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every leaf was infested. If the description just given that my reserve sea-water was beautifully clear, so I is compared with that of P. sonchi, which I will pro- poured off the tainted water, rinsed out jar number ceed to translate from Winter's “Pilze," p. 189, it one, which was now to become the receptacle for will be seen that ours was probably the early stage of what was still living, and poured the clear water upon the latter, but had not yet reached the time for the the survivors. In half-an-hour matters were “in production of teleutospores. The chief difference statu quo ante." A. mesembryanthemum unfolded lies in the fact that I found the circle of paraphyses their tentacles, and Littorina littorea recommenced round the pustules of uredo spores.
their travels, although their shells began to show Puccinia sonchi, Desm.-II. Sori at first covered signs of want of lime. by the epidermis, which is swollen like a bladder, The bad sea-water, the sinell of which was simply afterwards surrounded by it like a bowl; roundish unbearable, I strained carefully, and corked up in a pulvinate, scattered or grouped without order, brown. bottle, keeping it in the dark, and shaking it up Spores roundish, ovate, elliptic or oblong, with a very | vigorously every day. In about ten days it was as thick, colourless, warted membrane, and yellow oil, clear and sweet as the other ; but as the heat of the 23-35 u long, 16-21 u thick. III.-Sori more com weather increased I found the greatest difficulty in pact than in II., roundish-pulvinate, on the stem ob. keeping my little stock from decomposition. I long, often confluent, scattered, or arranged in circles, have, however, so far succeeded, that for more than or even grouped without order ; black, surrounded by one year I kept alive four out of nine animals in brown paraphyses, which are clavately thickened a pint jar of sea-water, without introducing any fresh above. Spores on a pretty long, persistent peduncle, | sea-water or any algæ. elliptic or oblong, somewhat constricted, rounded Now that the year is up, I have put into the jar a below, or tapering into the peduncle, only slightly good clump of ulva, fresh from the coast, and a thickened and rounded or cap-shaped, at the apex ; | piece of chalk. The effect is evidently gratifying to smooth, clear-brown, 30-60 u long, 19–30 p thick. the prisoners, for there is a sudden addition of seven Mesospores numerous, similar, but only one-celled; young anemones, which I saw ejected myself. generally more thickened at the apex, reaching 50 u Considering the great heat, and the fact that I in length.
confined my experiment strictly to the materials I W. B. Grove, B.A.
commenced with, I think that there is as little trouble in keeping a small marine aquarium as in keeping a fresh-water one, provided, of course, that one or two
simple laws are followed, and that the animals selected HOW TO KEEP SMALL MARINE AQUARIA.
be hardy species. IN SCIENCE-Gossip for April of this year, I
Addiscombe, Croydon. I described two small glass-jar aquaria, which I had started in the middle of October, 1883, as an experiment, and which, up to that time, had proved most successful for so small a quantity of water. GLASTONBURY AND ITS THORN. Now, on October 20th, 1884, one jar still remains, with four of its original occupants after a most trying
By William ROBERTS. time of it.
THE Somersetshire town of Glastonbury is one of For the benefit of those who felt interested in my 1 great antiquity. It was called by the ancient former paper, I will briefly sketch the history of my
Britons Avalon, from the abundance of apple-trees in miniature aquarium during one of the hottest the district ; and by the Saxons Glasin-a-byrig, from summers we have had for many a year.
which its present name is immediately derived. My first death was the small A. dianthus, which
Within a short distance of, and in a south-west seemed to grow gradually less for want of fresh direction from, the site of the present town, is situated sea-water, and ultimately died. About the end of a place known from time immemorial as “Weary May I left home, but before going, I changed the Hill," and here, it is conjectured, the first society of water of the two jars (from my reserve quart), and
Christian worshippers established themselves in stood the jars in a pan of water, covering them with Britain. St. Patrick, who came over from Ireland in a piece of woollen material capable of keeping moist | 439, is said to have spent thirty years of his life in the by capillary attraction ; finally placing the whole in convent then existing at the spot. Previous to this a cool dark place.
saint's visit, the brethren had lived in miserably Upon my return, I was sorry to find the mussels furnished huts scattered round about the vicinity of dead, and the water so offensive that the winkles had the place of worship ; and the primitive form of crawled out, and the two old A. mesembryanthemum, religion, which, after the death of Lucius, the first were much contracted ; the young had disappeared. Christian king of Britain, had fallen into disuse, was
I thought this was a final collapse, especially as the again resuscitated with all its former vigour. weather had set in very warm. However, I found In 530 David, Archbishop of Menevia, with seven of his followers, retired to Glastonbury, where they On Christmas Eve, 1753, a vast concourse of people greatly improved the church and form of religion, | attended the noted thorn at Glastonbury, expecting it and moreover enriched the altar with a sapphire of to flower then ; but they were disappointed. It is inestimable value.
