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I think therefore that M. Girard's conclusion, that | some extent, the literature of every people in the only the inner farinaceous portion of the grain should world. The works of our own peerless dramatists be used for human alimentation, and that it should of the time of Elizabeth and of Charles II. are not be the aim of the miller to completely eliminate from utterly free from a blackguardly indecency of a very his flour all the other parts, is refuted rather than pestiferous nature, written though they be in that supported by what he tells us concerning the cerealin. “truly classic language which all mankind will On the other hand, the facts concerning the non eventually speak.” Of the study of literature in digestibility of the bran indicate considerable ex. general it may be observed, that therein we engage aggeration in the claims of some of the whole-meal | in the survey of the inner moving world of the human candidates.
soul, and the more ideal and abstract (if at the same Assuming that the cerealin does act on the starch time moral) this be portrayed, the more humanising and gluten as stated, it is a benefactor, and we may and morally edifying and beneficial it is in effect. In do well to retain the outer skin of the wheat for its the study of the classic languages and literatures sake alone, even though the other nitrogenous and (notably the Latin), there is, in addition to this mineral constituents may not be assimilable. Besides humanising element, the intellectual gymnastic, furthis, there is the physiological question of the stimu nished by the various processes involved in the lating action of such a husky material on the bowels | translation or constructing into English, or vice versa. to be considered. Is it good or evil ? Evidently the The eminent value of classical study lies, as it seems whole-meal question is not yet settled.
to me, in the combination of these two elements of I may add that Dr. Randolph has, in the “Notes culture. In the study of physical science, the from the Physiological Laboratory of the University humanising or moral element is wanting, or else of Pennsylvania," a paper on the nutritive value of feeble; in the study of our native literature the branny foods. He concludes, after a prolonged course analytical intellectual faculty is not so vigorously of experiments, that the carbohydrates of bran are exercised. No doubt there is what Professor Tyndall digested by man in a slight degree only ; but as the styles “an emotion of the intellect incident to the nutritive salts of wheat are chiefly contained in the discernment of new truth ;" but it is at best a rather bran, those who feed on bread alone should take it dry and not very soft sort of sentiment. Indeed, Mr. brown for the sake of these salts, while those who F. Galton expressly avers that “the influence of use other food supplying such salts should select scientific men is not directed to persons and to white bread; and that in an ordinary mixed diet the human interests, and they are deficient in the purely retention of the bran is a false economy, as it quickens emotional elements,” &c. I cordially endorse Mr. peristaltic action and thereby prevents the complete Williams's approval that physical science should be digestion and absorption, not only of the proteids carried upwards to social and moral science, and I contained in the branny food, but of other food have read with the keenest interest his attestation matters mixed with it. To this I think the “bread anent the proceedings, in this particular, of certain reformers” may fairly reply, that the peristaltic worthy gentlemen and excellent scholars of Oxford. movement is a part of the machinery of digestion, But Mr. Williams seems to include such studies as the promotion of which may be beneficial; it is certainly those of logic, metaphysics, moral and social science, needed in some cases of sluggish action, and it in the same category with physical science. Most probably increases the secretion of animal diastase people will probably think that as regards educational (intestinal juice) in the intestines. On the whole, efficacy they are widely different. The former are I am inclined to conclude that whole-meal bread is probably less humanising than literature and art ; best for vegetarians, though perhaps not so for those but they are of eminent value in this respect, and who eat flesh.
