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THE GRESHAM LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY.

ESTABLISHED 1848.
Head Office-ST, MILDRED'S HOUSE, POULTRY, LONDON, E.C.

FUNDS, 1884.
Realised Assets ... ...

... ... ... £3,491,376
Life Assurance and Annuity Funds . ... ... ... ... £3,391,789
Annual Income ... ... ... ... ... ... ..

... £685,369 Moderate Rates of Premium. Liberal Scale of Annuities. Loans granted upon Security of Freehold, Copyhold, and Leasehold Property, Life Interests, and Reversions; also to Corporate and other Public Bodies, upon Security of Rates, &c.

BONUS YEAR1885. POLICIES effected before the ist July 1885 on the profit tables, with annua! premiums, will participate in the Bonus to be declared next year, in the manner prescribed by the regulations of the Society,

JOSEPH ALLEN, Secretary. Prospectus, Reports, and Proposal Forms can be obtained on application to the Society's Agents and Branch Offices, or to

JOSEPH ALLEN, Secretary.

NORTH BRITISH AND MERCANTILE INSURANCE COMPANY

INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER AND SPECIAL ACTS OF PARLIAMENT. Authorised Capital, £3,000,000. Subscribed Capital, £2,500,000. Paid-up Capital, £625,000. Chairman-John White Cater, Esq.

Deputy-Chairman-Charles MORRISON, Esq. Manager of Fire Department-G. H. BURNETT.

Manager of Life Departinent and Actuary-HENRY COCKBURN.

ENRY COCKBURN. Foreign Sub-Manager>Philip Winsor.

Secretary-F. W. Lance.

FIRE DEPARTMENT. The Net FIRE FUNDS, irrespective of the Paid-up Capital, now amount to £1,592,235 5s. 2d.

LIFE DEPARTMENT. The LIFE FUND now amounts to £3,340,918 1ls. 2d. The ANNUITY FUND now amounts to £500,275 178. 11d. THE PRINCIPLES on which this Company is conducted combine the system of Mutual Assurance with the safety

of a large Protecting Capital and Accumulated Funds, and thus afford all the facilities and advantages which can prudently be offered by any Life Assurance Office.

NINETY PER CENT. of the WHOLE PROFITS is divided among the Assurers on the Participating Scale. The PROFITS are divided every Five Years. POLICIES are INDISPUTABLE after Five Years. ANNUITIES of all kinds are granted.

Prospectuses and every Information can be obtained at the Chief OfficesLONDON : 61, THREADNEEDLE ST., E.C. WEST END OFFICE, 8, WATERLOO PLACE, S.W. EDINBURGH, 64, PRINCES ST.

BRITISH EMPIRE MUTUAL LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY.

NEW BRIDGE STREET, LONDON, E.C.

ESTABLISHED 1847. EMPOWERED BY SPECIAL ACT OF PARLIAMENT. This Company being established on the MUTUAL PRINCIPLE, all Profits belong to Policy-holders. The average Cash Bonus

(Triennially) exceeds 20 per cent. on the Premiums paid. Policies in Force . . . . . . . . .£4,434,661 | Paid in Claims . . . . . . . . . .£1,166,027 Annual Income . . . . . . . . . £184,101 | Total amount of Profits already Dis Accumulated Fund exceeds . . . .£1,000,000 1 tributed amongst Policy-holders. £847,000

Prospectuses, with Copies of the last Report and Balance Sheet, Board of Trade Returns, &c, can be obtained from any Agent of the Company, or will be sent upon application to

EDWIN BOWLEY, Secretary. ART-BOOKS TO BE PUBLISHED IN MAY. ACADEMY NOTES, 1885. With Facsimile Sketches. Edited by HENRY

BLACKBURN. is. GROSVENOR NOTES, 1885. With Facsimile Sketches. Edited by HENRY

BLACKBURN. 15.

DUMAS. 38.

