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had been destroyed in the burning out of the nest) ; | The new Executive Council of the National but there was an immense host of very active and Association of Science and Art Teachers held its very fierce workers, which freely attacked the would- first meeting on Saturday, November 29th, in the be destroyers of their home, and it was no light task Technical School, Manchester. Dr. H. C. Sorby, evading their stings, as they were most persistent in F.R.S., of Sheffield, presided, and there were present their attacks and would follow one far from their nest. representatives from several district associations. Sir

Also, this evening, a nest of the Vespa sylvestris, Henry E. Roscoe, F.R.S., &c., was unanimously not quite so large as the three taken on the 2nd elected president. The new rules adopted at the inst., but of fair size and the same shape, was taken Annual Meeting were submitted, and ordered to be out of the above-mentioned dyke at no great distance printed, together with the annual report, an abstract from that of V. Germanica. It also was situated in of the proceedings of the district associations, list of a cavity immediately behind the facing stones of the members, &c. Measures were adopted for a large dyke, being completely exposed on the removal of extension of the Association, and a committee was a few of them that lay in front of it. In it were appointed to consider the desirability of establishing found all the three sexes, workers, large females and a newspaper or other journal for science and art males; and out of one tier of comb I extracted teachers. Several other matters were discussed, several of the large females, or queens and males, including a circular of the Science and Art Departthat were just about ready to emerge.

ment, respecting prizes and scholarships, the dates of (To be continued.)

examinations, and details respecting examinations in machine construction, and drawing and building construction, and in art. It was decided to hold the

next meeting of the Executive Council in Birmingham SCIENCE-GOSSIP.

early in February. Death has been very busy lately with scientific A NOTABLE man, Professor Voelcker, F.R.S., well men. We have to mourn the loss of two old and

known as a writer on agricultural chemistry, has just valued contributors : Professor Buckman, F.G.S.,

died at the age of sixty-two. whose papers on geology and botany were frequent | Dr. H. C. LANG. F.L.S., has drawn up a “ Systein our earlier numbers, and Mr. J. F. Robinson, of

matic List of the Butterflies of Europe,” extracted Frodsham, whose “ Notes for Science-Classes" were

from his work on this subject. It is published by among the last of his contributions to SCIENCE

Messrs. Reeve & Co. Gossip. Mr. Robinson died at the early age of forty-five, an earnest, simple-minded botanist and

MR. CHARLES BAILY, F.L.S., has kindly sent us a naturalist, who was never so pleased as when assisting

copy (profusely illustrated) of the resumé of the comother students.

munications he made to the Leenwenhoek Microsco

pical Club, and the Manchester Philosophical Society, Two distinguished geologists have just passed

“ On the structure, the occurrence in Lancashire, away: Dr. Thomas Wright, of Cheltenham, the well

and the source of the origin of Naias graminea, Del. known authority on British Colitic fossils, and Mr.

var. Delilei, Magnus." R. A. Godwin-Austin, of Guildford, whose papers and researches on the physical geography of various

PROFESSOR Owen has drawn attention to the fact of the geological periods gave a new charm to the

that the upper molar teeth of an eocene mammal science, and also aided in the discovery of many new

(Neoplagiaulax) from Rheims, has premolars like truths.

those of the secondary mammal Plagianlax. MR. A. T. METCALFE, F.G.S., has communicated

Mr. W. BROCKHURST has demonstrated to the to the Geological Society his discovery in one of the

Linnean Society, that double daffodil flowers can bone caves of the Cresswell Crags of the portion of

produce seeds. He has raised them. the upper jaw of the mammoth, containing the first The Rev. H. Higgins has published a very and second milk molar teeth, in situ.

thoughtful paper, in which is condensed a good deal The Natural History Collections at the Albany

of personal experience in the matter, or “ Museums Museum, Graham's Town, have long been known to

of Natural History." He is rather hard on the naturalists, who, however, have not hitherto been

"loungers" there—but can they “lounge" in better aware of their extensive character. A catalogue has

or more harmless places ? now been compiled by the curator, M. Glanville, and Dr. Percy Wilde, of Bath, has issued a short presented to both Houses of Parliament by the par phlet entitled “Test Type for Determining the Governor. It is in every way an admirable anu Acuteness of Vision.” It will be found of great creditable piece of work, and cannot fail to be value to people of failing sight. The paper was interesting and helpful, both to naturalists at home originally arranged for the “Medical Annual and and abroad.