they are intimately allied thereto. Nevertheless, it The following letter from Dr. Keegan shows that I would be idle to disparage the eminent utilitarian and the difference between us is still less than even his | intellectual benefits of the study and applications of first letter indicated :
physical science. Nobody nowadays yields allegiance Mr. Williams, in his reply (p. 200) to my remarks, to the ancient philosophy which, according to Seneca, dwells upon the savagery, brutality, and obtuse moral teaches men “to be independent of all material sense of some of Homer's heroes, and upon the substances and all mechanical contrivances.” Our general obscenity saturating (as he avers) much of great aim should be that in the dispensation of this the old classic literature. Now, the works of Homer | material knowledge its “celestial harmonies and are generally known to be a collection of legends breathings of paradise” be not utterly ignored and relative to a social state far in the depths of human overriden. If only “the sublime consciousness of history, and therefore it may be doubted if their their own humanity” be more frequently stirred in perusal is eminently calculated to demoralise persons the breasts of our eminent scientists, their influence reared in the light of more advanced and exalted over the age and the ignorant vulgar will doubtless ideas. With regard to the other matter, it may be be more elevating than it seems to be, and men replied, that a similar sort of immorality pervades, to I would probably learn to reconcile forces (such as religion, science, and practical work) which now i Arion hortensis.-A variable species, but (in our seem diametrically opposed and mutually subversive. district at any rate) less so than A. ater. The -P. Q. KEEGAN, LL.D.
ordinary banded form (called var. fasciata by I have only to add in explanation, that my objections
Moquin-Tandon) is found at Acton, Chislehurst, to Homer and the poetry of the ancients apply
Croydon, and many other places. The sole of the especially to their use as school books. As historical
foot is sometimes of the most brilliant orange. records of one of the stages of human barbarism,
Some curious varieties are found at Bedford Park : they have great archæological interest, and the same
one is larger than the ordinary form, and grey, with may be said, in a minor degree, of the early English
narrow lateral bands; another is dark above, and literature to which he alludes. In the dark ages
light at the sides, and others have already been when there was no other literature available, these
described. Some very little ones were pale old authors were desirable objects of study as literary
yellowish-red. models; but now that all the excellence of their art,
A number of Continental varieties of this slug minus the depravity of their morals, may be found
have been described ; one of the most interesting is in modern literature, I maintain that they should not
var. virescens, which is greenish with black bands. be chosen for the education of youth.
Arion, sp. ?-Intermediate in size between A. ater Intellectual gymnastics are obtainable by the study
and A. hortensis ; yellowish, inclining to orange, with of anything demanding intellectual effort. The
brown bands placed in the same lateral position as manner of study has even more influence in this
those of A. hortensis. Three specimens under a log respect than the subject itself. Mathematics, physics,
at Haslemere in company with A. ater, A. hortensis, chemistry, biology, or moral philosophy may be
and Limax maximus. I sent two of these to Mr. degraded by mere rote cramming for examination's
Roebuck, concerning which he writes as follows: sake; the same with any language or any literature ;
"The Arions are of a very dubious sort, and I, like or they may be taught intelligently and philo
you, am uncertain what to call them ... I have sophically, and thus afford the highest mental
preserved your specimens in spirit, and pending the discipline.
settlement of their specific name, I am calling them provisionally A. hortensis var. subfusca."
They seem to be distinct from A. hortensis; and
Mr. C. Ashford, who has dissected both these species, THE VARIATION
tells me that he finds slight but constant differences AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT
in their anatomy. OF THE MOLLUSCA.
I have also taken this form at Chislehurst, where PART III.
three varieties occur ; the first is yellowish-white, the
second purplish-brown, and the third yellowish-grey TERRESTRIAL GASTEROPODA.