THE PARIS SALON, 1885. With Facsimile Sketches. Edited by F. G.

LONDON : CHATTO AND WINDUS, PICCADILLY, W. NEW, RARE, AND INTERESTING SPECIMENS FOR THE MICROSCOPE.

• W. WATSON & SONS having purchased the business of Mr. E. Wheeler, late of Tollington Road, Holloway, are enabled to offer to Students in every branch of Microscopical Study, an unequalled selection of objects of interest of the choicest description.

SPECIALITIES. Dr. Koch's Comma Bacillus in Asiatic Cholera

.. 58. Bacillus Tuberculosus in Lung

Anatomy of Dragon Fly, complete, on one Slide ..
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.. .. .. 38.

. Leat, 9 pieces Teeth and Mouth of Medicinal Leech..

.. 38. Sting or Wasp, Honey Bee, and Hornet, with poison gland and duci, Involuntary Muscle, Arteries injected ..

ls. 90

Stained, each
Type Slide of Foraminifera, 50 Species, with name photographed

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Leachi . Groups of Foraminifera, various, named, each

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SLIDES FOR SOIREES, &c. .. .. 21s.

.. ls. 6d. Beautifully arranged Artistic Groups, composed of Diatoms, Wheels of Groups of Polycistina, from Barbadoes, each ..

croire Foraminifera, 5 different Species, in separate groups, namel, on

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Chiro lota, Anchors and Plates of Synapta, Scales of Butterflics, &c. .. Is. 6d.

W. WATSON & SONS would call special attention to these Slides, slide..

3s.

being of unequalled beauty, and very suitable as Exhibition Slides. Type Slide of Diatomaces, 100 species, with list of names : :: 215.

Prices, in case, .. .. 7s. 6d., 10s., 12s.6d., 16s., 21s., and 258. each.

each

Scales and Hairs of Insects, arranged as a Sprig of Flowers, Whole Insects, from .. .. 18. 6d. Geological preparations, from ls. 6d.

each Parts of ditto, from

. . 6s. 6d, and 78. od. . .. ls. Botanical " ',.

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Scales and Hairs of Insects, arranged as Bouquets, or Vases of Anatomical preparations, from 18. 90. Diatomaceae

Flowers, each .. ..

. 15s., 21s., and 30s Cut Sections ready for Mounting. --The following are now ready: Human Spleen; Malpighian bodies, injected; Human Stomach, injected; Human Medulla oblongata, stained ; Petiole of Cinnamon,

NEW CLASSIFIED LIST of OBJECTS for the MICROSCOPE sent Post Free to any part of the World, on application to

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W. WATSON & SONS, 313, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON.

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GRAPHIC MICROSCOPY CUOCUMZODOBU

NOV 16 1942
By E. T. D.

14791

LIBRAR

No. XVI.-EGGS OF VAPOURER Moth.

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EV

A HE' outer "shell ” and caps of various devices to aid the emission of

(if it may be so the larva.
called), of the eggs It is not unworthy of note, that sculptured surfaces
of the majority of of rare beauty, raised nodules, pitted depressions,
insects is composed surrounded with ridges arranged with geometrical
of a chitinous precision, radiating from the base to the apex, as
membrane, of such | found in the eggs of some insects, are peculiarities
protective tough- frequently seen in minute, and isolated germ life, in
ness, that the eggs unicellular plants, the cells of desmids, diatoms,
are frequently minute seeds, spores, and particularly in pollen
found in the crops granules where external appearances take the most
of insectivorous singular and elegant forms.
birds, mixed with The collector of the eggs of insects must be guided,
digested portions in his explorations, by the habit of the parent. The
of food, so intact | suitable deposition of the egg, and its future develop-
and unaltered in ment, depend on the supply and position of the food;
form, colour, and it would be impossible to conceive an organism in a
integrity, as pos more helpless condition than a larva just emerged,
sibly to be found unless it found itself surrounded by, or within reach

