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THE GRESHAM
LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY.

ESTABLISHED 1848.
Head Office-ST, MILDRED'S HOUSE, POULTRY, LONDON, E.C.

FUNDS, 1884.

Realised Assets ...

... £3,491,376 Life Assurance and Annuity Funds ...

... £3,391,789 Annual Income ... ... ... ... ... ...

... £685,369 Moderate Rates of Premium. Liberal Scale of Annuities. Loans granted upon Security of Freehold, Copyhold, and Leasehold Property, Life Interests, and Reversions; also to Corporate and other Public Bodies, upon Security of Rates, &c.

BONUS YEAR, 1885. POLICIES effected before the ist July 1885 on the profit tables, with annua premium

participate in the Bonus to be declared next year, in the manner prescribed by the regulations of the Society,

JOSEPH ALLEN, Secretary. Prospectus, Reports, and Proposal Forms can be obtained on application to the Society's Agents and Branch Ofices, or to

JOSEPH ALLEN, Secretary.

MAT

NORTH BRITISH AND MERCANTILE INSURANCE COMPANY

INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER AND SPECIAL ACTS OF PARLIAMENT. Authorised Capital, £3,000,000. Subscribed Capital, £2,500,000. Paid-up Capital, £125,000. Chairman-JOHN WHITE CATER, Esq.

Deputv-Chairman-Charles Morrison, Esq. Manager of Fire Department-G. H. BURNETT.

Manager of Life Department and Actuary-HENRY COCKBURN. Foreign Sub-Manager-PHILIP WINSOR.

Secretary-F. W. LANCE.

FIRE DEPARTMENT. The Net FIRE FUNDS, irrespective of the Paid-up Capital, now amount to £1,592,235 5s. 2d.

LIFE DEPARTMENT. The LIFE FUND now amounts to £3,340,918 11s. 2d. The ANNUITY FUND now amounts to £500,275 175. 11d. THE PRINCIPLES on which this Company is conducted combine the system of Mutual Assurance with the safety

1 of a large Protecting Capital and Accumulated Funds, and thus afford all the facilities and advantages which can prudently be offered by any Life Assurance Office

NINETY PER CENT. of the WHOLE PROFITS is divided among the Assurers on the Participating Scale. The PROFITS are divided every Five Years. POLICIES are INDISPUTABLE after Five Years. ANNUITIES of all kinds are granted.

Prospectuses and every Information can be obtained at the Chief OfficesLONDON : 61 THREADNEEDLE ST., E.C. WEST END OFFICE, 8, WATERLOO PLACE, S.W. EDINBURGH, 64, PRINCES ST.

BRITISH EMPIRE MUTUAL LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY

NEW BRIDGE STREET, LONDON, E.C.

ESTABLISHED 1847. EMPOWERED BY SPECIAL ACT OF PARLIAMENT. This Company being established on the MUTUAL PRINCIPLE, all Profits belong to Policy-holders. The average Cash Bonus

(Triennially) exceeds 20 per cent. on the Premiums paid. Policies in Force . . . . . . . .£4,793,942 Paid in Claims . . . . . . . . . . £1,230,133 Annual Income . . . . . . . . . £200,000 Total amount of Profits already DisAccumulated Fund ........£1,028,215 tributed amongst Policy-holders . £847,000

Prospectuses, with Copies of the last Report and Balance Sheet, Board of Trade Returns, &c, can be obtained from any Agent of the Comtany, or will be sent upon application to

EDWIN BOWLEY, Secretary. INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS !! DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLIA, 1s. per Dozen, LONGIFOLIA,

Post Free. 2s. 6d. per Dozen. INTERMEDIATE, Natural Soil to grow them in, with some Hints on Management, free on rails here at 3d. per

dozen lbs. weight. Customers who have not been successful with them can have a dozen sent free on receipt of 3 stamps. “WILDFLOWER," Lindow Common, Wilmslow, Cheshire.

OBJECTS FOR THE MICROSCOPE,

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Fungris of Favus Achorion Schoenleinii..

18. 9d. Eggs of House Fly .. Liver Spots (Chloasma) Mycrosporon Furfur

18. 90 Section of Spine of Echinus Acarus of Itch, male and female.. ...

Section of Brighton Chalk-shells and organic remains in situ Ditto Egg and Larva, on one Slide

Ringworm of Head, showing its effect on the hair .. Section through Finger and Nail of Monkey..

