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the Llyn Cwm Orthin has cut a narrow channel in the The “Annales Industrielles " give an account, rock, some fifteen feet deep, I should judge. It then says “ Science," of the making of cork bricks, now falls about twenty feet down a nearly vertical joint being employed for coating steam-boilers, ice-cellars, plane. The peculiarity that attracts attention is , &c. The cork is winnowed from impurities, ground the extraordinarily small influence the water has had in a mill, kneaded up with a suitable cement, and in eating away the surface down which it falls, and the pressed into bricks; then dried, first in the air, and great effect it has had upon its more horizontal bed. afterwards by artificial heat. They are not hard, and This is a characteristic that may be observed else not liable to decomposition ; they keep out moisture, where, at the Rhiadr Ddu, or Maentwrog falls, for | heat, cold, and sound. instance. It seems to point to the grinding action
In its bearing on the question of hereditary transof stones, sand, and gravel, as the effective cause in
mission of peculiarities, the following case, recently the sawing down of a stream-bed, in hard rock, in a
reported to the “Lancet" from Bridgewater, is mountain district. These materials propelled along
interesting. The abnormal number of six digits the bed of the stream would be always in contact
occurred in the case of a man, his son, his grandchild, with the rock, whereas at the fall they would be shot
and two grandchildren (not all in linear descent), and over, often without touching the vertical face. This subject of waterfall denudation, is one that requires
in all cases it was the left foot which possessed the
extra feature. exploration. I am not aware of any geologist having specially investigated the subject.
In a paper lately read at a meeting of the Chemical We have now returned to the point we commenced Society, Mr. H. Brereton Baker, F.C.S., described to ascend, having made a circular tour on Moelwyn. some experiments he had made with reference to We may return to Ffestiniog hy another route, by the effect of moisture upon combustion. He heated following the road towards Blaenau. I would
both amorphous phosphorus and carbon in dried recommend two excursions to be made of this, which
oxygen and in oxygen saturated with moisture. In I have described as one. A drive to Tan-y-Grisiau both tubes containing moist gas, combustion took to commence with, will leave quite enough work to place, but in the dry gas, the phosphorus slowly be done on Moelwyn. The geologist will then distilled, forming a red and yellow deposit on the commence his work fresh, and will experience no cooler part of the tube, while in the case of the carbon difficulty on the return journey in walking back to in dry gas, no apparent combustion took place. Dr. Ffestiniog.
Armstrong said he had some time ago come to the (To be continued.)
conclusion that probably chemical action did not take place between two substances, and that he had even ventured to affirm that some day it would be found
that a mixture of pure oxygen with pure hydrogen was SCIENCE-GOSSIP. not explosive. The first balloon ascent ever made in our army in
In the Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist. for last month presence of the enemy, took place near Suakin on the
is a description by Mr. C. V. Riley, of a new insect 25th of March. The balloon used was made of gold
| injurious to wheat, to which the name of Isosomia beaters' skin, contained 7000 cubic feet of gas,
grandis has been given. measured 23 feet in diameter, and weighed 90 lbs.
The strict political economists will have in future It was inflated from compressed reservoirs with gas
to make allowance for new motives and new courses made at Chatham, and was guided by means of a rope
of action. It deserves to be placed on record that attached to a wagon below. Communication was kept
the workmen in the employ of Messrs. William up by means of pieces of paper attached by a loop
Cooke & Co., of the Tinsley Iron, Steel and Wire lo a rope. The balloon remained up nine hours, and
Works recently offered a week's work without wages, the results were apparently considered successful.
which was accepted by their employers. The men, We have received a pamphlet by Mr. G. A.
being desirous of assisting their employers in some Rowell, entitled, “ Electric Meteorology. What is
way during the present depression in trade, and Gas? How the Theory was worked up. An Appendix,
being unable to accept reduced wages, in consequence 1884."
of their being controlled by a board in this matter,
decided to make this generous offer, one probably IN “Science” for February, is an account by
without precedent in English trade, and which has Lieut. Greeley of the geographical work of the late
naturally attracted considerable notice. Arctic expedition, illustrated by a large map. The discoveries made to the westward of his winter Sir William Dawson, principal of M'Gill quarters into Grinnell Land and Arthur Land led College, Montreal, has been nominated president at Lieut. Greeley to the opinion that the western shores the meeting of the British Association at Birmingham of these regions will be found at no great distance. I next year, 1886.
