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rarely found in other calcareous organised deposits ; .
NOTES ON LEPIDOPTEROUS PUPÆ. a series of tubuli will be seen permeating through cancellated walls. This tubular development obviously
By ALBERT H. WATERS, B. A. Cantab. affords strength against external pressures, and | THE situations in which the pupæ of lepidoptera although mere conjecture is rarely reconcileable with
occur are many and varied. The common scientific accuracy, it seems at least an instance of Pierida and Vanessidæ are very partial to the underthe application of the method of obtaining the side of the coping stones of walls, and some mothsgreatest strength in the least compass, an idea as the vapourer (Orgyia antiqua)-have the same supported by deeper investigation, as under a power preference also. of 70 diameters, the tubular streaks running through The pupa of the swallow-tailed butterfly (Papilio the “supports” to the edge of the inner surface, Machaon) is attached to the sedge; that of the represented in the illustration by waved white lines are speckled wood (Satyrus Ægeria) to the lower parts of ound to be not solid or homogeneous, but so grass stems, the pupa of Satyrus Semele is buried in beautifully interlocked, that the whole may possibly the earth, and that of Satyrus Hyperanthus is also possess a certain amount of “play” conducing to contained in a little cavity on the surface of the power of resistance and expansion ; in a thin section, 1 ground. Canonympha Pamphilus too pupates close each piece, with its aperture, may with care be to the ground on the lowermost part of the grass accurately separated.
stems, and Thecla quercus chooses similar situations. Although space is somewhat limited, a word The pupa of Thecla betula is attached to the under may be said of the “cirri” of the barnacle, the long side of blackthorn leaves, and those of the blue butterslender incurved fringes of filaments, a living meshed flies to the stems of the plants on which the larvæ net, a combination of barbed tentacles, a perfection feed. The reed tussock-moth (Orgyia canosa), spins of arrangement, and, according to the dictum of a | its cocoon on the stems of Arundo phragmites, the great authority, composed of “about five hundred drinker (Odonestis potatoria) attaches itself to the distinct articulations.” The sensibility of these grass stems; the rare Aspilates citraria encloses its tendril-like organs must be most exalted, and thus, variegated chrysalis in a slight cocoon among the the barnacle traps and sifts its food, as the vessel leaves of Daucus Carota and Lotus corniculatus. sweeps through the waters.
Emmelesia albulata pupates in the domicile it lived in The parent cirriped is a fixture, but its progeny throughout its caterpillar lise, and which it formed by are free swimming atoms, not unlike Cypris, one of spinning together the leaves of Rhinanthus cristathe minute entomostracans of the ponds, except that galli. The prettily coloured eupithecia pupa are in this early larval locomotive stage they keep mostly buried in the earth, and the green chrysalis of together in shoals. Under magnification they are Thera juniperata is suspended to the twigs of the most comely and quaint objects. In one of Mr. | juniper bushes. Gossé's sea-side books is a plate of a pair of these By digging at the foot of willow-trees in October creatures drawn and tinted with extreme elegance.
and the four following months, we are pretty sure to No one who has seen a young cirriped, swirling about, turn up the pupæ of Taniocampa instabilis in large with its compact form and apparently completed numbers among the loose sods, and just beneath them organisation, would conceive that it emanated from a we may possibly find the slightly-spun cocoon of parent so dissimilar in form and habits, or that it
Ptilodontis palpina, and deeper down in the ground would eventually subdue its incessant activity and the red brown glossy chrysalis of the eyed hawk-moth become an “acorn shell ” fixed once for all, and (Smerinthus ocellatus). wedged in by the pressure of surrounding neighbours.
Among the fallen leaves at the foot of oak-trees Barnacles do not thrive in aquaria, they require we may come across the pupa of Selenia illustraria, the incessant rush and motion of water added to an and we may also find it at the foot of birch-trees; the abundance of microscopic forms of food. Small rock cocoon in which it is enclosed is a very slight one. specimens will endure a few days' captivity, when the
If we pull the loose sods to pieces when we commence movements of the cirri may be watched, and attrac digging at the foot of the oak-trees, we are pretty tive microscopical preparations afterwards made of sure to find abundance of chrysalides of Teniscampa the various parts.
stabilis, and may expect to meet with those of TanioCrouch End.