with a yellow margin. RION ATER.-A considerable number of I fancy that these Arions will be found all over the A forms occur; at Bedford Park, for instance, | country in due time, and many of the records of A. we find the type and varieties rufa, succinca, and flavus possibly refer to this species. I have recently nigrescens, as well as a form which does not agree found what I consider to be the true Arion flavus at exactly with nigrescens or plumbea, but is not distinct Kingsley, Staffordshire. It is not unlike A. hortensis, enough for a name ; it is of a very dark slate colour, from which, however, it differs in being orange. with a dark brown margin. The variety albida yellow on the sides and mantle and greyish on the will probably turn up sooner or later, but I have not back. There are faint lateral bands. The slime is yet seen it. It has been found in Sussex and Herts. | orange-yellow and very thick. The sole of the foot
At Chislehurst a form of var. succinea (yellowish, is white and translucent. The respiratory orifice is a tinged with orange posteriorly, and with an orange little in front of the central line of the mantle. Mr. margin), is found on the common among the brake W. D. Sutton, in the “Journal of Conchology," vol. i. fern and brambles ; but in the old chalk-pit, in the p. 26, records what is evidently the same form from lower Camden valley, amongst the coltsfoot, this Northumberland and Durham ; he says: " A variety form is replaced by the variety called pallescens, very (of A. hortensis) or possibly a species, nearly allied to pale yellow with an orange margin. Some of the this is found in woods. It is about twice the size of little Arions are greenish, almost exactly the colour | the garden slug, and its colour invariably yellowish of the under-surface of a Tussilago leaf. The full fawn, inclining to amber, with a brown band on each description of one of these juvenile examples is : | side. The two kinds are not found mixed, one Tentacles dark brown, mantle yellowish-white, inhabiting the woods, and the other the cultivated rather darker in front, body greenish-white, margin
grounds.” However, I found the two kinds of foot yellowish-white.
together at Haslemere, as stated above. A variety with a very dark brown mantle and a Limax agrestis.-In my notes I find recorded the black body occurs at Chislehurst.
following varieties :
(1.) Entirely light brown. Kenley. Chalk pit at, Succinea Pfeifferi.— I have taken an almost scalariCroydon.
form specimen at Bromley. Var. brevispirata, Perivale, (2.) Purplish-brown. Chislehurst. This would Middlesex. come under lilacina.
S. virescens.—Specimens of this species from St. (3.) Mantle brown with very faint mottling, body Mary Cray have the animal light in colour. greyish-brown. Croydon and near Godstone.
S. elegans.—My brother has found some remarkably (4.) Mantle mottled with grey, body reticulated elongated specimens at Minster. with grey just behind mantle, but mottled behind, J. Hazay, in the German Journal of Conchology head and tentacles light brown. Croydon. Inter- for 1881, gives a list of the species and varieties of mediate between reticulata and sylvatica apparently. Succinea Mrs. Fitzgerald has sent him from England.
(5.) Body and mantle light brown, spotted all over Among them he mentions the following-S. putris with grey at somewhat regular intervals ; head and var. globuloidea, Cambridge ; var. Charpentieri, tentacles darker than ground colour of body. Chalk Notts; var. limnoidea, Dublin; var. Ferrussina, pit at Croydon. Possibly allied to var. punctata, Matlock ; var. Fitzgeraldiana (var. nov.), Folkestone ; Picard, but not, I think, identical.
Succinea elegans, type form, Essex and Deal; var. (6.) Body distinctly and beautifully reticulated. Baudoniana, Yorkshire; sub-sp. S. Pfeifferi, type, Dne at Acton, others less marked, and approaching Folkestone and North Wales; var. elata, Cornwall ; nearer to type (var. 4). This would seem to be var. var. contortula, Yorkshire; sub-sp. S. suecica, reticulata. One at Croydon.
Cheshire ; S. oblonga, type and var. humilis, Cork. (7.) Ground colour light brown, body and mantle | It would, however, be desirable to obtain speci.
Bedford Park, Chiswick.
Fig. 153.-Hyalina nitidula (20 ).
Fig. 152.-Hyalina Drapar.. var. fasciata, West Northnaldi, Clifton, Bristol.
Jeff., Bromley ; 2, Hyalina
mens of these varieties for comparison before
shape of the mouth, by admitting them into the British list. Fig. 154.-Leucockroa candi means of which the two dissima, Bordighera, Italy. species may readily be
Vitrina pellucida.--Not a variable species. My This species is by some distinguished. (Somewhat largest specimen is from Beckenham. writers called a Zonites. enlarged.)