to retain even their of, abundant nutriment; the eggs of all leaf-eating vitality. In the article accompanying the plate of the caterpillars are consequently deposited on the egg of the house-fly in the October 1884 number of | branches, and in the interstices of the trees themselves, this journal, on page 218, an authentic case is referred or in close proximity. Particular trees or plants, to, of the eggs of the vapourer moth (Orgyia antiqua) probably with some regard to locality and aspect, are having been found in large numbers in the intestines selected by different species. In some cases the parent of a cuckoo, which was captured last August in the collects and stores the future food, depositing an egg in garden of the old Charterhouse School, London, a cell, and packing it with just the amount required by and a detailed account of the circumstances pub the larva, anticipating a supply in proportion to the lished in the “Field " newspaper on the 30th of size of the cell which invariably is a sufficient, and the same month. The present illustration shows a an exact, quantity. Many of the vegetable-feeding group of these eggs, after having been extracted, beetles maintain the preservation of the future progeny washed, and carefully dried ; although the experi- by rolling up balls of food, in which is enveloped an ment was not tried, it is possible they might have egg—a case where the individual is evidently of less been hatched.

importance than the perpetuation of the species, the The regularity of the various forms of the eggs of chances of survival being enhanced by the separate insects, added to exceptional appearances of colour, isolation of the egg. It is engagingly interesting to markings, and even sculptures, render them peculiarly consider the powerful impulses which induce such attractive as microscopic objects. As a distinct subject actions; involving favourable positions, selection of herof interest, they offer great diversity and beauty bage, and often temperature and moisture, as affecting unlike the eggs of birds, exhibiting external appliances, the putrefaction or fermentation of organic substance strange structural appendages, fringes of extreme in which the young maggots may revel, an impulse delicacy, eccentric forms and curvatures, with lids, | without doubt emanating from maternal presentiment

No. 244.—APRIL 1885.

--for, in many cases progeny are actually nursed | the yellow eggs of the cabbage butterfly (Pieris and protected by the parent, even supported and brassica), the puss moth (Cerura vinula), the privet supplied with untiring zeal. As a rule insects are moth (Sphinx ligustri), the transparent eggs of the only destructive in a larval state-destructive, in many honey bee, the cockroach, the cricket, and the eggs instances, in the sense of being beneficial. In that of most of the parasites, especially those infesting condition, development is rapid, and the chief the pheasant. Many of these open longitudinally business of life, i.c., the preparation for a higher and through well-marked sutures aided by the tension of more important condition, is performed.

curvature. For the cabinet, eggs are easily prepared In consequence of the minuteness of eggs of insects, as opaque olijects, and it is not difficult to arrange and the extraordinary care taken in depositing them,

them for observation on the stage of the microscope, they frequently baffle detection, but it is certain in a living condition, showing the movement of the few localities escape, and they may be sought for in larva within, and with patient watching, its ultimate the most unexpected, and apparently unlikely places. emergence. Many singular instances might be mentioned : the Crouch End. larvæ of the Curculios feed on the developing seeds of plants, the eggs are deposited in the flowers, and during growth, the hatched larvæ bore through the soft tissues of the “receptacle," and devour its GOSSIP ON CURRENT TOPICS. contents. In the larger order of the lepidoptera

By W. MATTIEU WILLIAMS, F.R.A.S., F.C.S. extraordinary care is exhibited, even to the extent of mechanically providing protection by enveloping the A VERY interesting paper on labour and wages in eggs in peculiar coverings, or securing a defence with

m America was read at the Society of Arts by glue-like varnishes of considerable tenacity. The life- Mr. D. Pigeon, the Hon. J. Russell Lowell in the duration of the egg condition, is often a factor. Many

chair. Among many other facts proving the superior moths only deposit on fruits just ripening, a matter of education afforded to artizans there, he showed that days, and adjustment of time; unripe fruits are never

the number of public schools in the United States is touched. The cocci, or scale insects (infesting peach