Practitioners' Index.”

M. POUCHET, who is still engaged in experiments on the subject, states that the blood of cholera victims is charged with biliary salts, whilst there is always a tonic alkaloid in their dejecta. Experiments at Marseilles show that biliary acids are relatively more abundant in the blood of cholera patients than in others.

MR. ELLERY, the well known astronomer of Mel. bourne, is still of opinion that the recent brilliant sunsets are attributable to the presence of vapour in the higher regions of the atmosphere.

MR. Gibbs BOURNE has found a hydriform stage of the freshwater jelly-fish, which for several years past has made its unaccountable appearance in the tanks in Regent's Park.

“The Birds of Lancashire,” by Mr. F. S. Mitchell, of Clitheroe, will be published shortly by Mr. Van Voorst. The book is a carefully prepared list of the species of birds which, either as residents or visitors, have been known to occur within the limits of the county of Lancaster. The author has been aided with information from observers in all parts of the county, and this, added to published matter, has furnished him with a vast number of facts. A map of Lancashire, showing the physical features, and with all the places referred to inserted, has been specially drawn for the work, as also plans of Martin Mere before it was drained, and of the duck-decoy at Hale, with woodcuts illustrating this mode of catching ducks. The volume promises to be very interesting.

MICROSCOPY. TO CLEAN CLOUDY MOUNTS.-On mounting sections of freshly cut vegetable tissues, they become cloudy. Will any reader suggest a mode of clearing and mounting to prevent this occurring ?-W. H. L.

STAINING VEGETABLE TISSUES.-A correspondent has drawn our attention to the fact that the paragraph in last month's SCIENCE-Gossip under the above heading, by W. F. Pratt, is quoted bodily, verbatim et literatim, from Cole's “Methods of Microscopical Research,” part xi. for June 1884.

The QUEKETT CLUB.—The Journal of this well known club for November 1884, is as interesting as usual; containing, beside the Committee's report, list of members, &c., the address by the president, Dr. M. C. Cooke, a paper on “A Hydrostatic fine Adjustment,” by E. M. Nelson; and a list of objects found on various excursions to Epping Forest, Whitstable, and other places.

THE NORFOLK DIATOMACEÆ.-Mr. F. Kitton, Hon. F.R.M.S., has issued the second series of his “Century," and in every respect it fully maintains the high character earned for the work by the first

LIVERPOOL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY.-The ordinary monthly meeting of this Society was held on 5th December, the president, Mr. Charles Botterill, F.R.M.S., in the chair. Some notes on the “ Seed. vessels of Senecio vulgaris” were read by Mr. William Oelrichs, F.R. Met. Soc. ; special attention being called by him to the minute spiral fibres emitted from the hairs on the surface of the seedvessels after immersion in water. Another paper was read by Mr. A. T. Smith, junr., on the structure of Alcyonium digitatum, the dead man's finger zoophyte. He described the general appearance of the zoophyte during life, both in and out of the water, and afterwards detailed its minute structure as revealed by the microscope-tentacles, thread cells, spicules, &c.

“THE JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY.”—The January issue of this journal shows no falling off in its old vigour, and promises well for the coming year. It contains the address of the President of the Postal Microscopical Society, Mr. C. F. George; together with papers on “A Piece of Hornwrack : Its Inhabitants and Guests,” by Arthur J. l'ennington, illustrated ; “Rambles of a Naturalist near Amberley," by Miss A. M. Charlesworth ; and “The Microscope and How to Use it,” by V. A. Latham.

At the last meeting of the Royal Microscopical Society a new Lantern Microscope with the oxy. hydrogen light was exhibited, which will be of great service to lecturers who require to exhibit microscopic objects to classes or audiences. A number of anatomical and other objects were exhibited on a screen fourteen feet square; and Mr. Lewis Wright, and Messrs. Newton & Co., of Fleet Street, the makers of the instrument, received high commendations for the brilliancy and sharpness with which the details of the subjects were shown. This instrument was also exhibited at the recent meeting of the Quekett Microscopical Society, when the blow-fly's tongue was shown from 6ft. to 14st. long, and a section of a drone fly's eye was magnified 2500 diameters.