Hyalina.—The species of this genus are placed thickly but irregularly mottled with black, mantle | under Zonites by writers on British Conchology, but, almost entirely black, except round respiratory orifice. nevertheless, I would reject that generic name for A form of sylvatica. Croydon and Brentford.
our British species in favour of Hyalina, Albers, and (8.) Mantle light brown, body greyish without for the following reasons. The type of the genus markings. Croydon. Probably identical with var. Zonites is 2. algirus, L., a species totally unlike any filans, Hoy, but hardly, I think, deserving a varietal of our British species, inhabiting the south of France, name.
and ranging, it is said, to Constantinople. Kobelt Limax arborum.-" The beautiful sea-green variety gives fourteen species of Zonites proper, none of occurs in a garden on Bramley Hill, where a family which are found in England, but have their home in of them lives in a hollow in an old oak" (K. Mc south-east Europe. On the Continent, and I Kean).
believe, in America, the so-called British Zonites Testacella haliotidea. It would seem that all the are all placed in Hyalina, except fulvus, which is British individuals of this species belong to the variety sometimes placed in a sub-genus Conulus. It is scutulum, which may ultimately prove to be a distinct obviously essential that we should, if possible, use species. At Bedford Park there are three fairly the same nomenclature as foreign conchologists, and distinct colour varieties. They may be described as when there is a difference of opinion, that of the follows : (A) ground colour pale yellow. (1) majority should prevail, but as those who use Hyalina without any markings = pallida ; (2) with brown | abroad are many more than those who use Zonites in mottling on back and sides = typica. (B) ground Britain, it is hardly reasonable to expect them to colour orange = aurea. In aurea the mottling is as in change their name to please us, and all that remains the type form, and the orange of the sole is particularly is for us to adopt Hyalina. vivid.
The late Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys once wrote to me on Various varieties are found abroad. The Rev. J. W. this subject, he said : “I cannot accept the subgeneric Horsley has taken some at Gibraltar, which may be | name Hyalina or Hyalinia. .. Zonites represented called scutulum, sub-var, albida, for they were pure by 2. algirus does not in the least differ from white.
Hyalina. . . By the rules of the British Association, adjective generic names (such as Hyalina) cannot be extremely desirable that the matter should be cleared used."
up. Jeffreys considered H. petronella to be the same Now as to 2. algirus not differing from Hyalina, as Hy. excavata V. vitrina, but Dr. Boettger's Continental authorities are fairly well agreed that it specimen is very different from this. In the British does sufficiently to warrant a separate generic name, Museum some examples of Hy. glabra, Jeff., stand as. and I cannot help thinking likewise.
alliarius. With regard to the other argument, it is absurd to | I have taken glabra, Jeff., in Kent and Surrey, in suppose that the “rules of the British Association " which counties it would seem to be abundant, but I are going to bind down foreign authors, and besides, fancy it does not occur in the Isle of Thanet. One what about Succinca? Nevertheless, Dr. Jeffreys' | specimen at Hanwell (S. C. Cockerell). I found a opinion is one that should not be lightly ignored, and greenish-white and transparent variety (viridans of so it will be interesting to see if any evidence can be my note book) at Bromley, Kent. brought forward against my view of the case.
Hy. nitidula. Common throughout the district. I am greatly indebted to Mr. Ponsonby, of Halkin Var. Helmiä, this is the white form; alba would have Street, for the opportunity of seeing his valuable been a much better name for it than Helmiä. series of British Hyalina, many of which have been Near Chislehurst, but rare. I found a curious variety sent to Dr. Boettger in Germany, and which have at West Northdown, Thanet, having four whorls, the been returned with the names affixed to them, last whorl expanded, and shell larger than usual, and according to his view of the question.