Human Flea (Pulex irritans), male and female on one slide Six :Slides to illustrate the anatomy of the Bunter Prawn, including

Anatomy of a Leaf, 9 pieces on one slide .. Eyes and Rostrum, Squaine, Antennules, Tail Plates, Ambulatory

5 Examples of Blood on one slide, from Man, Bir Feet and Swimmerets, a most valuable set .. . .. .. 88. 6d. | Indian Mosquito .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3s.

The STOKES-WATSON SPARK APPARATUS, to show the combustion of Metals by the Electric Spark with the Microscope or Micro-Spectroscope, as exhibited before the Royal Society. Price £2 2s. or complete with Coil and Battery, £3 10s.

40,000 First-class Specimens, illustrative of every Branch of Study. WATSON & SONS 1-15th in. HOMOGENEOUS IMMERSION OBJECTIVE, £5 5s.

** This Glass is unsurpassed at the Price NEW CLASSIFIED LIST OF OBJECTS (Including the Stock of MR. E. WHEELER, late of Holloway). ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF MICROSCOPES AND APPARATUS.

Either of the above sen: Post Free to any part of the world on application to W. WATSON & SONS, 313, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, 'W.C. Optiolans to Her Majesty's Government.

Establishod 1837.

GRAPHIC MICROSCOPY.

Como of Comprar

Zoology NOV 16 1942

By E. T. DRAPER

No. XVIII.-Seeds of Love-liES-BLEEDING (Amaranthus caudatus).

[graphic]

UR plate exhibits | integuments and acquires a distinct vascular, tubular,

simply the external and cellular organisation ; this process, or develop character and ment, may be observed. A grain of corn, although appearance of an partaking more of the character of a fruit than a seed, elegant seed, as seen is peculiarly adapted for experiment; by soaking in with a moderate water for a few hours germination is quickly propower under the moted ; to see the acme of interest, it must not be microscope. From carried too far, in fact, just started ; thin transparent this aspect the sections cut from the centre of the grain in the direcsubject is intro. tion of the axis, and placed under a thin glass cover duced, to invite | in a drop of glycerine jelly or chloride of calcium, attention to an will exhibit developments which may be assumed to attractive class of be analogous to the germination of other seeds; a easily-procured | minute sheath, or sac, formed by the single cotyledon, objects, showing which represents the undeveloped leaves, will be seen, elegance of form enclosing the plumule, the rudiment of the ascending and colour. growth ; outside the sheath, the radicle, the nascent The microscopist, descending axis. These organs, still confined within however, contem the seed, or at least, only just breaking through the

plates a seed with pericarp or outer skin, are sustained by the exhaustion deeper significance, its hidden mystery, its absolute of the albumen of which the greater part of the seed totality, an independent whole, involving an embryo | consists, stored in cells — reservoirs of nutriment, lying dormant (often for years), but ready, under starches, oils, and other matters in varied combinafavourable surroundings, to start a new plant true to tions. Cuttings from grains, soaked in water, taken its species. At such a point it may be interesting to at successive periods, exhibit phases or progresses of devote a few preiiminary lines in an attempt to de development. But, from an embryological point of scribe what may be seen of this compacted quiescence view, microscopical interest is lost after the initial when set in action by the force of germination, and process is past; the albumen cells then become revealed by the instrument. .

exhausted and effete, and the minute stem and root In a dry, intact seed, the embryo of the future push forth and assume the character of a plant, plant is hidden beyond the power of observation, entirely dependent on external resources. A transbut when subjected to external influences alterations verse section cut through the point of a germinating commence. At this stage, examination leads the grain shows the cotyledon like a pale oval border, imagination to what may have been the primary surrounding the minute and compacted convoluted condition; a germ, enclosed in a simple and minute tissues, which afterwards become the leaves of the cylindrical body of dense organisation hardly pre | plumule. senting a trace of complicated or differentiated | The gay and persistent blossoms of the somewhat structures, and only when influenced by moisture weedy shrub-like Amaranthus caudatus (love-liesand moderate heat the mysterious principle “ger- | bleeding) are prominently attractive in old-fashioned mination ” sets in ; changes appear by the gradual ab- gardens ; the fruit is a utricle, a seed vessel with a sorption and elimination of the surrounding and pro- loose rind, or pericarp; rubbed off, or winnowed, it tecting provision; the embryo then breaks through the reveals the object, as seen in the illustration ; in

No. 246.—JUNE 1885.

colour, of delicate intermingled pinks and yellows with the embryo curved, like an annulus round the circumference of a central store of farinaceous albumen; the object well displays the hilum, or scar of union with the mother plant.

