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the 5th of March. In June, 1775, the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts, of which he was at this time president, made him a major-general of their forces. At the battle of Bunker's Hill he fought as a volunteer, and was slain within a few yards of the breastwork, as he was among the last slowly retiring from it. He was a man of the most generous and intrepid spirit, much elegance of manners, and of commanding eloquence. His loss was deeply felt and regretted. In 1776, his remains were removed from the battle-ground, and interred in Boston.
WARREN, JAMES, was born at Plymouth, in 1726, and was graduated at Harvard College, in 1745. He took an early and active part in the cause of the colonies against the aggressions of the mother country, was a member of the General Court, proposed the establishment of committees of correspondence, and, after the death of General Warren, was appointed president of the Provincial Congress. He was afterwards appointed a major-general of the militia. On the adoption of the constitution of Massachusetts, he was for many years speaker of the House of Representatives. He died at Plymouth, in 1808.
WASHINGTON, BUSHROD, an eminent judge, was born in Westmoreland county, Virginia, and was educated at William and Mary's College. He pursued the study of the law in the office of Mr. Wilson, of Philadelphia, and commenced its practice with great success in his native county. In 1781, he was a member of the House of Delegates of Virginia. He afterwards removed to Alexandria, and thence to Richmond,
where he published two volumes of the decisions of the Supreme Court of Virginia. In 1798, he was appointed an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, and continued to hold this situation till his death, in November, 1829. He was the favorite nephew of President Washington, and was the devisee of Mount Vernon.
WINDER, WILLIAM H., an officer in the American army, was born in Maryland, in 1775, was educated for the bar, and pursued his profession in Baltimore with great success. In 1812, he received a colonel's commission, was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, and served with
reputation during the war with Great Britain. He commanded the troops at the battle of Bladensburg. On the declaration of peace, he resumed the practice of his profession. He died in 1824.
WAYNE, ANTHONY, major-general in the army of the United States, was born, in 1745, in Chester county, Pennsylvania. He entered the army as colonel in 1775, served under Gates at Ticonderoga, and was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. He was engaged in the battles of Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth, in 1779 captured the fortress at Stony Point, and rendered other important services during the war. In 1787, he was a member of the Pennsylvanian Convention which ratified the constitution of the United States. In 1792, he succeeded St. Clair in the command of the western army, and gained a complete victory at the battle of the Miamis, in 1794. He died at Presque Isle, in 1796.
LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS OF THE
GEORGE WASHINGTON. George Washington, the illustrious founder of American independence, was born in 1732, in the county of Fairfax, in Virginia, where his father was possessed of great landed property. He was educated under the care of a private tutor, and paid much attention to the study of mathematics and engineering. He was first employed officially by General Dinwiddie, in 1753, in remonstrating to the French commander on the Ohio for the infraction of the treaty between the two nations. He subsequently negotiated a treaty of amity with the Indians of the back settlements, and for his honorable services received the -thanks of the British government. In the unfortunate expedition of General Braddock, he served as aid-de-camp;
and, on the fall of that brave but rash commander, he conducted the retreat to the corps under Colonel Dunbar, in a manner that displayed great military talent. He retired from the service with the rank of colonel; but, while engaged in agriculture at his favorite seat of Mount Vernon, he was elected senator in the national council for Frederick county, and afterwards for Fairfax. At the commencement of the revolutionary war, he was selected as the most proper person to take the chief command of the provincial troops. From the moment of taking upon himself this important office, (in June, 1775,) he employed the great powers of his mind to bis favorite object; and, by his prudence, his valor, and presence of mind, he deserved and obtained the confidence and gratitude of his country, and finally triumphed over all opposition. The record of his services is the history of the whole war. He joined the army at Cambridge, in July, 1775. On the evacuation of Boston, in March, 1776, he proceeded to New York. The battle of Long Island was fought on the 27th of August, and the battle of White Plains on the 28th of October. On the 25th of December, he crossed the Delaware, and soon gained the victories at Trenton and Princeton.
