chronicle of the acts of the Archbishops of York to A.d. 1373 by the former of whom, and that of the Abbots of St. Augustin's monastery at Canterbury to 1397 by the latter, are in the same collection (pp. 1685-1734, and 1753-2202). The original Latin 'Polychronicon' of Ranulph or Ralph Higden, monk of St. Werburg's in Chester, which ends in 1357, still remains, for the greater part, in MS., only the portion of it relating to the period of English history before the Norman Conquest having been published by Gale among his ' Scriptores Quindecim' (pp. 177-289); but an English translation of the whole by John de Trevisa, who was vicar of Berkeley in Gloucestershire towards the close of the fourteenth century, was printed, in folio, at Westminster, by Caxton in 1482, at the same place by Wynken de Worde in 1485, and at Southwark in 1517, and again in 1527. Besides many insertions, Caxton has added a continuation of the History down to 1460; but it appears that he has also omitted several passages which are found in Trevisa's MS. now in the Harleian collection. John Fordun, the earliest of the regular Scottish chroniclers, also belongs to the fourteenth century. His History, entitled 'Scotichronicon,' beginning with the creation, comes down only to the end of the reign of David I. (a.d. 1153), but is continued

VOL. I. I

by Walter Bower, abbot of lnchcolm, to the death of James I. (a.d. 1437), the materials for the space from 1153 to 1385 having been collected by Fordun. The portion of the 'Scotichronicon' actually written by Fordun, being the first five of the sixteen books, was printed by Gale among his 'Scriptores Quindecim' (pp. 563-701); and the whole was published by Hearne, at Oxford, in 5 vols. 8vo. in 1722, and again by Walter Goodall, at Edinburgh, in 2 vols. folio, in 1759. The most important of the monastic chronicles belonging to this period which has been preserved is that called (it does not appear for what reason) the Chronicle of Lanercost, which has lately been printed for the Bannatyne and Maitland Clubs, under the superintendence of Mr. Joseph Stevenson, 4to. Edinburgh, 1839. Before this it existed only in one or two very incorrect modern transcripts, and in a single original codex (the Cotton MS. D. vii.), where it is appended, without any break, to an imperfect copy of what is printed by Savile as Hoveden's History. Hoveden ends on the reverse of what is numbered as folio 172 of the MS., having filled from folio 66 inclusive: the continuation, or Lanercost Chronicle, goes on in one handwriting to the end of the volume on the reverse of fol. 242. The time which it comprehends is from A.d. 1201 to 1346 ; and Mr. Stevenson thinks that it was transcribed about the latter date from the contemporary register kept, most probably, in the Minorite monastery of Carlisle. As printed it fills 352 4to. pages; and it abounds in curious and valuable information relating to the course of events both in England and in Scotland during the period over which it extends.

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