225,800, or one to every 200 of the entire population houses, and conservatories), fix themselves firmly on of both sexes and all ages. In Massachusetts alone the leaves and brood over the eggs; even after death there are nearly 2000 free libraries, or one to every the body forms a tent or covering under which the 800 inhabitants. No wonder then that Mr. Lowell young remain until mature.

was able to say that "one thing he thought he had The orthoptera dig holes in the earth and deposit noticed in the real American workman, was the eggs in groups, enveloped in some instances in a case.

amount of brains which he mixed with his fingers," As in this order the young when hatched immediately as compared with the workmen of other countries. exhibit the lively appearance, appetites, and instincts Now that science is interfering with every kind of of the parents, and are capable of at once seeking industry, this ability to mix up brains with fingers food, a storage of provision, or a contiguous supply will determine the destiny of nations. Not only the is unnecessary. Living and growing tissues are arts of peace, but also the grim business of war, is often the nidus and receptacle of eggs. The gad-fly dependent upon science. The victory of the Germans (Tabanus) has a sheath capable of penetrating the | in the Franco-Prussian war was largely due to the skins of animals, and not only depositing the egg, but mixing of brain with fingers, in the handling of of setting up a condition of excitement necessary for delicate arms of precision, and the intelligent use the future preservation of the young. The means

of maps by common soldiers. and instruments employed are endless; the various At the meeting of the Chemical Society, on 19th forms of ovipositors is a subject in itself. They are February, Mr. E. C. H. Francis described a simple capable of cutting into, and boring beneath the but very valuable discovery, viz., that if filter paper cuticles of leaves or the rinds of fruits, leaving an egg be immersed in nitric acid of 1.42 sp. gr., and in the parenchyma, with the addition of a corrosive washed in water, it becomes remarkably toughened Auid of such virulence as to excite abnormal growths in without losing its porosity, as when treated with aid of the sustenance of the future larvæ, producing con sulphuric acid in making parchment paper. We are tortions of tissues, and excrescences, as in the well told that the paper treated with nitric acid may be known gall-nut; a curious reciprocity as affecting the washed and rubbed without damage, like linen. It functions of the plant, and the requirements of the contracts and loses a little weight, but contains no insect.

nitrogen. The weight of its ash diminishes, which is Space does not admit the pursuit of this interesting an advantage in analytical chemistry, especially in subject; our younger readers must be referred to rough and ready commercial analyses where the ash Kirby and Spence's most charming Introduction to is neglected. As non-chemical readers may not Entomology.

otherwise appreciate the important position held by Among remarkable forms may shortly be specified, / filter paper in an analytical laboratory, I will explain

that in most cases the quantity of a given substance is | by water is unsatisfactory, on account of the varying determined by dissolving the mixture in which it is composition of the milk from different cows, and contained, and then adding a precipitant, which even from the same cow at different periods. The throws down the substance in question in solid | milk of an Alderney or Jersey cow may be much insoluble form, usually a compound of known diluted, and yet, when tested by the proportion of composition. The solid is separated by filtration and water to cream, shall come out richer than the milk weighed. The filtering agent must be removable, | from some other cows when unmixed. The method and blotting paper answers the purpose admirably. recently introduced by M. Sambuc is said to overIf the precipitate is incombustible, the paper is come this difficulty. Experiments made by him in burned with its adhering precipitate, which is then 1879, and in October and November of last year, weighed. Otherwise, it is weighed on the paper, show that the serum of the milk-that which is left after drying ; another piece of paper of equal size and when the casein and cream are removed, varies very proved equal weight, being used as counterpoise. | little in specific gravity, never falling below 1°0278. Specially made paper that leaves but an infinitesimal To effect its separation, the milk is heated to 40°ash is used.

