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sion of paper money for general circulation. They were dispersed by the militia.
1787. The constitution of the United States was agreed upon in Convention, and was afterwards submitted to the different states for ratification.
1789. March 4th was the day designed for the new government to commence operations. It was, however, prevented until the 30th of April, when the first inauguration of president, under the constitution, took place.
The first object of Congress was to establish a revenue sufficient for the support of government and the discharge of the debt contracted by the war.
The departments of state, of the treasury, and of war, were created. À national judiciary was established and organized.
1790. The government debt was funded, amounting to a little over $75,000,000.
1791. A duty was laid on foreign imports, and a national bank recommended and passed.
1791. The exports amounted to $19,000,000, and the imports to $20,000,000; the revenue to $4,771,000.
1799. Washington died in December.
1800. War was declared against France, and a satisfactory treaty concluded the same year.
1800. The exports were $94,000,000, and the revenue $12,945,000.
1803. The United States national debt was $85,000,000.
1807. America had the carrying trade, Great Britain and France being at war. This
year the British ship Leopard, on the coast of the United States, fired into the United States frigate Chesapeake.
1808. An embargo was laid.
1809. The embargo was repealed, and a non-intercourse with both France and England established in its place.
1811. The British sloop of war Little Belt and the United States ship President had an encounter.
From 1803 to 1811, the British had captured nine hundred American vessels.
1811. The United States Bank charter expired.
1812. June 18. War was declared by the United States against Great Britain. At this time the national debt was reduced to $45,000,000.
1813. Treasury notes were authorized by Congress.
1813. The naval battle on Lake Erie was fought, and the British navy on that lake captured.
1814. A loan to the amount of $20,000,000 was authorized by Congress, and an issue of treasury notes to the amount of $5,000,000 more.
1814. A treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United States was negotiated at Ghent in December; was ratified by the United States Senate in 1815. Thus terminated the second war with Great Britain.
18. By the war, the United States debt was increased
$ 80,000,000 To which add the debt, owing in 1812, of
45,000,000 1815. The amount of debt was
$ 125,000,000 1816. The tariff was revised, a national bank established, and a course of policy entered upon by the government, having in view the support of the government, the payment of the interest of the national debt, and its subsequent liquidation.
1823. The national debt was $91,000,000.
1832. The tariff was again revised, and important alterations inade in it.
Prior to this date, the duties on imports were payable at 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, and 18 months.
By this law, the duty on woollens, and all sums under two hundred dollars, were made cash. On sums over two hundred dollars, three and six months' credit only was allowed. This law went into operation in 1833, from and after the 3d of March.
1833. The removal of the deposits took place. Kendall's. letter to the state banks, dated in August.
1834. In May, the money for the payment of the national debt: was placed in the United States Bank.
1834. The law changing the standard value of gold went into operation July 1.
1834. The withdrawal of small bills from circulation was directed in many of the states. In December, 1834, the amount in New York was $3,730,902. This was, by a law of the legislature, ordered withdrawn in nine months.
1835. In December was the great fire in New York, and loss of insurance stock. '34, '35, and '36, excessive importations of specie took place.
1836. The final withdrawal of the United States Bank branches from the states took place, and the distribution of the public revenue.
1836. The specie circular was issued. 1837. There was a deficiency of bread stuffs, and the suspension of specie payments by the banks took place.
1838. The extension of duty on imports, to 6, 9, and 12 months, was directed by government.
1839. The law of 1833, making the duties cash, and 3 and 6 months, was again in operation.
Prior to 1833, the credit given by government on importations of salt was nine months.
Importations of wine, 12 months.
Prices Current, exhibiting a Comparative View of the Relative Value of Bank Notes in 1816 and in 1829,
at various Places.
SIGNERS OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
SAMUEL ADAMS. , The memories of few men will perhaps be cherished, by their posterity, with a more jealous and grateful admiration than those of the patriotic individuals who first signed the political independence of our country. They hazarded by the deed not only their lands and possessions, but their personal freedom and their lives; and when it is considered that most of them were in the vigor of existence, gifted with considerable fortunes, and with all the offices and emoluments at the disposal of royalty within their reach, the sacrifice which they risked appears magnified, and their disinterested patriotism more worthy of remembrance. Although many of them can rest their sole claim to lasting distinction upon the one great act with which they were adventitiously connected, still their lives present a valuable transcript of the times in which they lived, and afford examples of inflexible honesty, heroic decision, and noble energy of mind, quite as interesting as any records of the eccentricities of genius, or the grasping efforts of ambition.
Not one of the least ardent and uncompromising assertors of the rights and liberties of his country, was the subject of our present sketch SAMUEL ADAMS. This gentleman, descended from a respectable family, which emigrated to America with the first settlers of the land, was born at Quincy, in Massachusetts, September 22d, 1722. In 1736, he became a member of Harvard College, and took his degree of master in 1743. On this latter occasion, he proposed the following question, in which he maintained the affirmative: “ Whether it be lawful to resist the supreme magistrate, if the commonwealth cannot be otherwise preserved."