The integuments of seeds are composed of structu. ral membranes of significant interest ; after soaking, and in some cases boiling, they may be teased out, and excellent preparations secured ; the disclosure of spiral tissue in the testa of the seeds of Coboa, and Collomia, an oft-repeated denonstration, still retains its old interest ; a thin particle cut from the surface, placed in a drop of water, between glasses, will disclose positive action ; cells bursting, and imprisoned coils darting forth in all directions. .

Of seeds, in their simple and natural integrity, as objects of beauty, may be mentioned : poppy and mignonette, showing reticulations ; Eccremocarpus scaber, with membranous wings; this seed mounted in balsam is a fine polariscope object. Antirrhinum majus (snap-dragon) roughly corrugated ; the seeds of the carrot have curious radiating processes ; those of wild indigenous plants are always attractive, and exhibit marked peculiarities; Goose-grass, covered with equidistant hooks; Burr-reed with four ribs running longitudinally, terminating in projections, each armed with a double row of barbs ; even chickweed has a spinous seed, worth looking at. As regards configuration the most striking are the reniform, and the obovate, as in the larkspur, marked with prominent irregular ridges.

The following carefully selected list of microscopic secds, as showing peculiarities in great variety, is extracted from the “Micrographical Dictionary' (Van Voorst).

Hypericum, Lychnis, Stellaria, Reseda, Lepidium, Nigella, Erica, Anagallis, Orobanche, Linaria, Chironia, Gentiana, Datura, Nicotiana, Petunia, Sedum, Saxifraga, Capparis, Elatine, Gesnera, Begonia, Delphinium, Scrophularia, Antirrhinum, Maurandya, Sphenogyna, Ilyoscyamus, Sempervivum, Silene, Dianthus, Papaver, Digitalis.

Seeds perfectly dry and clean, require little or no preparation, as opaque objects ; the beauty of many, as Drosera, Hydrangea, Pyrola, Orchis, and very minute specimens, is much enhanced by mounting in balsam in a cell, after a washing in spirit of turpentine, in this way, the edges or any projecting parts, as hairs, spines, corrugations, hooks, &c., are within reach of the dark ground illumination, which added to condensed light from above, brings out their perfect beauty, with binocular vision, presenting a solidity eminently adapting them for artistic study and practice as models of form, colour, and shadow.

Crouch End.

ARTISTIC GEOLOGY.
FFESTINIOG AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD.
By T. MELLARD READE, F.G.S., &c.

[Continued from p. 113.) DWLCII Drws Ardudwy. - We may devote a D good long day to this excursion, which will, with fine weather, well repay the geological student no less than the lover of scenery. Taking an early train to Trawsfynydd on the railway to Bala, we get on to the main road from Maentwrog to Dolgelly. About two miles frcm the station, and about half-a-mile before turning off to the right, on the east side of the road, is an outcrop of the Cambrian rocks, here of a blue slaty nature, the direction of dip being from west to east, which it will be well to bear in mind. Turning off along an unfrequented road, we cross the Afon Eden by a foot bridge, and about a mile onwards we cross an extensive surface of bare rock having a dip about nine degrees north-west ; but it varies, as the surface is part of an anticlinal curve. No glacial striæ are to be seen, but the smoothness of the rock may nevertheless be due to glacial action.

It may be as well here to observe that we have been walking along, and then across a valley denuded out of an anticlinal and situated at a very considerable altitude, as any one who walks from Maentwrog will find out before he gets to Trawsfynydd. This valley is a wide trough, running north and south, occupied entirely by Cambrian rocks, out of which, indeed, it has been scooped.

The eastern side is for a considerable distance bounded by a fault which must pass very near to Trawsfynydd station, though I did not see it. This elevated valley is remarkable, inasmuch as it is divided into two watersheds, the southern part being drained by the Afon Eden towards Dolgelly into the Mawddach, and the northern by the Afon Pryser, which rises in the Silurians to the east, and flows, after passing round the village of Trawsfynydd to the estuary below Maentwrog, discharging over the beautiful falls of the Rhiadr Ddu before alluded to.