campa munda. It is also at the foot of oak-trees that entomologists living in its localities may dig for
the rare Nyssia hispidaria on the chance of turning it CHIARA V. NITELLA.-- Last year a chara (probably up. Among other pupæ to be dug for under oaks, fotida) was found within five miles of Tunbridge, mention may be made of Notodonta trepida, N.chaonia, in a pond by the roadside at Hadlow. IfC. J. Bohnso and N. dodonæa. When the roots of the oak-trees sends his address to me, I would point out the are covered by an interlacing growth of brambles it locality.--F. W. E. Shrivell, Hope Cottage, Hadlow, | is advisable to look out for the cocoon of Cymatophora Tunbridge.
ridens among the dried leaves and fragments of wood. The pupæ of Cymatophora fluctuosa is enclosed in Ephyra omicronaria.-Green. In a very slight a slight cocoon among the fallen leaves at the foot cocoon in moss on maple-trees. of birch-trees. Notodonta dictæoides and Notodonta Platypteryx falcula.-In a slight web inside a dromedarius are other species we may look out for in doubled up birch leaf. the same locality. They both attach their slightly | P. unguicula.-Brown, with greenish wing cases. made cocoons to the under side of leaves ; of the Among beech leaves in a slight web. two last named, dictæoides is somewhat the largest. | Dicranura bicuspis.-In a compact gummy cocoon Notodonta Camelina and Amphydasis betularia are on the bark of alder-trees, generally in the crevices also pupa we may expect to turn up under birch half-way down the tree on the north side. trees. Camelina also occurs at the foot of maple and D. furcula.-In a glutinous cocoon on the bark of oak, and betularia beneath lime and oak trees; I sallow ; generally very low down. have also dug it up under willow.
D. bifida.-In a very tough and strong cocoon on Other pupæ the trowel may be expected to turn up aspen bark. It gnaws a cavity in the bark, and fills in October are the following :
the depression up with the cocoon, so that it is very Smerinthus Populi. Rough; muddy brown. Near difficult to find it. poplar-trees, also sometimes in gardens under laurel Clostera curtula.—Dark brown, rounded at end. bushes.
Between united aspen leaves. Smerinthus Tilie. Rough ; dull red. At foot of Clostera reclusa.—In a slight cocoon uniting sallow lime and elm.
leaves. Sphinx Convolvuli. Smooth, with beak in front. Gonophora derasa.—Conical, terminating in a horn
Sphinx Ligustri. Smooth dark brown, with curved like point. Within united bramble leaves. , beak-like proboscis in front. Under lilac-trees and Thyatira batis.- Blackish ; with stout thorax and privet hedges.
sharp pointed extremity. In a slight cocoon among Deile phila Euphorbia.-Pale brown, delicately | bramble leaves. reticulated with black lines and dots. In loose sand Cymatophora fluctuosa. -- In a slight cocoon among on the sea coast.
birch leaves. D. Galii.- Brown. In sand on sea coast near c. Or.-Red brown. Between united poplar Deal.
leaves. Biston hirtaria.—Blackish; somewhat dumpy. Cambridge. At roots of lime-trees; also pear and plum.
The following are among the non-subterranean species :
ARTISTIC GEOLOGY. Arctia mendica.-Brown, smooth. In a darkcoloured cocoon among rubbish where dock abounds.
FFESTINIOG AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. A. lubrici peda and A. menthastri.-Dark brown.
By T. MELLARD READE, F.G.S., &c.
[Continued from p. 123.) among water mint and other plants by the side of LLYN MORWYNION AND LLYNIAU GAMALT. wet ditches.
CEVERAL excursions and wanderings over the Orgyia pudibunda.—In a cocoon among oak,
D hills about these lakes will well repay the labour. lime, hazel, maple, and other trees.
