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WATKINS AND DONCASTER. Naturalists and Manufacturers of Entomological Apparatus and Cabinets.

N.B.- For Excellence and Superiority of Cabinets and Apparatus, references are permitted to

distinguished Patrons and Colleges, &C. Plain Ring Nets, Wire or Cane, including stick, 1/8, 2/2, 2/3. Breeding Cage, 2/6, 1/3,5/-, and 7/6. Folding Nets, 3/9 and 4/6..

Taxidermist's Companion, ie, a pocket leather case, containing Umbrella Nets, 7/6 (self-acting).

most useful instruments for skinning, 10/6. Pocket Boxes, -76; corked both sides, -/9, 1/-, and 1/6.

Coleopterist's Collecting Bottle, with tube, 1/6, 1/8. Zinc Relaxing Boxes, -/9, 1/4, 1/6, and 2/-.

Ditto, Tin Boxes, 1/6. Ditto, large size, with strap, 6/-.

Ditto, Japanned Pocket Case, fitted with 26 tubes, 5/ . Nested Chip Boxes, 4 dozen, -/8.

(black). / Botanical Cases, japanned, double tin, 1/6, 4/5, 575,6/5, 9/. Entomological Pins, assorted or mixed, 1/- per oz. (white or Botanical Paper, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 2/2 per quire. (Too heavy Glass Killing Bottles or Tubes ready for use, il., 1/6.

for post.) Sugaring Lanterns, 2/6 to ro/..

Insect Cases, imitation mahogany, 3/6 to 11/-. Sugaring Tin, with brush, 1/6, 2/-.

(oz. Cement for replacing Antenna, -/6 per bottle. Mite Destroyer (not inflammable nor dangerous to use), 1/- per Forceps for removing Insects, 2/6 per pair. (Supplied to Store Boxes, 2/6,4/-,5/-, and 6/..

Collectors all over the world.) Ditto, Book Pattern, 8/6, 9/6, and 10/6.

Cabinet Cork, 7 X 34, best quality, 1/3 per dozen sheets. Setting Boards, flat or oval, i-in., -/6; it-in. -/8; 14-in., -19 Pupa Diggers, 1/6, 2/-. 'Insect Lens, 1/6 to 8/-.

3-in., -/10; 2t-in. 1/-; 3-in., 1/2; 3t-in., 1/4; 4-in., 1/6; | Glass Top Boxes, per dozen, 1/8, 2/2, 2/6., 1/8; 5-in., 1/10. Complete set of 14 boards, 10/6. Egg Drills, -/3 Setting Houses, 9/6 and 11/6; corked back, 14/6. . Metal Blow-pipes, -17 Zinc Larva Boxes, 9/4, 1/2

Setting Needles, 6d. per box. All Articles enumerated are kept in stock, and can be sent immediately on receipt of order. For Sale, a large Assortment of Ova and Pupæ of both British and Foreign Butterflies and Moths.

CABINETS. Special Show Room.
The following are the prices of a few of smaller sizes; for measurements and larger sizes see Catalogue (48 pp.)

Minerals and Dried
Insect. Eggs. Plants, Fossils, &c.

Insect. Eggs. Minerals and Dried

. 889. Plants, Fossils, &c. 4 Drawers .... 14/: .... 12/6 .. .. 10/6

8 Drawers .... 32/• .. .. 30/- .... 23/6 „ ... 18/- .. .. 16/6 .. .. 15/

10 , ... 48/• .. .. 42/ ... 40/A LARGE STOCK OF INSECTS AND BIRDS' EGGS.

. Birds, Mammals, &C., Preserved and Mounted by First-class workmen.


Consists of a neatly made Bamboo Stick, with joint to pull out to 5ft., and a Dipping Bottle and Net to attach

to the end. Every Microscopist should have one. Sent free on receipt of P.O. MICROSCOPES AND APPARATUS. 36-PAGE CATALOGUE MAILED FREE.


With 1-inch and -inch Objectives of splendid definition, in Mahogany Case. Harley Binocular Microscopes, Dissecting Microscopes, Cabinets, Objects, Lamps, Object Glasses,

Thin Glass, Ground Slips, Pocket Magnifiers, Mounting Media, &c. CHAS. COLLINS, MICROSCOPE MAKER, 157, Great Portland Street, London, W.


Gall of Rose or Willow.
Ivy, origin of Scandent root.

Esparto Grass.
Germ of Oat or Barley.
Bark of Plane. Zones of growth (polar).

Marchantia polymorpha. Spores.
Sow Thistle, Collenchyma.
Ecidium Tussilaginis V.S.