AFTER a colliery explosion at Unsworth in March We must have systematic names in science, we last, Mr. C. S. Lindsay showed great endurance and cannot communicate our knowledge satisfactorily heroism in endeavouring to save the lives of two without them, but they are not science. What do fellow explorers who were overcome by choke-damp. our readers think of “ Amblystoma tigrinum mator. Mr. Lindsay is said to have carried iron nails in his tium hallowelli sus pectum maculatissimum" for a mouth, which he sucked, and was thus enabled to systematic name? But this is the sort of thing held resist the effects of the choke-damp longer than his out in “Nature," as an example of what trinomialism companions. The explanation given was that the may lead to. It is said that a shortening process has carbonic acid gas coming into contact with oxide of been devised, whereby the above may be written iron formed insoluble carbonate of iron and so was “(Ca?) Amblystoma tigrinum.” This looks as is rendered innocuous. F. R. S., writing to the scientific knowledge, instead of being open to “Times,” with reference to this explosion, says that common folk, as it ought to be, 'were to be the the quantity of carbonic acid absorbed by this means exclusive property of the favoured few, and to be is inappreciable, as might indeed be expected, and hedged round with mystery as it was in the middle suggests a respirator filled with cotton-wool and slaked ages. lime or caustic soda, to absorb the carbonic acid gas
JAPAN seems at present to be the headquarters of or choke-damp; "or, better still, a cylinder filled with the same material carried on the back with a
earthquake study, and we have fortunately so few
earthquakes in this country that no such systematic flexible breathing tube and mouthpiece will enable
attention has been given to them. Meantime the an explorer to remain for some time in an atmosphere charged with choke-damp which would be at once
one which occurred in the East of England in April
last year has been turned to good account after the fatal if inspired directly."
event. In the February number of the “Proceedings Though rather late, it may not be amiss to warn
of the Geologists' Association," is a paper with map those of cur readers who are experimental chemists
by Mr. R. Meldola, F.R.A.S., on some of its against phosphorus trichloride. Dr. Edward Divers,
Geological aspects. The author, discussing the principal of the Imperial Engineering College, Japan,
position of the palæozoic and other rocks below the has had a severe accident through the bursting of a
surface, regards the older rocks as not being neces. bottle containing the trichloride. It had been used
sarily concerned with the origin of the carthquake. for years as a lecture specimen, but while Dr. Divers
The disturbance originating below later formations was warming the neck in order to extract the stopper
was first spread by the harder sub-cretaceous rocks, the bottle burst, and the injury caused was so serious
and at the extreme limits the shock was propagated
along the palæozoic rocks which acted as mecha. that it was feared the sight cf one eye would be destroyed.
nical conductors of the wave, and thus, as it were,
exaggerated the westward extension of the effects. A USEFUL means of cultivating among its readers that desirable faculty, observation, is afforded by the “Natural History Journal and School Reporter,” in the form of a list of flowers with dates of opening, the average of three years, appended, so that early
MICROSCOPY. appearances may be noted, and a Floral Calendar formed. This Journal which is conducted by the
A NEW BACILLUS.--At a recent meeting of the Society of Friends' Schools, and is published by Royal Microscopical Society, an account of a new William Sessions, York, is in many respects a good | Bacillus (B. alvei) was given by Messrs. Cheshire example of a school magazine, and the amount of and Cheyne. This bacillus is the cause of a serious attention to Natural Science which it reveals is disease which has prevailed among hive bees, exterhighly commendable.
minating, in some cases, whole stocks; both larvæ
and bees, including the queen, being affected by it. MR. ADAM SEDGWICK has in preparation a new | The disease readily yields to treatment, which consists book, to be entitled “The Elements of Animal
in feeding the larvæ with syrup containing 1-600 per Biology," which is intended to serve as an intro
cent. of phenol. duction to the study of Animal Morphology and Physiology. Messrs. Swan Sonnenschein & Co. are
MICRO-ORGANISM OF SWINE-PLAGUE.-At a to be the pullishers.
meeting in January of the New York Microscopical
Society it was stated that Dr. Salmon had recently We have received a report of a lecture by Mr. E. demonstrated the presence of micrococcus in PneumoLovett, delivered before the Croydon Microscopical enteritis, or swine-plague, of which bacilli had been and Natural History Club. The subject of the paper said to be characteristic, and that Dr. Sternberg had was the evolution of the fish-hook from prehistoric just obtained a pure culture of the micrococcus of times.