The strata are very much broken up by faults in the Demas coryli.-In a slight web under moss at the
immediate neighbourhood, which is well displayed on foot of beech-trees.
the survey map. At Llyniau Gamalt is to be seen a Pæcilocampa Populi.—Brown. In a black, oval
volcanic conglomerate, forming precipitous cliffs on very compact cocoon, under bark, or ash, or poplar.
the eastern side. These lakes from the bogsy nature Sometimes among dead leaves at the foot.
of the surrounding ground are not easily got at. Eriogaster lacustris.-In a small oval compact
The rock is full of large boulders of felstone ; some cocoon under hawthorn.
of them in shape like kidney potatoes. Thin bedded Bombyx Rubi.--Smooth, dark brown ; in a long
ashes are interbedded with the conglomerate, and loose cocoon with intermingled hairs. Among
a true plane surface I noticed of these showed such bramble and heath.
regular jointing as to look like masonry. Following Saturnia carpini.-In a curious pear-shaped co
the outlet stream we came upon a very pretty series coon, open at one end, among heath, blackthorn, &c.
of falls which quite enchanted my boys. The reEllopia fasciaria.--Among the dead needles at
mainder of the distance was mostly bog-trotting roots of Scotch fir. End of October.
before we reached the main road. Eurymene dolobraria.--Under moss on beech or oak.
Waterfalls.—These are very numerous and beautiful Odontopera bidentata.-Under moss on oak and in the neighbourhood. The falls of the Cynfael within other trees. End of October,
a half-mile walk are lovely in their variety. For a mile the stream may be followed through a series of terminate successively to the southward in wellglens, gullies and gorges, overhung and festooned defined scarps. This is perhaps as curious and with trees. The geological interest as an example of instructive an example of denudation as may be seen. denudation is also great. I sketched a view of Hugh At Harlech Castle we note how remarkably the Lloyd's pulpit, a pillar of rock left standing in the Cambrian grits, of which the walls are built, have middle of the stream. Further up are some very stood the weather, while the sandstone dressings of large boulders wedged in the walls of the stream in the openings have crumbled away. The architecture quite a remarkable manner. These I have described of the front to the interior quadrangle is massive and in a paper to the Geological Society, so I will not grand. Beyond Harlech we saw quarries in which repeat it here.
the grit and interlaminations of slate may be studied ; About three miles from Ffestiniog, on the road to and still further on, a great bank of drift, lying on the Bala, we get fine views of the Rhaidr Cwm, a series mountain side, and skirted by the Cambrian railway, of splendid falls on the same stream but quite may be investigated ; that is, if the explorer is not different in character to those just described. It is afraid of thorns and torn clothes. a mountain torrent springing from rock to rock and A trip down the narrow gauge railway to Port cutting deep gorges in the hillside. It is above the Madoc, and a visit to Borth, is both pleasant and level at which trees flourish.
instructive. At the latter place geology may be A good walker may cross the moors at a point combined with sea bathing. It is a very pretty little further on the road and get to Bettws-y-Coed by bay, hewn by the sea out of the Lingula beds. Nor Penmachno. Nothing is more delightful than the air must we omit a visit to the grand volcanic mass of of these moors some thousand feet above sea level, the Arenigs, or fail to notice the enormous blocks and the gradual change in the long descent to the and boulders in the railway cutting near Arenig vale of Conway, from bare mountain sides to the station here, 1200 feet above the sea level. It were luxuriant foliage of the vale is very agreeable. The impossible to do justice to all the details of interest, falls of the Conway may be visited, and the return to geologic and artistic, within reach of the sojourner Ffestiniog made by train to Blaenau.
at Ffestiniog ; in the space at my command I can do
little more than outline them. Nor is the district Other Excursions. I fear I have exhausted my devoid of interest to the antiquary. A good pair reader's patience in these descriptions in which it of legs and lungs, guided by scientific ardour, will do is difficult to reproduce the feelings which take wonders. I have avoided all references to fossil possession of the mind open to the influences and collections. My object was, firstly, to gain health; ever-changing moods of nature. It is impossible to secondly, to find a pleasing occupation for the mind, walk anywhere about Ffestiniog without being grati- Without the latter Ffestiniog would be voted slow; fied with the scenery. Many a walk did we take to with it, and the great inducement presented for Blaenau Ffestiniog, yet one may safely say that such rambles and long walks, I found it health-giving, is the variety of effect produced by the atmosphere exhilarating, and ennobling to the mind. What is and cloud, that the picture was never the same. The beauty? has been a question debated by artists, mountains at times seem to be pervaded with an philosophers, and