At a recent meeting of the Academy of Paris, M. Vulpian read a paper on the anæsthetic action of the chlorohydrate of cocaine. So powerful is it that an aqueous solution of i part of cocaine and 99 parts of water inserted under the eyelids produces complete insensibility of the conjunctiva and cornca in the human eye.

On the 14th of November last, I found a sprig of hawthorn in full and fragrant blossom in a hedge near Ipswich. The sprig bore ripe fruit as well as flowers.-7. E. Taylor.

DOES THE SPARROW-HAWK ATTACK TOADS ?Referring to this query (p. 215), I believe such an incident to be quite new in the history of the sparrowhawk; but not uncommon with the kestrel. Is your correspondent certain the bird was not a kestrel ?H. M., Ipswich.

and immediately after the boatman gaffed with the ZOOLOGY

monster, which was promptly got on baard. On the NOTES ON THE MOLLUSCA OF SURREY, Sussex,

following Monday, Dr. W. Y. Veitch purchased the AND KENT.--I have lately been on a walking

fish on behalf of the Middlesbro' Museum Committee,

and it is now in the hands of the taxidermist. The tour, and have collected many uncommon shells in localities which have not yet, as far as I am aware,

demensions of the fish were as follows :-From tip

to tip of fins, 5 feet. From nose to anal fin, 3 feet been recorded. I think that a few of the more

9 inches. From back to belly, 2 feet 3 inches. interesting will be worth recording now. In the neighbourhood of Addington, in Kent, I found a

Weight, after removal of entrails, 9 stone 2 pounds.single specimen of Helix rotundata, var. alba, and

Baker Hudson, Middlesborough. the same variety also turned up later on at Eyns LANTERN ILLUSTRATIONS IN NATURAL SCIENCE. ford, where I also got a specimen of H. pomatia, thus - I should be obliged for information respecting the extending its range well into Kent, in which county best means of demonstrating to large classes upon I had never before taken it, though I found it very natural history objects with the aid of microscopic common in Surrey from Caterham to Shiere. About | slides (not micro-photographs) and lantern. I half-way between Reigate and Dorking, Clausilia understand that there is a method by which the Rolphii was common on a bank on one side of the image of opaque objects even can be thrown upon road, and with it Cochlicopa tridens, while close by a the screen. How far can an ordinary microscope and stream rather nearer to Reigate we found also the lantern be adapted to such work?E. W. . variety crystallina and some specimens of Helix

ScientIFIC SOCIETIES, AND THE WORK THEY arbustorum. Hyalina (or Zonites) glabra was very

ARE DOING.--We have received the Transactions of abundant in Surrey, and in some parts of Kent,

the Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field but we did not meet with a single specimen in

Club, Parts 1 & 2. Amongst the papers therein we Sussex. The following are a few of the localities :

notice the following: “The Diatomacea, with West Wickham, Addington, Reigate, Shiere, Pad

special reference to species found in the neighbourdock Wood, and Eynsford. H. nitidula seemed

hood of Hertford,” by Isaac Robinson; “The recommonest in Kent; H. cellaria and H. crystallina

corded occurrence of land and fresh-water Mollusca were well diffused, but H. fulva we only found at

in Hertfordshire,” by W. D. Roebuck" and John W. Haslemere. A few miles to the north-west of Wrot- Taylor; “Remarks on the Land Mollusca, with ham I found a few specimens of a greenish variety of

reference to their investigation in Hertfordshire,” by H. cellaria, similar to one found at Maidenhead, John Hopkinson ; “Notes on Mosses, with an outwhich I considered at the time to be alliarius var.

line of a Hertfordshire Moss-Flora," by A. E. Gibbs; viridula, the specimen being immatare, but com

Notes on Birds observed in Hertfordshire," by parison with the adult specimens now found convinces