STAINING NERVE AND MUSCLE.-As to the most pure balsam would preserve crystals, that would perfect mode of demonstrating the distribution of gradually dissolve if the balsam contained turpentine. nervous structures microscopists differ. Klein and Perhaps some readers can say whether this is so, or Cohnheim consider that preparation stained with whether gum dammar or copal would be a better chloride of gold will show the ultimate ramifications preservative, for any method of micro preparation of nerve fibres; whilst Beale (“Microscope in Medi- that is not permanent must be very unsatisfactory:cine”) says he has never been able to demonstrate 7. IV. Neville, Handsworth. the final distribution of nerve fibres by the chloride
I VENTURE to ask you to give me space for an appeal of gold stain, but did so by specially preparing the
to brother microscopists in various parts of the world. specimens and then acting on it with acetic acid.
I am desirous of obtaining samples of mud from Soak the specimen in glycerine for some days,
abroad, especially from tropical and sub-tropical beginning with a weak watery solution, and gradually
countries in South America and elsewhere, with a increasing the density of the fluid, finishing with
view of cultivating them here. I hope, by so doing, Price's glycerine, sp. gr. 1240. Now wash the
to bring to light many new forms, Loth of infusoria tissue with glycerine containing 5 drops of acetic acid
and rotifera, as the power which these creatures have to the ounce. Put a drop of glycerine, containing
of protecting themselves against changes in external 2 drops of acetic acid to the ounce, on a clean slide,
conditions is so grcat. The mud should be taken place the tissue in it, and apply a thin cover glass.
from the surface of the bed of a pond or lake, or Examine with a high power. The prolonged action
some similar body of water, preferably from the of the acid causes the nerve fibres to become slightly
surface of the part which dried up last, and should granular, and thus to be easily distinguished from the
be labelled with the name of the locality. A few tissues in which they ramify. The muscular structures
ounces will be amply sufficient from each spot, and I of the specimen will also be shown by this mode of
shall be glad to refund any expense incurred in preparation.-Dunley Owen, B.Sc.
forwarding, and to communicate results to the
senders.--Edivard C. Bousfield, 363, Old Kent Road, EXAMINATION OF FIBRES, &c.—The “ American
Lonlon, S.E. Monthly Microscopical Journal” for March contains a translation, from “Etudes sur les Fibres,” by M. Vétillart, in which flax, hemp, nettle, cotton, jute, phormium, and other fibres are classified and their
ZOOLOGY. appearance, dimensions, &c., described. The prelimi ASTARTE BOREALIS.-I have received amongst nary directions given, however, scarcely seem full other shore-shells from the beach at Warkworth, enough, but the translation is not stated to be a
Northumberland, a valve of this shell with a very continuation.
fresh epidermis. Its condition resembles that of
specimens taken from a fish's stomach.-R. D. CRYSTALS FOR THE POLARISCOPE.—It is most
Darbishire, in “ The Journal of Conchology." vexatious that some of these attractive preparations should be so fleeting. From my own experience
The PROCEEDINGS OF THE HOLMESDALE this applies to some only, for others appear to be NATURAL HISTORY CLUB for 1881-2-3, recently just as enduring. I once had a somewhat large published, contains an interesting paper by Mr. H. M. collection of objects of this class, but as they
Wallis, of Reading, on “Character, as one of the deteriorated I took them to pieces until only a few Causes of the Rarity or Abundance of Different now remain. All crystals containing sulphate of | Species of Birds.” In it the author points out how copper lost their sharpness in a few weeks, and were the different qualities of brute courage, “coolness," almost useless in a few months. Sulphate of iron teachableness, and adaptiveness, operate in different also lost its sharpness, but afterwards appeared to cases for or against their possessors in the struggle get no worse, while crystals of oxalurate of ammonia, for existence. Sparrows drive martins from their hippuric acid, and salicine are in every respect as nests and pigeons from their food, and in the winter beautiful and perfect as when prepared some seven or during stress of weather such boldness would serve eight years ago. That dampness will destroy these the sparrow in good stead. The amount of disturb. objects I have had abundant proof; for, once wishing ance birds will tolerate during nesting varies with to finish off two slides in a hurry, and my brown different species, and the more timid a bird is the less cement being dried up, I ran a ring of gum-water will be its chance of bringing up its young. The round the cover-glasses and afterwards finished them. Great Auk has been exterminated through its clinging Shortly, the crystals could be distinctly seen to its traditional breeding sites while the Greater dissolving from the outer edge, their gradual dis. Shearwater escapes in consequence of its solitary solution towards the centre being very interesting habits, so that nothing is known of its nest or eggs. under the microscope. A friend who devoted much Other instances of the adaptive faculties of birds are time to this branch of microscopy once told me that given by Mr. Wallis, whose paper is most readable
and interesting. The Proceedings contain also | Arion ater, A. hortensis, Amalia gagatos, A. mar. reports of many other papers or addresses, together ginata, Limax flavus, L. agrestis, L. maximus, and, with other matter botanical, geological and micro last, but not least, Testacella haliotidea, v. scutulum, scopical, and accounts of numerous excursions. The which has been found in gardens in various parts of Holmesdale Club, most of whose members hail from the country, including Bedford Park.-Sydney C. Redhill and Reigate, appears to be in a very Cockerell. flourishing condition.