From the smoothed rocks we left off at to describe the valley, there is a gradual ascent to the Drws Ardudwy, which is a wild pass between Rhinog Mawr and Rhinog Fach, two grand Cambrian mountains. As we traverse the pass, or the “gates" of the Ardudwy, we are going in a south-westerly direction. From the time of entrance between the Rhinogs to the summit of the pass, we are still rapidly ascending. Beyond the summit we may rest to survey the prospect, taking care to have a good big block of stone behind us, for the wind blows keenly through this mountain channel. Looking back, that is to the north-east, we have a sublime view of the bare and somewhat terraced flank of Rhinog Fawr. The grandeur of the scene is due to the enormous mass of rock which is almost devoid of vegetation, and the

A NEW volcano is said to have been discovered in or near the government of Smolensk in Russia, and to have been shoving signs of activity. .

blocks of grit scattered profusely about and around us shadows of Cader were appropriately set off by a in wild confusion.

foreground of bright green turf, with a little farmExamining the stone, after fracture with the house and group of trees to the right distinctly hammer, we find it is a bluish-grey grit, largely outlined against the mountain background. Arrived composed of felspathic materials and almost crystal- | at the Trawsfynydd station, while waiting for the line. Indeed, at first sight, one would take some of train we had ample time to watch the soft rosy light the Cambrian beds to be felstone, but a careful of evening overspread the scene, while the mountains examination will show the rounded grains of which beyond the Rhinogs shone in light golden tint, it is composed, and assure us of its clastic character. | intensified by the dark deep purple of the Cambrian Some of the blocks which have been detached from range to the right. This was truly, though gained by the precipices above are well worthy of study, as the considerable walking, a red-letter day. grit contains in some cascs veins of slate, usually of a greenish colour, which by weathering exhibit the cleavage distinctly, though the grit is unaffected by it. FEATURES IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD or In one block I counted no less than six bands of slate,

FFESTINIOG. all cleaved in the same direction, the intermediate

Next to Moelwyn, the most prominent objects near grit showing no signs of cleavage. In another case

Ffestiniog are the two Manods. One is struck by the weathering brought out current bedding in the

the contrast of form they exhibit as compared with grit itself, though a more unlikely material to display

Moelwyn and other Snowdonian mountains. A this structure it would be difficult to conceive.

geological examination shows that they are in greater There is no doubt that geology tends to the

part carved out of massive felspathic porphyry, enjoyment of scenery, for many years ago, before I

estimated by Ramsay at 1500 feet thick. This rock, had practically worked at the science, I visited this

as may be seen on a smaller scale, weathers into spot and made a sketch of the pass, approaching it

rounded forms, the Manods being, in fact, bossy hills from Llanbedr ; but it did not yield me the same

formed by denudation from a bed of igneous rock, pleasure then as on my last visit, even discounting the

ejected during the deposition of the Llandeilo beds, fact that on the first occasion a horridly cold wind

upon the lower beds of which they repose. These was blowing through the pass, and on the last the

beds are altered by contact, whereas the slaty beds day was sunny and bright.

above are unaltered. (See section, p. 54. Memoir of After lingering to enjoy this wild scenery we had

Geo. of North Wales.) to turn our faces homewards, but not before being

An instructive example of the rounded form into passed by three travellers, one a lady with approved

which this rock weathers may be seen in a hill near Alpine-stock, who walked briskly and in good style

the slate quarry above Llyn Morwynion, from which through the pass. I could not help admiring the

lake the water supply of Ffestiniog is obtained. A swing at which they were going, and watched them

climb up to Llyn-y-Manod, a small tarn lying in the as far as the eye could follow, curiously wondering in

hollow between the two Manods, will repay the what way the scenery affected them. Their feelings,

exertion. Good views over Cardigan Bay and however, were a sealed book, for they looked not to

towards Harlech Castle are obtained. The mountain the right hand nor to the left, nor heavenwards,

is seen to be covered with angular blocks of stone, towards the summits of the mountains. They were

derived from its own mass. The rock weathers with evidently “doing their distance,” and could not be

a rough white crust forming with the lichens thereon troubled with such frivolities as scenery! Still, no

a beautiful gray tint in the distance, with the faintest doubt, they expatiated on the grandeur of the scenery

dash of purple therein. Underneath the crust is a when they arrived at their destination,--and had

reddish-brown iron stain, which no doubt is washed time.