J. E. Littleboy ; "List of Land and Fresh-water me that they are identical. Achatina acicula we

Mollusca observed in Hertfordshire,” compiled by found in two Sussex localities, one being the extreme J. Hopkinson ; "Notes on Boulders and Boulder-clay summit of a high hill, a few miles north of Chichester,

in North Hertfordshire," by H. G, Fordham ;“On and the other a mossy bank at Robertsbridge, where the Microscopic structure of Boulders found in the we found several other good shells, such as Clausilia North of Hertfordshire,” by J. Vincent Elsden ; Rolphii, which was by no means uncommon, and with “Notes on Lepidoptera observed near Sandridge,” it Cochlicopa tridens, Helix arbustorum, H. lapicida, by A. F. Griffith; “Report on Insects observed in and others. On a wall at Battle we found some Hertfordshire during the year 1883,” by F. W. specimens of Clausilia rugosa, var. gracilior, and close Silvester. by one C. laminata. Helix cartusiana was found

The Transactions of the Ottawa Field Naturalists only at one place, a little to the east of Worthing,

Club is of great interest, proving the vitality and where my brother, who was with me, got two speci

thoroughness of scientific investigation amongst our mens. We found a large number of other shells, but

Canadian neighbours. Besides the inaugural address I have no space to record them at present, and as

of the president, Dr. H. Beaumont Small, and the they are many of them common ones they would be

various official reports of the different sections of of less interest than the above.-7. D. A. Cockerell,

Geology, Conchology, etc., the following valuable August 1884.

papers are given :“Notes on the ‘ Flora Ottawensis,'” CAPTURE OF SUN-FISH.—A fine specimen of the by Jas. Fletcher ; “On the Sand Plains of the sun-fish (Orthragoriscus mola) was captured about Upper Ottawa,” by E. Odlum ; “List of Ottawa four miles off Redcar, Yorks, on September 13th. A Fossils,” with introduction, by Henry M. Ami; party of gentlemen were engaged in shooting sea- | “Edible and Poisonous Fungi,” by J. Macoum ; birds, when they sighted what they supposed to be “List of Ottawa Coleoptera,” with introduction, by the fin of a shark standing out of the water about | W. H. Harrington ;“ Suctoria,” by J. B. Tyrrell ; 18 inches. When within range, the fish was fired at, “On the occurrence of Phosphate in Nature," by

G. M. Dawson; “The Deer of the Ottawa Valley,” | It includes only species which have been examined by by W. P. Lett; and a “Note on Doassansia occulta," himself, and, with one or two exceptions, all are in by W. G. Farlow.

his own herbarium. The list includes about 270

species, and about the same number of “hosts; ” THE Report of the Liverpool Science Student's

but he thinks their number will be doubled by a few Association is mainly occupied with accounts of the

years' collections. various excursions made by the members during the past session, many of which are of considerable "The British Moss FLORA.”—The author of this interest. Amongst these we notice more especially | beautiful and valuable work, Dr. Braithwaite, F.L.S., visits paid to Boston Observatory, and to the has now reached his eighth part, which deals with Seacombe Phospho-Guano Works.

the family Tortulacea. It is illustrated by six plates,

each giving from eight to ten species, with details of There is also, as an Appendix, a valuable series of

structure, &c. This is unquestionably the most “Local Notes for Science Students,” by Osmond W.

valuable work on mosses which has yet appeared. Jeffs.

LEAF OF NEPETA GLECHOMA.—Every observer The Report of the Norwich Science Gossip Club contains, beside the list of members, Report of

will have noticed that the leaves of the ground ivy the Committee, &c., the address of the president, Mr.

have a tendency to become patched with white,

thereby assuming a pretty variegated appearance. T. Irwin Dixon, which conveniently summarizes the

Has anything been written on this subject? I have proceedings of the Society during the past year,

examined several leaves under a strong 1-inch power, briefly describing the various meetings, and giving in

and find that the white spots show heaps of black condensed form many valuable papers and addresses

refuse, which looks like excrement from some small delivered by members.

insect that has been feeding on the leaf, while there The Proceedings of the Folkestone Natural History are proofs that the chlorophyll has been consumed. I Society contains the following papers : “ The Hand,

have, however, failed as yet to detect either insect or considered as an organ of expression; or, Scientific fungus, and should be glad to know whether the Chirognomy as opposed to Chiromancy,” by Dr.

cause of this peculiarity has yet been traced.-H. FitzGerald, the president; “Pain,” by Dr. Tyson ; Friend. “The Nautilus and the Ammonite,” by Mr. Hy.