50° C. (1049 to 122° F.), and an alcoholic solution of In the Records of the Geological Survey of India, tartaric acid is added. After about a quarter of an vol. 17, is a memoir by Dr. W. King, on the “Smooth hour the mixture is taken from the fire, agitated with Water Anchorages of Narrakal and Alleppy," on the a small bundle of twigs, and strained through a linen Travancore Coast. These remain smooth even when filter. The specific gravity of the serum or whey is the surface of the sea outside is torn by the south- then determined by a lactometer, westerly moonsoons into white surf-topped billows. In Dingler's “Polytechnisches Journal," vol. 254, The explanation of the mystery is simple enough, and P. 443, is an account of a method of enamelling casks is interesting, as affording further evidence on the invented by F. G. Sponnagel, and apparently not disputed question of oiling the waves. The bottom patented. Instead of coating the wood with enamel, of these anchorages is a soft, unctuous mud found to the cask or vat is first treated with an aqueous solution contain oil, and from it is a continuous oozing formed by fusing 100 parts of silica with 50 parts of upwards of petroleum. My friend Arthur Robottom alkali, and when this has penetrated the wood describes a similar calm region on the Californian thoroughly the cask is filled with a solution of alumi. coast, but at some distance out at sea. Here the oil | nium acetate in water mixed with sulphurous acid in wells up in large quantities, spreads visibly over the the proportion of 4: 2:1. , This effects a precipitation surface and effectively becalms a great area around of neutral enamel of silicate of alumina within the the spring. Franklin's experiments on the ponds of pores of the wood. Assuming that such precipitation Clapham Common, and his conclusion, that the oil is successfully effected, we obtain in such internally prevents the wind from taking hold of the water, by enamelled wood a material of great usefulness for a acting as a lubricant against the wind-friction, are multitude of purposes besides cask making. confirmed by these cases, by the experiments at

In the same volume of the same Journal, page 399, Peterhead, and by all that has since been learned on an honest method of manufacturing soap is described. the subject.

Perhaps I should explain what I mean by honesty as In the same volume is an account of a fiery applied in the manufacture of soap. Shrewd, eruption from one of the mud volcanoes on Cheduba observant house-wives know that bars of soap when Island, where a body of flame 600 feet in circumfer stored in a dry place have a curious habit of shrinking, ence is said to have at one time reached an elevation and that the amount of shrinkage varies with the of 2400 feet. Petroleum again. The earth evidently samples. Not very long ago a petty fraud was rather contains a much larger store of petroleum than is extensively perpetrated by a gang of vagabonds, who usually supposed.

strolled from door to door in poor neighbourhoods, Very few people appreciate the interesting collection offering “salvage soap” for sale. They told a tale of of meteorites in the British Museum. The majority the shipwreck of a cargo of soap, and how it was of ordinary visitors pass through the whole of the damaged by sea water, how they had bought it cheap show without seeing them at all. A very interesting and could sell at three-halfpence or twopence per addition is about to be made to this collection-will pound. The soap was sufficiently wet to correspond possibly be there when this is printed. It is a with the story. It contained 70 or 80 per cent. of meteorite, weighing 46 kilos (101} lbs.), which was water, on the evaporation of which a long bar discovered in the autumn of 1882, near Durango, in shrivelled to a short twisted stick. Ordinary soap of Mexico, at a depth of about a foot. The slight depth fair quality contains 20 to 25 per cent. of water, but and other indications have led to the inference that it may be made to contain much more, even the salvage had fallen quite recently. Its composition is : iron, | quantity. Pure soap is a compound of fatty acids 91.78; nickel, 8.35; cobalt, o'01; with traces of with alkali, no free alkali remaining. Such remaining phosphorus and carbon. Specific gravity, 7*74-7.89. | alkali renders it irritant to the skin, though suitable The detection of the ordinary adulteration of milk | enough for washing greasy clothes or very dirty

people. In these cases the free alkali combines with the exuberant grease. In common yellow soap more or less of the fatty acid is replaced by resin.