out of the outer skin of the stone. The talus of The sun was now getting lower in the heavens,

broken blocks are not bad climbing, being filled in and the Rhinogs with the range extending to

between with soil and turf, but unfortunately we had Diphwys was dyeing deep purple, showing sharply in

not time to get to the summit. When we started on outline against the western sky. The structure was

this journey, clouds and mists covered the vale, which, well displayed ; long low curves ending in scarps

gradually lifting, showed the bright green vegetation taking a direction a little eastward of north, showing

bathed in the sunlight below. that the strata is not bent merely into parallel folds, but has a curvature in a minor degree along its major

(To be continued.) axis. Arriving at the Dolgelly road, we sat down to survey and sketch Cader Idris. Lighted up by the afternoon sun, the long escarpment showed every THE AMERICAN MONTHLY MICROSCOPICAL detail of its surrowed side, exhibiting a marked | JOURNAL for April contains the first part of a procontrast to the forms of the Cambrian mountains we visional key to the classification of freshwater algæ, had been studying. The golden face and purple / by the editor, Mr. Romyn Hitchcock, F.R.M.S.

FERTILISATION OF ORCHIS MASCULA.

CULA | How long A directly supplied the embryo I cannot

say for certain, as it appears to depend very much on By EDWARD MALAN.

the moisture or dryness of the soil, but it cannot be [Continued from p. 102.)

for long, for as soon as the roots appear, the THE tubers, I believe, behave pretty much as I de- | germination of the embryo is considerably acI scribed. Most of the plants that I have taken up celerated, and A hardly decreases in size at all, in April, have been about 2 inches below the surface. afterwards. If you ask how I know, I reply because In August it is exceedingly difficult to find the tubers, I have been there to see. So far, then, my remark as there is absolutely nothing above ground to assist your search, and although I have frequently marked the place and position of plants in April, yet I have been disappointed when I returned four months later. You may dig, and you may dig, but nothing will you find. Why is this? Clearly the tubers descend ; and the reason of this descent is to prevent premature germination, which, if allowed to proceed without the proper interval of rest, considerably weakens the plant of the following year. The case of the tuber that I mentioned as being deeply planted, was an experiment, and it was purposely prevented from rising, by being kept at a uniform depth of 3 inches below the surface. The result was very disastrous to the plant, but the new tubers grew better when the leaves were above ground. The drawings which I made at the time can be seen.

Lastly, as to the breaking of the stem affecting the flower of the new tuber. Here G. M. has not quoted my words correctly. Breaking the stem certainly cripples the plant of the following year, and prevents its flowering; at least, I have only observed one exception to this, and the notes that I made can be had for the asking. But I did not say that I saw a perfectly healthy plant minus its tubers: I said tuber. This rather alters G. M.'s case against me.

Now let me go out and select a plant of O. mascula and let me explain what I mean. [One hour occupied in finding a plant.] This one that I have found (March 9th, 1885) will just do. Clear away the soil carefully, and do not break a single root. Then proceed to vivisect the victim. Just place your knife, my classic Ajax, where it will cut sharpest, and divide the plant in half, leaves, tubers and all. There, the thing is done, and this drawing is a faithful representation of the result. We will call the left-hand tuber (i.e. the tuber of 1884-5) A ; and we will call the right-hand tuber (i.e, the tuber of 1885-6) B; evidently the plant arises from A; evidently B has no independent existence as yet. Accordingly A answers to the old tuber of my Fig. 85.-0. mascula. A, Old tuber; B, new tuber. description, and B answers to the new. There can be no mistake now.

about the tuber containing a store of food not for the Last autumn, while men were slumbering and leaves and stem, is correct, I believe. The remainder sleeping and caring very little for this particular of the remark must be considered next. tuber, the silent processes of life were at work, and A glance at my drawing will show that the roots A took courage and started the thing going. First supply the leaves directly, for otherwise why should of all the embryo, containing the leaves and spike, they not proceed from the base of the tuber? and germinated little by little, drawing upon A for its the plant that I mentioned, minus the tuber, ought to resources, in this the first stage of its growth. The have been crippled or dead. But it wasn't. embryo is now the plant on the table before me. Therefore my conclusion is that the leaves and

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