Black Currant, Phellegen.
Ecidium Berberiitis V.S.

Male receptacle.
Tilia, secondary wood.
Lecanora tartarea, Apothecium V.S.

Tacsonia, Stigma. Passages for pollen tubes.
Baunboo, transparent leaf.
Atrichurn undulatum, Perichatum, V.S.

Spadix, Anthurium. Trans: Section.
Water Lüy, Trichoblasts (polar).
Radish, root T.S.

The Series as above, complete FIFTEEN SHILLINGS. .
Mr. PIFFARD'S Patent Counter-sunk Slips. Sizes now ready. 3-16 and 5-8. SIX SHILLINGS per Dozen.


B. PIFFARD, Hill House, Hemel Hempsted, Herts.


Anti-Dyspeptic Cocoa or Chocolate Powder. GUARANTEED PURE SOLUBLE COCOA OF THE FINEST QUALITY. The Faculty pronounce it 'the most nutritious, perfectly digestible Beverage for BREAKFAST, LUNCHEON, or Supper, and invaluable for

Invalids, and Young Children. Being without sugar, spice, or other admixture, it suits all palates, keeps for years in all climates, and is four times the strength of

Cocoas thickened yet weakened with arrowroot, starch, &C., and in rcality cheaper than such mirtures.

Made instantaneously with boiling water, a Teaspoonful to a Breakfast Cup, costing less than one halfpenny.
COCOATINA possesses remarkable sustaining properties, and is specially adapted for

early Breakfasts.
In Air-Tight Tins, at Is. 62., 38., 58. 6d., &c., by Chemists and Grocers.



FUNDS, 1884.

Realised Assets ... ...

*** "

... £3,491,376 Life Assurance and Annuity Funds ... ... ... ... ... £3,391,789

Annual Income ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... £885,369 Moderate Rates of Premium. Liberal Scale of Annuities. Loans granted upon Security of Freehold, Copyhold, and Leasehold Property, Life Interests, and Reversions; also to Corporate and other Public Bodies, upon Security of Rates, &c.

BONUS YEAR, 1885. POLICIES effected before the ist July 1885 on the profit tables, with annual premiums, will participate in the Bonus to be declared next year, in the manner prescribed by the regulations of the Society.

JOSEPH ALLEN, Secretary. Prospectus, Reports, and Proposal Forms can be obtained on application to the Society's Agents and Branch Offices, or to

JOSEPH ALLEN, Secretary.


INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER AND SPECIAL ACTS OF PARLIAMENT. Authorised Capital, £3,000,000. Subscribed Capital, £2,500,000. Paid-up Capital, £125,000. Chairman-JOHN White Cater, Esq.

Deputy-Chairman-BARON SCHRODER. Manager of Fire Department-G. H. BURNETT.

Manager of Life Department and Actuary-HENRY COCKBURN. Foreign Sub-Manager-PHILIP WINSOR.

Secretary-F. W. LANCE,

FIRE DEPARTMENT. The Net FIRE FUNDS, irrespective of the Paid-up Capital, now amount to £1,597,295 9s. 6d.

LIFE DEPARTMENT. The LIFE FUND now amounts to £3,458,595 18s. 9d. The ANNUITY FUND now amounts to £536,066 8s. 60. THE PRINCIPLES on which this Company is conducted combine the system of Mutual Assurance with the safety

of a large Protecting Capital and Accumulated Funds, and thus afford all the facilities and advantages which can prudently be offered by any Life Assurance Office.

NINETY PER CENT. of the WHOLE PROFITS is divided among the Assurers on the Participating Scale. The PROFITS are divided every Five Years. POLICIES are INDISPUTABLE after Five Years. ANNUITIES of all kinds are granted.

Prospectuses and every Information can be obtained at the Chief Offices,



Incorporated in the year 1847 under Act 7 and 8 Vict., cap. 110, and further empowered by Special Act 15 Vict., cap. 53. Accumulated Fund ........£1,028,215 | Profits already appropriated . ... £847,000 Annual Income, nearly . . . . . . £200,000 | Claims Paid . . . . . . . . . . , £1,230,133

Policies in Force . . . . . . . . . £4,793,942
POLICIES ABSOLUTELY INDISPUTABLE after five years, provided the age of the Assured has been admitted.
POLICIES KEPT IN FORCE when requested by appropriating the Surrender Value to the payment of premiums.
Assurers under the TEMPERANCE SCHEME are placed in a separate Section.
Policies may be effected under the DEFERRED BONUS plan.

EDWIN BOWLEY, Secretary.