- ----- - ---- -----------ARION ATER, VAR. BICOLOR.-This variety which I noted in a late number of SCIENCE-Gossip, as
BOTANY. being sound near Stroud, and referring to which Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell in his note last month Swiss PLANTS.-Your notice in Science-Gossip mentions that I do not give any description of the (January) called my attention to your observation slug, is upon the authority of Mr. Roebuck, the about the double dahlia. I have watched the recorder for the Conchological Society, to whom I enclosed Cyclamen Europæum, apprehending by the sent some specimens, not having noticed it before or slowness in its full flower that it would be overhaving means to identify it. He wrote me, that powered by the first flower. It has succecded. This though he had it previously sent to him from Ireland, plant is cultivated and the second year with me, first this was the first time he had seen it from an English with the double Aower, originally brought to a locality. Not taking any notes at the time, nor able nursery here found only at one place ; up the mountain at present to visit the place where I found them, I two miles off there I have found it. I have now cannot venture upon any accurate description, but, if collected over 1000 wild flowers, &c., and having Mr. Cockerell will send me his address, I shall be duplicates I offered exchange. After five or six years happy to forward him some specimens of this search in the four cantons by a celebrated botanist interesting variety when I can procure them. I may here, the result did not exceed 1415; a few new ones mention here, that the chosen locality of this variety I have found, he has added to the work he had seems to be damp marsh spots. Have any readers published, and is pleased with my searchings.of SCIENCE-Gossip, who take an interest in these 1. H. C. Russell. matters, met with a variety of Arion ater, which has the wrinkles of the skin and the mantle of a uni.
HELLEBORUS VIRIDIS.—Dr. FitzGerald observes colorous ash colour, and the interstices of a much
of this plant: “I was struck with the curious form lighter colour, almost white, so that when the animal
of the stem immediately beneath the flower. It has is extended it appears much lighter. This I have
a wrinkled appearance for about half-an-inch." found in company with the common black kind, but
Having a number of recently gathered specimens have not noticed any of an intermediate character.-
before me, March 30, I would remark that while the E. 7. Elliot, Stroud, Glos.
stems immediately beneath the flower have uniformly
this wrinkled appearance of various length, it is also NOTES ON MOLLUSCA, MIDDLESEX AND KENT.
to be observed on the petioles, in one instance I find Limax lavis. On March 29 I found this species in a
it nearly three inches long. The cuticle of this plant damp spot near the Thames at Twickenham, associ
seems to be of unusual tenuity, which may account ated with H. pulchella, 2. crystallinus, C. lubrica,
for the circumstance mentioned. I am not acquainted and Carychium minimum. The river here is very
with the growth of this hellebore at a later stage, prolific in freshwater shells. I have seen the bed at
but hope to note it further on.-F. H. Arnolt. low water covered with countless specimens of
WATSON BOTANICAL EXCHANGE CLUB.-We Unio pictorum and Anodonta anatina, dotted here and
have received a Report of this recently formed club, there with Lim. peregra, L. auricularia, Ancylus
the object of which is “to promote more intercourse, fluviatilis, Paludina vivipara, and Neritina fluvin
help, and exchange, between working botanists, and tilis; while the grassy banks abound in L. palustris,
particularly with regard to critical species." The L. truncatula, and Succinea elegans. On April 5,
club already numbers over thirty members, and the I again met with Limax lavis living under very
report contains a long list of desiderata which should similar conditions on the banks of the Cray, at St.
give them plenty of work during the coming season. Mary Cray in Kent, this time with Zonites nitidus,
The hon. sec. is Mr. A. R. Waller, Low Ousegate, H. concinna, Succinca elegans, and S. virescens, as
York. well as 2. crystallinus and Car. minimum. The river contains Sph. corneum, B. tentirculata, V. piscinalis, V. cristata, Plan. vortex, P. contortus, A BEAUTIFUL specimen of the osprey (Pandion P. complanatus, Lim. peregra, and L. palustris. I naliæetus) visited Copmere in October 1882, and may here mention that L. levis is the ninth species remained a week on its southern migration.-W. of slug recorded for Middlesex, the others being Wells Braden.
the anus in the normal position, and he proposes to GEOLOGY, & C.