recorded, however, that they watched it again on the King Arthur, after the fatal battle with his nephew 5th of January--the old Christmas Day-when it Mordred, was interred in Glastonbury ; his remains burst forth flower as usual. The cause of its blooming are said to have been discovered in the reign of at Christmas is accounted for by the fact that the Henry II., who instigated a search, which resulted in owner of the original tree-whoever he may have a large cross being exhumed from the tomb, bearing an been--fixed the staff into the ground on a Christmas inscription in rude characters something to the effect Day, when it immediately rooted, put forth leaves, and of “Here lies the famous King Arthur, buried in the the next day was covered with milk-white blossoms. isle of Avalon." Beneath was discovered a coffin It continued, so we are told, to bloom every Christmas like excavation in the solid rock containing the bones Day for a series of years with great regularity. O of a human body, which was supposed to be that of tempora! King Arthur. These bones were deposited in the At Quainton, in Bucks, we have it authentically church and covered with a sumptuous monument recorded that above ten thousand persons on one
In 708 Ina, king of the Saxons, in a sudden and occasion went with lanterns and candles to view a spasmodic fit of zeal, greatly improved the convent, thorn in that neighbourhood, which was remembered but it was left to Dunstan to execute alterations and to have been a slip from that at Glastonbury. improvements of any magnitude. He caused the Another presumably miraculous wonder inflicted on abbey to be enlarged, and had it furnished in a state | the credulity of the Glastonbury folks in former days of unrivalled magnificence and splendour, to such an was a walnut-tree, which was said never to expand its extent, indeed, that in a short time it became “the leaves before the 11th of June--the feast of St. Barnapride of England, and the glory of Christendom,” as bas-but this long ago ceased to exist. an old chronicler states. This was soon after the Equally absurd is a variety of legendary tales which year 942.
have become interwoven with the history of this Edgar, who had a palace within two miles of the place; particularly that in connection with some town, and in a romantic situation still called Chalybeate springs. These were numerously attended “Edgarley,”-now a hamlet in the parish of St. formerly by invalids from all parts, ostensibly for the John-endowed the abbey with several estates, and purpose of participating in their reputed curative invested the monks with extensive privileges. The qualities. abbots (lived en prince; the revenue having been, so Again, adverting to the thorn, its season of flowerfar as we can ascertain, quite £40,000. This large ing, and the regularity of same, is passing strange. sum of money, in common with the revenues of other We have had it in flower in the sunny clime of Cornabbeys, was appropriated by William I. From various wall repeatedly at, or near, but rarely before, Christcauses, partly through internal ruptions and external mas. We have come to the conclusion, after a patient civil wars and strife, these magnificent buildings research, and sifting the exceedingly few facts rapidly degenerated into ruins, and nothing was known, that its pedigree is not nearly so extensive as present in 1797 to demonstrate a former glory, except | is popularly supposed. the abbot's kitchen-which was pretty entire.
Having briefly sketched the history of the ancient town of Glastonbury, it now remains for us to mention a shrub narrowly associated with the legendary lore “THE GEOLOGICAL RECORD” AT of this place; it is the Glastonbury thorn, a variety
HALDON, DEVONSHIRE. of Cratagus oxyacantha. Its origin is obscure, and
By the Rev. W. Downes, B.A., F.G.S. even that highly-respected individual, “the oldest inhabitant,” is not, as is usually the case, very dogW H EN summer visitors to Teignmouth or matic on the point. There are, however, three theories VV Dawlish have spent a day or two in boating, in connection with the history of this shrub. According bathing, and strolling along the beach, and a variety to some, it originated with Joseph of Arimathea, who | in the programme of the day is becoming desirable, is reputed to have visited England, and, having struck the first thing probably which will suggest itself to his staff into the ground, the celebrated thorn of them, or be suggested by others, will be a walk upon Glastonbury grew from it. It is also alleged that Haldon. Nor could any better suggestion be made. this same shrub was planted by St. Peter from a staff That elevated plateau is equally accessible from either formed from the Jerusalem plant, whence the “crown of the two watering places, and is about equi-distant of thorns” was made. The third version is that it from either. Two miles of stiff and steady up-hill work was planted originally by St. Patrick ; and if we are will take the pedestrian from sea-level to 760 feet compelled to accept at least one of these theories let above it, where he will be fully rewarded for his t be the last, by all means.
I climb by the splendid view over land and sea which
awaits him. The conspicuous headland, known as supply is nearly exhausted) are still being cut out of the “Ness,” and the estuary of the Teign will be im- | the hard concretionary nodules of sandstone. At mediately beneath him, and his eye will range east- | Haldon, however, the fossil fauna (corals excepted) is ward, and south-eastward along the red cliffs of S. comparatively poor, for out of some 200 species found Devon; or, if he faces the other way, along the Tors at Blackdown 50 only occur at Haldon. Whetstones of Dartmoor. A less conspicuous object, but one moreover are not quarried at the latter place at all. which, if he be a geologist, will have a special interest The reason of the above facts will presently appear. for him, will be the Blackdown range, about 25 miles If we examine the general structure of the country, distant, on the far side of the Exe valley upon the we find that horizontal beds of greensand rest unconSomersetshire and Dorsetshire border.
formably upon the edges of triassic and liassic beds Of this Blackdown range, the Haldons are two | alike (see fig. 9). Both of the latter differ slightly to the
outliers of irregular outline. Great Haldon on the north, is about five miles long, and averages about one mile in breadth, while Little Haldon, separated from the larger outlier by a slight depression in the Trias is two miles long, and rather more than half a mile wide. In ascending the hill the trias is found to extend to within 80 feet or 90 feet of the summit, when it is covered by about 50 feet of greensand, capped in turn by about 40 feet of flint gravel.
The greensand of Blackdown is famous for two things, its abundant and splendidly preserved fossil fauna, and its whetstones. The latter (though the
eastward. With regard to the greensand it will be sufficient for the present purpose to subdivide it into three general portions, and to call them respectively lower, middle, and upper Blackdown beds. It will then be found that the lower and middle beds, which contain the whetstones and the chief fossiliferous zones, have thinned out to the westward, so that only the upper beds are found at Haldon. The upper beds themselves have however rather increased in thickness westward, and include a coral zone in their upper portion not found at Blackdown. This fact, together with the greatly increased thickness of the flint gravel,
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