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General- Knox was continued in the department of war which he had filled under the old congress.
The office of attorney-general was assigned to Mr. Edmund Randolph.
These composed the cabinet council of the first president.
The judicial department was filled as follows:
John Jay, of New York, chief justice. John Rutledge, of South Carolina, James Wilson, of Pennsylvania, William Cushing, of Massachusetts,Robert Harrison, of Maryland, and John Blair, of Virginia; associate judges. The officers who had been appointed by the individual states to manage the revenue, which under the old system was paid into the state treasury, were reappointed to corresponding offices under the new constitution, by which the revenue had been transferred from the local to the general treasury of the union.
It was among the first cares of Washington to make peace with the Indians. General Lincoln, Mr. Griffin, and colonel Humphries, very soon after the inauguration of the president, were deputed by him to treat with the Creeks. These met M'Gillvray and other
I , chkfs chiefe of that nation, with about 2.000 men, at the Rock landing, on the frontiers of Georgia- The negotiations were soon broken off by MKjillvray, whose personal interests and connexions with Spain were supposed to have been the real cause of their abrupt and unsuccessful termination. The next year brought round an accomplishment of the president's wishes, which had failed in the first attempt. Policy and interest concurred in recommending every prudent measure for detaching the Creek Indians from all connexion with the Spaniards, and cementing their friendship with the United States. Treaties carried on with them in the vicinity of the Spanish settlements promised less than negotiations conducted at the seat of the general government. To induce a disposition favourable to this change of place, the president sent colonel Willet, a brave and intelligent officer of the late army, into the Greek country, apparently on .private business, but with a letter of introduction to M'Gillvray, with instructions to take occasional opportunities to point out the distresses which a W/ar with the United States would bying on the Creek nation, and the indiscretion of their breaking off the negotiation at the Rock landing, and to exhort hii» • II to
to repair with the chiefs of his nation to New York, in orler to effect a solid and lasting peace. Willet performed these duties with so much dexterity, thatM'Gillvray, with the chiefs of his nation, were induced to come to New York, where fresh negotiations commenced, which, on the 7th of August 1790, terminated in the establishment of peace.
The pacific overtures made by Washington to the Indians of the Wabash and of the Miamis failed of success. Long experience had taught the president, that on the failure of negotiation with Indians, policy, ceconomy, and even humanity required the employment of a sufficient force to carry offensive war into their country, and lay waste their settlements. The accomplishment of this was no easy matter. The Indian nations were numerous, accustomed to war, and not without discipline. They were said to be furnished with arms and ammunition from the British posts held within the United States, in violation of the treaty of peace. Generals Barmar and St. Clair were successively defeated by the Indians; and four or five years elapsed before they were subdued. This was accomplished by general Wayne, in 1794. Soon after that event, a peace was concluded under his auspices, between these Indians and.the United States. In the progress of this last Indian war, repeated overtures of peace were made to the north-weftern Indians, but rejected. About the same period, a new system was commenced for turning them off from hunting to the employments of civilized life, by furnishing them with implements and instructions for agriculture and manufactures.
In this manner,, during the presidency of George Washington, peace was restored to the frontier settlements, both in the north and south west, which has continued ever since, and is likely so to do ; while at the same time the prospect of meliorating the condition of the savages is daily brightening; for the system first begun by Washington with the- view of civilizing these fierce sons of nature has been ever since steadily pursued by all his successors. Indian wars are now only known from the records or recollection of past events; and it is probable that the day is. not far distant, when the United States will receive a considerable accession of citizens from the civilized red men of the forest.
General Washington attends to the foreign relations of the United States.—Negotiates with Spain.— Difficulties in the way.—.The free navigation of the Mississippi is granted by a treaty made with major Pinckney.— Negotiations with Britain.—Difficulties in the way.— War probable.—Mr. Jay's mission.—His treaty with Great Britain.—Opposition thereto.—Is ratified.— Washington refuses papers to the house of representatives.—British posts in the United States evacuated.-^Negotiations with France:—Genet's arrival.—Assumes powers in violation of the neutrali ty of theUnited States. —Is flattered by the people.—But opposed by the executive.—Is recalled.—General Pinckney sent as public minister to adjust disputes with France.—Is not received. —Washington declines a re-election, and addresses the people.—His last address to the national legislature.—. Recommends a navy, a military academy, and other public institutions.
Events which had taken place before the inauguration of Washington embarrassed his negotiations for the adjustment of the political relations between the United States and Spain.
In the year 1779, Mr. Jay had been appointed by the old congress to make a treaty with his catholic majesty, but his best endeavours for more than two years were ineffectual. In a fit of despondence, while the revolutionary war was pressing, he had been
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