3 Vols., crown 8vo., at all Libraries.

By GRANT ALLEN, Author of "Strange Stories," "The Evolutionist at Large," &c.


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Fluke from Sheep ..
cach ls. 9d. Mole's flea without cyes.

ls. 64 Bone of very old Man

18. 9d. Larva of Ant-lion, Ceylon.. Futal bone-Femur

ls. 9d. Firefly from Trinidad Section through whole foot of Fetus- very fine

38. 6d.

Gad Fly .. . .. Skin from Sole of Foot-deep and external layers differentiated . 18, 9d. Common Blue Butterfly VERY BEAUTIFUL NEWLY PREPARED BOTANICAL SLIDES. Tongue of Hornet ..

1s. Anatomy of a Leaf-9 pieces on one slide ..

, cach 2s. 6d.
Radiate Plates from Myriotroch

mer fart

33. Volvox Globator

Aulacodiscus Kittonii
Is. 60.

ls. Od Section of Moss Mnium hornum-s


ls. Bd.
Gold Sand with Quartz rock

ls. 60. Marine Alge--Ceramium ciliatum

Pre-historic lava from Mount Somm., Naples

ls 6d. Spirogyra nitida in conjugation .. .. .. .. .. .. 18. od. Young Oysters in motion for Polariscope . ..

40,000 First-class Specimens, illustrative of every Branch of Study, from Is. each. NEW CLASSIFIED LIST OF OBJECTS (Including the recently acquired Stock of MR. E. WHEELER, late of Holloway. ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF MICROSCOPES AND APPARATUS.

Either of the above sen: Post Free to any part of the world on application to

W. WATSON & SONS, Opticians to Her Majesty's Government,



( NOV 16 1942 By E T. DRAPER.




FULL exposition of In the beautiful sections as now prepared for
the general and microscopical investigation, these differences are so
comparative struc- admirably shown, as to raise them above “popu-
ture of teeth may larity," and elegant as they may be as attractive
be found in standard | objects, to the student they are of deeper interest and
works of Physiology educational value.
and ordinary text A typical tooth (human molar) may be said to
books; but in ex consist of three constituents ; in the centre a cavity
planation of the enclosing a soft dental pulp, freely supplied with
singular diversity of blood vessels and nerves ; surrounding this is the
form and character dentine, the actual formed substance with radiating
in a mammal tooth | canaliculi, covered on the surface of the exposed parts
as shown in the by the enamel ; surrounding the imbedded portion
plate, it is necessary (the root or fangs) is a thin vascular structure, the
to describe generally cement, also rich in blood-vessels. A section cut
the typical con horizontally would exhibit all these components;

made transversely, the pulp cavity, the dentine, and The teeth of enamel only would be revealed ; such a preparation vertebrates greatly discloses a typical condition of the parts, but without differ in character, deviating from the fundamental principle, varieties

in the disposition of and modifications are found in lamination, solidity, the tissues, structure, position, numbers, and adap contour, and distribution of the tissues. These tability, not only for seizing and macerating food, diversities are found in every class, and extended but as weapons of defence, attack, and instruments or modifications in species. tools subservient to the economy, and habits of the It is common knowledge that the horns of some animal. They also denote age, sex, and are curiously animals, as the rhinoceros, are formed of a dense adapted to the quality and character of food ; to meet compressed mass of hairs, and the component parts these and many other exigencies, their structures and of these compacted structures are easily distinguished condition necessarily divaricate into differences, to by the microscope. Such cohesions are found in such an extent as to be subservient to use and func | teeth, as seen in the plate. An infinite number, each tions; the shape, character and organisation of a with its distinctive character, may be aggregated tooth raises it to the importance of a zoological | into one mass ; to external appearance it is a single touchstone and element in classification, reaching the tooth ; on microscopical examination it is found to be deepest researches of the palæontologist ; every class a multitude locked together. This peculiar compound of the vertebrata—fossil or recent-may be distin intertexture is common in the class of fishes, but some. guished by the moulding and contexture of this organ; what rare in the mammalia. The object depicted in notwithstanding that in the complex creatures of the plate is an instance of this peculiarity, and is past ages, strange approximations, and combinations thus described by Professor Sir R. Owen. of class, exist; the recognition of an extinct Batra “Each tooth of the Cape Ant-eater (orycteropus) chian, the Labyrinthodon, was determined by the presents a simple form, is deeply set in the jaw, but character of the convoluted folds of the dentine of its without dividing into fangs; its broad and flat base tooth.

is porous like the section of a common cane. The No. 250.-OCTOBER 1885.