poets. We know by feeling what impenetrable and mysterious gloom which excites the it means, but the metaphysical analysis which curiosity and we strive vainly to picture what is attempts an explanation of the conditions of mind behind, while, at others, every detail lighted up is so under which it is perceived is usually unsatisfactory distinct, and yet so tender, that one feels the depths of in its answers. Of this, however, I am sure : given despair in trying to reproduce the effects on paper. the constitutional temperament which rejoices in the I have said little about the vale. It is very beautiful harmonies of nature, the wider the knowledge the but its beauty is not of that mysterious nature which keener will be the perception of natural beauty. constantly keeps the imagination on the stretch as the But I must not forget my geological readers. In mountains do. At the same time some prefer the sooth describing my trip to the Bwlch Drws Ardudwy, I ing effect of a combination of trees rocks and water was so taken up with the outward show and semmaking up such a landscape ; so I leave it to them. blance of things that I quite forgot to explain that
Excursions that will repay the geologist may be | we were passing over what may be considered the made down the valley of Dolwyddelan, past the central dome of the Welsh system, forming originally Castle, and across the mountains to Capel Curig, the highest part of the mountain system of North and thence back to Bettws-y-Coed. We pass the Wales, but now stripped bare of its former covering foot of the grand cone of Moel Siabod, a landmark of Silurian rocks both upper and lower, with its much among the mountains. Again, a trip to Harlech may altered Cambrian rocks deeply eaten into by denuding be made, noting the remarkable anticlinal hills on agencies, yet still presenting mountains rising 2400 the left (at the bottom of map LXXV., north-east), feet above the sea level. These great mountains, the the surface contours of which are formed by the curved Rhinogs, Diphwys, &c., are entirely carved out of bedding planes which, wrapping over the hills, | the Cambrian strata from base to summit after the removal of many thousands of feet of Silurian rocks. specially transformed. In some there is a thin inner What a vista of time does not this present to the membrane turned up to meet the proper indusium. imagination! But to read about these denudations This forms a connecting link with Lindsæa. is insufficient; it is necessary to walk about, map in P. aquilina, Linn., or common brake, is the only hand, to thoroughly realise their meaning. It is then species with the double indusium found in the that geology becomes a living fact, a sublime thought island. Surely no description of the fern is necessary before which historical ideas of time and action are for English people, living as they do, and bearing mere fugitive shadows. Being brought face to face with them to foreign lands the recollection of the with such facts cannot fail to profoundly influence homes of their childhood ? Brake is found all over our ideas of the relation in which we stand to Nature. the hills and in every part of the island. There are many aspects in which these relations may P. nemoralis, Willd. (or quadriaurita, Retz.), is still be viewed, they have been dwelt upon by the great more abundant, especially in the town of Victoria. minds of all ages; but not the least awe-inspiring, if | This species is twice or bi-pinnate, and easily bewildering, is the panorama of creation which distinguished, as the lowest pinnä on each side of the geology only within the last fifty years has unfolded, rachis are in twos, and hang down, a habit common and vaguely in broad outlines pictured to the human to the order, and no doubt suggesting the name from eye.
the likeness to a bird's wing (pteron-a wing).
SOME FERNS OF HONG KONG.
By Mrs. E. L. O’MALLEY.
(Continued from p. 134.] Gen. VII. Pteris, Linn.
(Brake.) ALL the species of this large genus by no means A resemble Pteris aquilina, or eagle fern, so called in some counties from the supposed likeness, as every boy knows, to a spread eagle, in the vessels of the stalk cut traversely; but in all, the covering of the sori is marginal and continuous. It runs along the entire length of the leaf, and consists of the margin
P. longifolia, Linn., or long-leaved pteris, is a large fern, fond of heat and dry dusty places, simply pinnate, except the two lowest pinnæ, but all the pinnæ narrow straggling and long. An untidy. looking fern, and one which might at first sight be mistaken for Blechnum orientale, but the sori placed at the edge, instead of down the centre of the leafsegment, at once mark a different genus. In pteris, the extreme point of the segment is always destitute of sori, a peculiarity we do not observe in ferns of other genera. Two more species are common, both smaller and more delicate in texture.
P. semi-pinnata, Linn., or half-pinnate pteris, is one of the commonest plants in the island, and very
easily known by the half-formed frond, of which the
By W. MATTIEU WILLIAMS, F.R.A.S., F.C.S.
The sterile and fertile leaves are different-those of the IN the Bulletin of the American Geographical former being serrated.