Double DAHLIAS.-It was not until this summer Ullyett, the secretary; “Earthquakes and Volcanoes," that I ever observed two dahlias upon one peduncle, Dr. FitzGerald ; and a most useful paper, intended

back to back, or otherwise. It is evidently due to the as a general guide to the amateur naturalist, read by economy of nature to utilise one peduncle for two the Secretary at the field day at Lydden Spont.

flowers. The “freak” could not have arisen from the want of light; for my plant, also old-fashioned

double dark red, was exposed to ample, being in a BOTANY.

good upright position. I thought at first one flower,

in its struggle for existence, would outdo the other; SAGITTARIA SAGITTIFOLIA.— Cette particularité

but no, both were beautifully developed and remained de végétation n'est point signalée dans la plupart des

in bloom as long as any other. Last spring I was ouvrages de botanique, ou les flores que j'ai à ma

presented with a primrose (Primula vulgaris) sufferdisposition ; cependant Cosson et Germain de St.

ing from the same abnormality ; in this latter case the Pierre, dans leur “Flore des Environs de Paris,"

peduncle was much thickened and flattened.-R. H. s'expriment en ces termes (page 640): “Souches à

Wellington. fibres nombreuses, émettant plusieurs rhizomes qui portent une ou plusieurs écailles espacées et se renflent au sommet en une bulbe charnue qui devient libre par la destruction du rhizome et donne naissance à une

GEOLOGY, &c. nouvelle plante l'année suivante.” J'ajouterai qu'il

GEOLOGISTS' ASSOCIATION.— The Proceedings of m'est souvent arrivé de recueillir des échantillons des

the Geologists' Association is to hand, containing, bulbes en question, flottant dans le fleuve la Somme,

besides reports of the ordinary meetings, papers of à Amiens, soit que ces bulbes se soient eux-mêmes

great interest by members, among which are the détachées de la base, soit qu'ils en aient été arrachées

following : “Fossil Plants," by J. Starkie Gardner; par le passage des bateaux ou par les travaux de

“Notes on the Krakatoa Eruption,” by Grenville J. faucardage (coupe des herbes aquatiques avec une

Cole; “ The Implementiferous Gravel of North-East faux).-C. C., Somme.

London," by J. E. Greenhill ; and an address on PARASITIC FUNGI.-- Professor Trelease sends us a “Fossil Plants from various Formations,” by William copy of his carefully drawn up pamphlet, entitled Fawcett. Exceedingly interesting, too, are the “Preliminary List of Wisconsin Parasitic Fungi.' | reports of visits paid by the Society to the British - - - --Museum (Natural History), and to the British | Older Pliocene ; that is to say, it is coeval with the Museum, Bloomsbury. On the former occasion, an Red Crag, but its affinities are more with the address was presented by the president, Dr. Henry | Pliocene of Italy than with the Pliocene of the North Hicks, on behalf of the members, to Sir Richard Sea region ; and this seems to show that during its Owen, on his retirement from the directorship of that deposition there was no communication between the institution. A valuable address was then given by Atlantic and the North Sea, except round the North Dr. Henry Woodward, on Fossil Fishes. The visit of Britain, the refrigeration of the water by the nine to the British Museum was the occasion of "a demon degrees of latitude, through which Britain extends stration” on the marbles and monumental stones, northwards from St. Erth, preventing the access on illustrated by the collection in the Museum

he Italian group of Nassa to that sea. A new DEPOSIT OF PLIOCENE AGE AT ST. ERTH,

Flint HUNTING.–REMARKABLE "Finds.”FIFTEEN MILES EAST OF THE LAND'S END, CORN

During the closing days of November 1884, a party of WALL.—A valuable addition to British geology has just

geologists, one lady and five gentlemen, under the been made by Mr. Searles Wood, in a communication

leadership of Mr. R. Law, of Walsden, paid a visit to the Geological Society. The deposit described

to the fint deposits, on Midgely Moor, overlooking occurs about five miles north-east of Penzance, and