canals to which these pores lead contain processes of in the evening on July 18th, in the broad daylight, a vascular pulp, and are the centres of radiation of and some little time before sunset, the writer's attenas many independent dentinal tubules. Each tooth, tion was attracted by what, at a distance, appeared in fact, consists of congeries of long and slender to be a number of swallows hawking vigorously prismatic denticles of dentine, which are cemented for insects in the neighbourhood of a group of trees. together by their ossified capsules, this columnar On getting nearer to them they were found to be denticle slightly decreasing in diameter, and occasion bats, from 12 to 20 in number, of the great bat ally bisurcating as they approach the grinding surface (Scotophilus noctula). I am aware that there was of the tooth.”

nothing very extraordinary in the number seen The drawing represents a transverse section from together of a bat which is known to be remarkably the thickest part of a molar, and meeting the above gregarious, especially in its winter quarters. Indeed, description, displays, in the separating lines, the | it is I believe on record, that the large number of columnar denticles; in the centre, the pulp cavity, | 185 were taken from beneath the eaves of Queen's and in the intervening spaces the radiating dentinal College, Cambridge, in one night, and 63 the tubules, the whole showing a curious example of a following night. I have included the reference to it number of elementary teeth locked together, in fact, a in these notes as a confirmation of the curious fact, compound tooth built of many into one uniform mass. that this particular species of cheiroptera, which has

An interesting and singular example of a similar been singled out from about fifteen species to receive disposition of parts may be seen in a horizontal section the distinctive name Noctula, is remarkable for the of the incisor of a lemur, with the difference that a very opposite peculiarity of coming out by daylight, space exists between each denticle; although a com- and earlier in the evening than any other species! bined tooth, they stand out alone, as free processes It would have been singular indeed, if such an from the base to the crown, without adhesion; con exceptionally hot and dry summer had not produced sequently a transverse section cuts them into separate some effect in that universe of “scales, legs, and and distinct pieces, each (as regards structure) a tooth

wings, and beautiful things” which make up the in itself.

interesting domain of entomology. But passing over Sections of teeth should be prepared and mounted the unusual abundance of the common house-fly and to meet every possible appliance for illumination. the earwig, my notes refer chiefly to the lepidoptera. Crouch End.

A passing notice must however also suffice for the exceptional numbers of the pretty orange-tip butterfly (Anthocaris cardamines), the variously coloured

species of the Satyridæ, and the “blues,” such as LEAVES FROM MY NOTE-BOOK FOR 1884. | the charming little Polyommatus Adonis, to make By A. Kingston.

room for a fuller reference to the fortunes of the

better known Pieris brassica, or large white butterfly. [Continued from p. 131.]

In the autumn of 1883, the caterpillar of this THE most notable circumstance during the month butterfly was so abundant, that if this could have

1 of May was the remarkable contrast between the been conclusive evidence, horticulturists might have severe frost at the latter end of April, and the feared a direful visitation of white butterflies in 1884. summer heat which prevailed as early as from the But “there's many a slip,” &c., even in butterfly gth to the 12th of May. On the latter day the

economy. Probably owing to the absence of that thermometer registered 80 degrees in the shade, peculiarly succulent condition of the cabbage tribe, while a correspondent from Doncaster gave a record which is so essential to this caterpillar's comfort, the for that day of 112 degrees in the sun, and it was larva of the large white butterfly was as remarkable certainly considerably upwards of 100 degrees in the

for its absence last autumn as it had been for its sun, in many other places about mid-day on the 12th. abundance the previous year. In 1883, at one

Few things in the botanical world were more particular spot where the writer has been accustomed remarkable, in the phenomenally dry summer of 1884, to watch their interesting transformations, about a than the superabundance of the common red poppy | score of caterpillars of this butterfly took up their (Papaver Rhæas), which brightened up many a broad positions and strapped themselves up to await the stretch of cornfield with its ruddy glow, and in many coming spring. But last autumn only one caterpillar cases outshining the green corn and producing a was seen there, and the busy little ichneumon made heavy crop of itself, which afforded employment to a short work of that one. Yet the conditions were number of young people and casual hands in collect just the same as to plants of the cabbage tribe ing the flowers for use in drug distilleries.

within a similar distance. I mention the latter point From scarlet poppies to bats may seem a far cry, as having some bearing upon the interesting question but, on a summer's evening at least, it need only be of butterfly instinct. It is perhaps too often assumed a question of looking up or down, so far as one of that the butterfly, having deposited its eggs on some these curious “Alying animals” is concerned. Early object suitable for the food of its caterpillar, bas

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