of a dull waxy appearance, 'slightly whitish beneath, Hyalina cellaria.-Common throughout the district. and having a rather broad brown band below the My largest specimen is from Kenley in Surrey, it is periphery ; band formula 00005. about three-eighths of an inch in diameter. This Hy. pura.—The so-called “ type " seems to be less species resembles Hy. Draparnaldi closely, but I common than the var, margaritacea, which is white. think they are distinct. The latter has not yet been As far as I can remember, I have taken the type only found in our district. Var. compacta, Jeff., has been near Godstone, Surrey, but I have found the variety recorded. Var, albinos, Minster and Kenley.
at Farnborough, Addington, near Dorking, near Var. shell greenish-white and transparent. One at Shiere, Haslemere ; and Mr. Ponsonby has a specimen Maidenhead, a few on a mossy bank (the moss was, I from Leatherhead. believe, Polytrichum commune, L.) by the side of the high-road, between Wrotham and Eynsford. When
(To be continued.) I first found the single specimen, which was immature, at Maidenhead, I identified it as alliaria var. viridula, Jeff., as it had a strong garlic odour ; but I find that the young of both cellaria and of glabra, Jeff., have a CHAPTERS ON FOSSIL SHARKS ANDgarlic odour, and as the shell is in shape exactly like
RAYS. a young cellaria, and like the more mature Kentish
BY ARTHUR SMITH WOODWARD. examples of the greenish var., I am obliged to refer it to cellaria. I have referred the Maidenhead specimen to Dr.
PETALONTIDÆ, CONTINUED. Gwyn Jeffreys, and he returned it with the note “The variety of Zonites cellarius is my albida.” This
[From page 156.] being the case, it would seem that the milk-white and CLOSELY related to Petalodus, and from the same opaque var., which would also, I suppose, be var. u geological horizon, is Ctenopetalus, which differs albida (I have referred to it above as albinos, Moq.), in the shape of the root and the coarseness of the is not to be separated from the greenish and trans | serrations; and not far removed, also, is the curious parent form.
Polyrhizodus. This tooth (fig. 155) differs chiefly in Hyalina glabra, Stud. (Jeff.).--Mr. Ponsonby being stouter and larger, in the absence of serrations submitted some of these to Dr. Boettger, who on the cutting edge, and in having the root divided returned them as what the German conchologists into a number of “radicles.” Nothing is known of called alliaria, and some of our British alliaria he the arrangement in the mouth of either of these called young cellaria, others young alliaria=glabra, | forms, and we are thus left to supply the deficiency Jeff., and another British specimen he identified as by inference. Hy. petronella, Charp. Moreover, he sent some of Proceeding to Petalorhynchus, which is also a what he called glabra, Stud., to Mr. Ponsonby, and Lower Carboniferous genus, we find the fossil remains these were, without doubt, perfectly distinct from the a little more complete and instructive. Numerous glaber of British conchologists. From this it seems specimens have been obtained from the Mountain that there is a great gulf between the British Limestone of Armagh by the Earl of Enniskillen, and German notions of the species of Hyalina ; ) and Mr. J. W. Davis published the results of his which we are to adopt seems uncertain, but it seems study of them in the Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc. for
1883.* These teeth are of the same general type as | facts, we arrive at the conclusion, that although the those of Petalodus, but differ in several respects, and teeth themselves aremore like those of sharks than rays, are notably longer and narrower, with the crown their arrangement inthe mouth agrees most closely with more spatulate. When one of them became useless the dentition of such typical rays as Myliobatis and in the mouth of the fish, and its successor was ready Zygobatis, and the Pztalodonts must thus be looked to come forward for active service, the old tooth did upon as probably intermediate forms. Something not fall out, but was always retained beneath the new like a transition from cutting teeth to crushing teeth one as a support; as the creature approached old ) may even be noticed in the family itself, for Petalodus age, the tooth in use had thus a considerable series (Carb. Limst.) is exclisively laniary, Petalorhynchus of worn-out predecessors: beneath it, and these seem (Carb. Limst. and Yoiedale) makes a slight approach finally to have become more or less anchylosed towards