Mytholmroyd village, and about five miles from consists of a tenacious blue clay with shells, resting |

Halifax. On arriving at the place (a bare patch of on sand. Mr. Wood has got together upwards of

about an acre, from which the peat has been denuded, forty species of mollusca, inclusive of a few of which

exposing a bed of silver sand and angular stones, only fragments have as yet occurred, and of several

capping flagstones of the second millstone grit rocks, minute species. Among these, besides some that are

and near to which is a circular embankment of earth, apparently altogether new, are some particularly

marked on the ordinance maps as a Roman mound characteristic species of the Red Crag not known

or remains of a Roman camp). The party made a living, such as Cypræa (Trivia) avellana, Sow.;

vigilant search for about two hours, and were reMelampus pyramidalis, Sow. ; and Nassa granulata,

warded by finding about forty specimens of flint. Sow. (or else N. granifera, Dujardin), as well as

Besides numerous chips and flakes, from 1 to 2 inches other characteristic Crag species that still live, but

long, and two or three chert and flint cores, a not north of the coast of Spain, such as Turritella

beautiful flint arrow-head, well worked round the edge triplicata, Brocchi (7. incrassata, Sow.), and

but broken at the point, a scraper showing marks of Ringicula buccinea, Brocchi. The most interesting

having been used, a rhomboidal flint was found ; also feature of the fauna, however, consists in the six

a very rare specimen of flint thought to have been species of Nassa that the deposit has hitherto

used for carving on horns, &c., by the ancient Aint yielded, of which all but one, N. granulata Sow. (or

makers. If valued by the scarcity, such instrumenis

were worth a few pounds at least. The party granifera, Dujardin), are unknown from any formation of Northern Europe, and occur, whether in the

decided to pay another and an early visit, hoping to

find a barbed arrow-head, similar to what has on a living or fossil state, only in the southern half of Europe. N. conglobata, a species of a group near to

former occasion been found here.-7. Fielding, that of mutabilis, has occurred in the Red Crag ; but,

Mytholmroyd, Yorkshire. so far as the author is aware, neither that shell, nor any of the group to which it belongs, has occurred in any other formation of Northern Europe. One of NOTES AND QUERIES. these is Nassa mutabilis, Linné, which now lives throughout the Mediterranean, but outside that sea LIFE HISTORY OF MANTIS. – The mantis belongs north of Cadiz (lat. 36° 30') ; and two others are

to the one carnivorous family of the orthoptera,

namely, the mantidæ. The mantidæ inhabit the hot new species of this exclusively southern mutabilis

parts of Europe and the tropics ; one species, the group. Another seems to be a rare Italian Upper Mantis religiosa, is especially common in the south Pliocene species of the reticulata group, N. reticostata, of France, coming as far north as Fontainebleau. Its Bellardi ; while the sixth is the Lower Pliocene and

name is derived from uévtis, a prophet, because of its

reverential attitude whilst waiting for a victim. It Upper-Miocene species, N. serrata, Brocchi. This

rears itself on its four hind legs, the thorax being shell, in the variety of form it presents at St. Erth almost perpendicular, and the fore arms extended, (where it is one of the most frequent shells), seems to and thus remains motionless, except that its head connect the Red-Crag N. reticosa, Sow., with the

turns from side to side, until some unfortunate insect

comes by, when it is seized and devoured. The Italian N. serrata, while the shorter forms of it are

mantis lays its eggs at the end of the summer in identical with the Italian Lower-Pliocene N. emiliana, rounded fragile capsules attached to the branches of Mayer. The fauna is altogether southern, no

trees, but they do not hatch till the following summer. exclusively Arctic shell having as yet occurred in it.

When it leaves the egg the young one resembles its

parents; differing only in size, and in having no Mr. Wood regards the bed as clearly Pliocene, and wings. After moulting four or five times it has inclines to the opinion that it is rather Newer than I almost reached its full growth, and its wings begin

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