form a second order of the class to receive it, calling
the order Antiarcha. Suspecting that P. Canadensis FLINT OR STONE IMPLEMENTS.—A considerable should belong to a genus distinct from P. Milleri, he number of fint and stone implements has from time would give it, for the present, Eichwald's name to time been found on the top of a ridge of fell-land Bothriolepis. lying between the East and West Allen, about twoand-a-half miles south-west of Allendale town. THE GRANITE AND SCHISTOSE ROCKS OF Although the number now known to be preserved is NORTHERN DONEGAL.–Dr. Callaway, F.G.S., in a large, yet the probability is that it does not represent paper read before the Geological Society of London, a tithe of those which are lost. Until a few years considers the Donegal granitic rocks to be a true ago, the country people living in the district were in igneous granite, posterior in age to the associated the habit of picking up these flint implements and schists. No gradation into other rocks was found ; taking them home to strike a light for their pipe. where the granite was in contact with limestone the The greatest portion of the implements are composed latter contained garnets. The granite was distinctly of flint of various colours, white, red, black, &c., and foliated, the direction of pressure being perpendiconsist principally of arrow heads of various forms, cular to the planes of foliation. The author then leaf shaped, stemmed, double and single barbed, and | described the schistose rocks of the region, those of a very few triangular. Some of the double barbed the Lough Foyle series, of most of which the semiare formed with great exactness; sharply pointed crystalline condition was characteristic, being well with serrated edges and chipped to a fineness almost seen at Londonderry and on Lough Foyle. This microscopic. The serration is of great precision, series he referred to the Pebidian system. The showing a wonderful uniformity in size, and occur in schistose rocks of the Kilmacrenan series, with about equal numbers on both edges. Scrapers, intrusive granite, were described as crystalline and hatchets, saws, flukes, cores and chippings—the latter older than the Lough Foyle group. During the three being numerous—have also been found. A few discussion which ensued, Mr. Teall and others eximplements of greenstone have also been found. The pressed doubts as to the sufficiency of lithological ground where all these articles have been found composition alone for the correlation of rocks. is covered with a thin deposit of peat of about a foot or 18 inches in thickness, and it is below this where THE RELATION OF U'LODENDRON TO LEPIDODEN. they have been picked up. Similar implements have DRON, SIGILLARIA, &c.—At a recent meeting of the also been found on some of the adjacent Fells; for Geological Society of London, a paper by Mr. R. instance, Kilhope Fell, near Bent-Head, Wellhope Kidston, F.G.S., was read, in which the author Fell, Weardale, Langley Mill Fell, Plenmiller Fell, expressed the opinion, that the genus Ulodendron of &c.- Dipton Burn.
Lindley and Hution included several species and
even different genera; the three species which have THE POSITION OF PTERICHTHYS.-In the March furnished the specimens, usually described as number of the “ American Naturalist,” Professor E. D. Ulodendron, being Lepidodendron Veltheimianum, Cope gives the results of an examination of numerous Sternb., Sigillaria discophora, König, sp., and specimens of P. Canadensis. He points out three S. Taylori, Carruthers, sp. He was of opinion that important peculiarities, the presence of a single the ulodendroid scars marked the point of attachment opening in the middle line above, which is compar- of caducous sessile cones. Mr. Carruthers, in the able with the “nasal pouch" of the lampreys ; the discussion which followed, considered the organs absence of orbits, which condition is comparable with borne by these scars to be aerial roots, while Professor that of the lancelet ; and the absence of a lower jaw, Boyd Dawkins and Professor Seeley agreed with in which it agrees with both these types. Professor the author that they probably bore seed or fruit Cope finds resemblances between Puerichthys and organs. the tunicate Chelyosoma, and thinks that the former genus may have descended from such a type as would A RECENT TERTIARY SURVIVAL?-At the same be represented by the larva of Chelyosoma, if that be | meeting, a paper by Dr. H. Woodward was read, on caudate and notochordal as are other Tunicata, and “Steller's Sea-cow” (Rhytina gigas = R. Stelleri) a especially if the larvæ possess lateral limb-like toothless Herbivore which lived along the shore in processes as in the Appendicularia. The tail has shallow water. In 1741 it was confined to Behring's been retained in the European form of Pterichthys, Island and Copper Island, but it was believed to but no trace was found of it in P. Canadensis. In have been wholly extirpated by 1780. Dr. Woodview of the single cephalic opening being the mouth, ward regarded Rhytina as a last surviving species of the author considers that this family should be the old Tertiary group of Sirenians, and its position removed from the Craniata to the Urochorda. | as marking an "outlier " of the group now swept Among these, it differs from the Tunicata in having away.