1 Society is an account of the mosquitoes in Alaska,
which to those who have not had some experience of Gen. VIII. CHEILANTHES, Sw.
these pests in Arctic regions, appears incredible. In Cheilanthes we find a very lovely little fern,
Shooting is described as impossible, because the almost as delicate as and not altogether unlike Lindsæa
clouds formed by them were so dense as to prevent hacrophylla. Its name-C. tenuifolia, Sw., thin
aiming. Native dogs are sometimes killed by them, leaved cheilanthes, well describes its nature. The
and Lieut. Schwatka heard accounts from reliable stalk is slender, black and hair-like. The tiny,
persons which, coupled with his own experience, he curled, much-cut segments of the leaf have sori
fully believes, of the great grizzly bear falling a running all round and just inside the edge. The
victim. The bear having invaded the swamps where frond seldom exceeds 6 in. in height; it is ovate,
the mosquitoes breed and congregate, stands up on triangular in outline, bright green, and grows in
his hind legs and fights them with his fore paws, but banks along with Lindsæa and maidenhair. In
as they are neither huggable nor scratchable, he fails, some countries it is known as lip-fern, from the
is blinded, and finally starved in consequence. indusium covering the seed, as the lip covers the
The popular notion that these abominable little teeth, but it must be remembered the covering is
wretches are chiefly resident in tropical and subsingle, not double. The very tiny, almost round
tropical countries is quite a mistake. The home of pinnules--the under side rough with downy hairs,
their mightiest legions is within and about the Arctic and often nearly covered with the confluent sori,
circle. This is evident even in the course of an which has the appearance of being curled inwards,
ordinary coasting trip round the North Cape. At every enable the botanist easily to identify the species.
station where a halt is made, a living cloud invades
the ship, and its passengers suffer accordingly, Gen. IX. ASPLENIUM, Linn.
especially at the wrists, where the blood-suckers hide (Spleenworts.)
under the shirt cuff, and operate secretly. On proceed
ing out again to sea, they are blown away. On the The disposition of the sori, running along the
occasion of my last trip, two of my fellow passengers veins, constitutes in this genus the principal specific
landed on Magerö to ascend the North Cape cliffs. distinction.
We picked them up again on our return. They were Of this very large genus we cannot say that more
in sorry plight. One of them, a sturdy Uhlan officer, than two species are really common in Hong-Kong.
| who had ridden through France during the war Asplenium Schkuhrii (Mett.) (Ihbg.) reminds us at
without mishap, was unborsed by the mosquitoes, once of the pretty maiden-hair spleenwort of English
and crippled by the fall. Both horse and rider were heaths and hedges, only the black stalk is missing.
so irritated that both were lost to rational control. It is usually found from 8 to 12 inches high, but
“I did svallo mosquitoes; I did breeve mosquitoes; sometimes attains to a greater size. The frond is
I did spit zem out of my mouf,” were the terms of his simply pinnate, tapering to a point, and pinnules
description. serrated. Like most of the spleenworts it is graceful
I find that as the limits of the swallow's summer and delicate-looking. Asplenium dilatatum, Hk.,
visit is reached the plague commences, and when must strike many as an old friend. It grows on the
those limits are passed, its maximum is attained. I Pok-fillum road and elsewhere, but in England is one
believe that our comparative immunity in England of the commonest objects on the hillside. The frond
is due to the abundance of our swallows and martins, is twice or thrice-pinnate, bright green and feathery in
which even the most brutal of cockney sportsmen appearance. We have heard it called “parsley-fern,"
respects, or fails to hit, and whose nests are wisely from its likeness to the leaf of wild parsley (Anthriscus
protected by common consent of all our rustics. The sylvestris). A. lanceum, Th., is uncommon. The frond
swallow is as loveable as the sparrow is detestable. is undivided (entire), about 6 in. long and } to i in.
The healing power of living whale blubber is shown broad, with a slightly irregular edge and sori in
by a fact narrated to the Royal Society of Tasmania, streaks along the upper or both sides of the veins.
viz., that in a whale captured in Behring's Straits in (To be continued.)
June 1883, a harpoon was found imbedded in blubber,
having “ lenty. L. 1838" branded upon it. In 1838 Vol. XIX. of the new edition of the “Encyclo. a whaling establishment belonging to an old Colonial pædia Britannica” (PEY-PRO) has been published. family named Henty existed at Portland Bay, It contains illustrated articles on Polyzoa and Proto- Victoria. As Behring's Straits are a long way from zoa by Prof. E. Ray Lankester.
| Victoria, an interesting question is suggested. Did