The battle of Brandywine was fought on September 11th, 1777; of Germantown, October 4th; of Monmouth, February 28th, 1778. In 1779 and 1780, he continued in the vicinity of New York, and closed the important military operations of the war by the capture of Cornwallis, at Yorktown, in 1781. When the independence of his country was established by the treaty of peace, Washington resigned his high office to the Congress, and, followed by the applause and the grateful admiration of his fellow-citizens, retired into private lise. His high character and services naturally entitled him to the highest gifts his country could bestow; and, on the organization of the government, he was called upon to be the first president of the states which he had preserved and established. It was a period of great difficulty and danger. The unsubdued spirit of liberty had been roused and kindled by the revolution of France; and many Americans were eager that the freedom and equality, which they themselves enjoyed, should be extended to the subjects of the French
monarch. Washington anticipated the plans of the factious, and, by prudence and firmness, subdued insurrection, and silenced discontent, till the parties, which the intrigues of Genet, the French envoy, had roused to rebellion, were convinced of the wildness of their measures, and of the wisdom of their governor.
The president completed, in 1796, the business of his office by signing a commercial treaty with Great Britain, and then voluntarily resigned his power, at a moment when all hands and all hearts were united again to confer upon him the sove- reignty of the country. Restored to the peaceful retirement of Mount Vernon, he devoted himself to the pursuits of agriculture; and, though he accepted the command of the army in 1798, it was merely to unite the affections of his fellow-citizens to the general good, and was one more sacrifice to his high sense of duty.
General Washington was six feet in height; he appeared taller, as his shoulders rosé a little higher than the true proportion. His eyes were of a gray, and his hair of a brown, color; his limbs were well formed, and indicated strength; his complexion was light, and his countenance serene and thoughtful; his manners were graceful, manly, and dignified; his general appearance never failed to engage the respect and esteem of all who approached him. Reserved, but not haughty, in his disposition, he was accessible to all, in concerns of business; but he opened himself only to his confidential friends, and no art or address could draw from him an opinion which he thought prudent to conceal.
He was not so much distinguished for brilliancy of genius as for solidity of judgment, and consummate prudence of conduct. He was not so eminent for any one quality of greatness and worth, as for the union of those great, amiable, and good qualities, which are very rarely combined in the same character. In domestic and private life, he blended the authority of the master with the care and kindness of the guardian and friend. Solicitous for the welfare of his slaves, while at Mount Vernon, he every morning rode round his estates to examine their condition; for the sick, physicians were provided, and to the weak and infirm every necessary, comfort was administered.
The servitude of the negroes lay with weight upon his mind; he often made it the subject of conversation, and revolved several plans for their general emancipation. His industry was unremitted, and his method so exact, that all the complicated business of his military command and civil administration was managed without confusion and without hurry. Not feeling the lust of power, and ambitious only for honorable fame, he devoted himself to his country upon the most disinterested principles, and his actions wore not the semblance, but the reality, of virtue: the purity of his motives was accredited, and absolute confidence placed in his patriotism.
While filling a public station, the performance of his duty took the place of pleasure, emolument, and every private consideration. During the more critical years of the war, a smile was scarcely seen upon his countenance; he gave himself no moments of relaxation, but his whole mind was engrossed to execute successfully his trust. He was as eminent for piety as for patriotism; his public and private conduct evince, that he impressively felt a sense of the superintendence of God, and of the dependence of
In his addresses, while at the head of the army and of the national government, he gratefully noticed the signal blessings of Providence, and fervently commended his country to divine benediction. In private, he was known to have been habitually devout. In the establishment of his presidential household, he reserved to himself the Sabbath, free from the interruptions of private visits or public business; and, throughout the eight years of his civil administration, he gave to the institutions of Christianity the influence of his example. Uniting the talents of the soldier with the qualifications of the statesman, and pursuing, unmoved by difficulties, the noblest end by the purest means, he had the supreme satisfaction of beholding the complete success of his great military and civil services, in the independence and happiness of his country. He died, after a short illness, on the 14th of December, 1799. He was buried with the honors due to the noble founder of a happy and prosperous republic. History furnishes no parallel to the character of Washington. He stands on an unapproached eminence-distinguished almost beyond hu