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quence, I fear it will sow the seeds of dissension and distrust between us and oar, new allies, unless the most prudent measures be taken to suppress the feuds and jealousies that have already arisen. I depend much on your temper' and influence to conciliate that animosity which subsists between the American and French officers in our service. I beg you will take every measure to keep the protest entered into by the general officers from being made public. Congress, sensible of the ill consequences that will flow from our differences being known to the world, have passed a resolve to that purpose. Upon the whole, my dear sir, you can conceive my meaning better than I can express it, and I therefore fully depend on your exerting yourself to heal all private animosities between our principal officers and the French, and to prevent all illiberal expressions and reflections that may fall from the army at large." '. Washington also improved the first Opportunity of recommencing his correspondence with count D'Estaing, in a letter to him, which, without noticing the disagreements that had taken place, was well calculated to sooth every angry sensation which might have rankled in his mind. In the course of a short correspondence, the irritation which

threatened threatened serious mischief entirely gave way to returning good humour and cordiality.

In another case, no less than that which has been just related, the correct judgment of Washington proved serviceable to his country. In the last half of the year 1778, when the most active part of the campaign was over, congress decided on a magnificent plan for the conquest of Canada. This was to be attempted in 1779, by land and water on the side of the United States, and by a fleet and army from France. The plan was proposed, considered, and agreed to, before Washington was informed of it. He was then desired to write to Dr. Franklin, the American minister at Paris, to interest him in securing the proposed co-operation of France. In reply to the communications of congress, he respectfully stated several difficulties which Opposed the execution of their wishes, and concluded by proposing, that he should for a short time leave his army, and wait upon congress. This was agreed to, and a committee of their body was appointed to confer with him on the sub ject. The result was, that the proposed expedition against Canada was given up by those who, after repeated deliberations, had resolved upon it.

CHAP. VI.

CAMPAIGN OF 1775.

Discontents in the Jersey line composed by Washington. —British invade Connecticut.—Sullivan attacks the six nations bf Indians.—General Wayne reduces Stoney Point.—Major Lee surprises Paulus Hook.

The years 1779 and 1780 passed away it* the northern states Without any of those great military exploits which enliven the pages of history; but they were years of anxiety anddistress, which called for all the passive valour, the sound practical judgment, and the conciliatory address, for which Washington was so eminently distinguished. The states, yielding to the pleasing delusion, that their alliance with France placed their independence be}rond the reach of accident, and that Great Britain, despairing of success, would speedily abandon the contest, relaxed in their preparations for a vigorous prosecution of the war. To these ungrounded hopes, Washington opposed the whole weight of his influence. In his correspondence with congress and the governors of particular states, he pointed out the fallacy of the prevailing opinion, that peace was near at hand, and insisted on the necessity of raising, equipping, and supporting a force sufficient for active operations. He particularly urged, that the annual arrangements for the army should be made so early, that the recruits for the year should assemble at head quarters on the 1st of January. But such was the torpor of the public mind, that, notwithstanding these representations, it was not until the 23d of January 1779, that congress passed resolu- 1779tions, authorizing the commander in chief to reinlist the army, nor until the 9th of the following March that the requisitions were made on the several states for their quotas. The military establishment for 1780 was later, for it was not agreed upon till the 9th of February, nor were the men required before the 1st of April. Thus, when armies ought to have been in the field, nothing more was done than a grant of requisite authority for raising them.

The depreciation of the current paper money had advanced so rapidly, as to render the daily pay of an officer unequal to his support. This produced serious discontents in the army. An order was given in May 1779, for the Jersey brigade to march by regiments to join the western army. In answer to this order a letter was received from general Maxwell, stating, that the officers of the first regiment had delivered to the colonel a

remonstrance,

remonstrance, addressed to the legislature of New Jersey, in which they declared, "that unless former complaints on the deficiency of their pay obtained immediate attention, they were to be considered, at the end of three days, as having resigned their commissions; and on that contingency they requested the legislature to appoint other officers in their stead." General Washington, who was strongly attached to the army, and knew their virtue —their sufferings—and also the justice of their complaints, immediately comprehended the ruinous consequences likely to result from the measures they had adopted. After serious deliberation, he wrote a letter to general Maxwell, to be laid before the officers. In the double capacity of their friend and their commander, he made a forcible address both to their pride and their patriotism. "There is nothing," he observed, " which has happened in the course of the war, that has given me so much pain as the remonstrance you mention from the officers of the first Jersey regiment. I cannot but consider it as a hasty and imprudent step, which, on more cool consideration, they will themselves condemn. I am very sensible of the inconveniencies under "which the officers of the army labour; and I hope they do me the justice to believe, that 14 :, my

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