the developnent of a tritoral portion, the together. Such series are not unfrequently found in so-called Climaxodus (chiefly Coal Measures) is the Armagh limestone, and one consisting of five | adapted for both purposes, and the front cutting edge teeth is represented in fig. 156; the lower and in some specimens of the Permian Janassa ! omes smallest tooth evidently indicates a young stage of almost obscured. the creature's existence, and as the mouth enlarged The curious teeth known as Ctenoptychius (fig. 159) so did the dentition. The fact that some of these and Harpacodus, also, most probably belong to the rows are symmetrical, while others appear “lefts” Petalodontidæ, and are both Carboniferous genera, and “rights,” suggests that they were originally the former ranging throughout all divisions, and the ranged alongside each other; and there is reason to latter being exclusively confined to the lower. No believe that one median tooth was present, with definite evidence of their mode of disposition in the three on each side, but absolute proof is yet wanting mouth has yet been obtained, and it ought to be of more than one pair occurring besides the median. remarked that certain small club-shaped fossils,
Still more interesting and satisfactory are the originally referred to a species called C. unilateralis, remains that have been discovered of the genus are most likely not teeth at all, but Labyrinthodont Janassa. This is typically a Permian form, often scutes.* met with in the Kupferschiefer and the English Marlslate, but the researches of Messrs. Hancock, Atthey,
PRISTIOPHORIDÆ, and Barkas have revealed numerous beautiful | According to Dr. Günther, this small family is examples in the Coal Measures of Northumberland | only represented at the present day by species and Durham, and Mr. John Ward has also recorded of the genus, Pristiophorus, which exist off Austra. a few scattered relics from North Staffordshire. It lian and Japanese coasts; these are little Selachians, ought to be remarked, however, that the Carboni. with the snout much prolonged as in the next family, ferous forms were originally described under a | the “ Saw-fishes,” but having the gill-openings distinct generic name, Climaxodus, and are often lateral. Fossil forms are rare, and the only im. quoted thus; but there seems to be no doubt as to portant genus usually referred here is the remarkable their identity with Janassa, and Münster's Dictaa Squaloraja of the Lias. A partly restored sketch of is now likewise considered synonymous. Each tooth this fish is given in fig. 160, and among its many consists both of a cutting edge (fig. 158, a), and a peculiarities may be specially noted the cephalic crushing surface (ib., b), and, like other Petalodonts, spine (ib., s), first described by Mr. William Davies, possesses a well-developed root (ib., c). The dental of the British Museum.t When a complete specimen armature of the mouth consisted of five of these is met with, this spine is generally so compressed and teeth, ranged side by side, and flanked by a pair bent down upon the snout as to be rendered incon. (fig. 157) that are indistinguishable from Petalodus, spicuous, but it is sometimes found detached, and except perhaps in their obliquity ; this arrangement occasionally (probably in females) it appears to be is shown in fig. 157, taken from an elaborate memoir absent. The vertebræ are usually nothing more than by Messrs. Hancock and Howse in the “Ann. & calcified rings, and parts of the body are provided Mag. Nat. Hist.” for 1869 (vol. iv. ser. 4). The with dermal tubercles. vertical disposition of the teeth and their mode of succession is also known, and the same palæontologists published the illustrative diagram copied in
PristiDÆ. fig. 158, from which it is obvious that, as in Petalorhyn. The “Saw-fishes” constitute a small family of chus, the successive new teeth must have arisen from
rays, chiefly inhabiting tropical seas at the present behind, and, on coming forwards, not caused the old
day, and seem to have left no undoubted traces of ones to fall out, but have rested upon and utilised their past existence in strata of an earlier period than them as a support.
the Eocene. They are particularly remarkable for Taking into account these various well-ascertained
* T. Stock, “Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.” , vol. viii. 281, * In this work will be found a full account of the Petalodon pp. 90-95. tidæ, with references to previous literature.
P7Geol. Mag.," vol. ix. (1872), pp. 145-150, PI. IV.