The novelty to which I refer is the use of a centrifugal machine or drum, which is made to rotate very rapidly while containing the crude soap before it has been cooled. All the alkali or salt is thereby separated, and a larger quantity of the water ; the soap is very dense and perfectly neutral, and therefore non-irritant. I may add, by way of warning, that among the fancy soaps is a vile compound, in which the fatty acids are more or less replaced by silicic acid. It is very smooth, lathers admirably, but treats tender skin most cruelly. One of the indications of the adulteration and of saline impurities generally is the efflorescence of very pretty crystals or the surface of the soap as it dries.

A more recent contribution of science to domestic economy has been discussed by the Hygienic Council of the Department of the Seine at Paris. It is the use of vaseline as a substitute for butter or fat in pastry. It appears that the chief motive of the pastry cook in adopting this “improvement” (?) is to obtain a pastry that will keep longer. From the tradesman's point of view this may be a desideratum, but to the consumer it is not so advantageous, seeing that this mineral grease is absolutely indigestible. It may slip through the digestive organs by virtue of its lubricating properties, and carry with it the particles of flour, sugar, &c., which it envelopes, but it cannot be assimilated, and probably protects the materials with which it is incorporated from the action of the digestive solvents. The strongest mineral acids do not disturb vaseline, neither do the most caustic alkalis saponify it. In the pastry it comes as vaseline and goes as vaseline, and probably does mischief in the course of its journey through the body. “The Council therefore advises that its use for pastry making shall not be permitted in France.” Let us hope that such use may not be permitted in England.

While M. Perrotin, director of the Nice Observatory, was making an observation on Hyperion, one of the satellites of Saturn, the object suddenly dashed to the right of the spider-line of the telescope, and then returned. It was the telescope that moved, and the earth that moved the telescope. A slight but sharp earthquake tremor occurred. This incident suggests a delicate means of measuring such movements.

a THE VARIATION AND ABNORMAL DE

VELOPMENT OF THE MOLLUSCA. THE variation of the Mollusca is an exceedingly

interesting subject, but it is as vast as it is interesting. There seems to be hardly a species which, if sufficiently studied, does not present here and there some marked difference from what is known as the typical form ; and some, as Helix nemoralis, are so variable, that two exactly similar specimens are rarely found. And this variation does not seem to rest on mere chance, but varieties are often local, abundant at one place, and not to be seen in the surrounding country : and, strangely enough, this localness seems also to be to a certain extent peculiar to what are generally called mere monstrosities. I mean the sinistral, scalariform, and decollated forms. Miss Hele, in Science-Gossip, records the occurrence of three sinistral Helix aspersa, and two H. hortensis, all in the same lane, and I cannot think that this was purely accidental ; there must have been some reason for these shells becoming reversed, but what that reason may be, I cannot imagine. On Chislehurst Common I took a specimen of the monst. scalariforme of Limnæa stagnalis, having the whorls almost disunited, and the suture between the fourth and body whorl forming an acute angle. This specimen was found in a very small pond, where the typical form of L. stagnalis does not occur, but the pond is crowded with a variety, which is smaller than the type, and has a deeper suture. In the same pond my brother took another scalariform L. stagnalis, and he also found a third specimen in a pond not far off. Another brother (L.M.C.) has taken L. peregra, monst. scalariforme at St. Mary Cray, two miles from Chislehurst, and a scalariform Helir aspersa on Chislehurst Common. Whether there is any connection between the occurrences of these scalariform shells I do not know, but, if so, I suppose it must be due to the soil, or possibly, but not probably, to some parasite. I fancy the food has little or nothing to do with it, but I may as well mention that the pond in which the two scalariform L. stagnalis were found, contained Ranunculus aquatilis, and Potamogeton crispus, and the pond in which the other one was found contained Anacharis.

And now for an instance of decoliation. On Barnes Common I have found Bythinia tentaculata, monst. decollatum, Limnca stagnalis, monst. decollatum, and a decollated specimen of L. palustris.* The decollation is most marked in the Bythinia, and less so in the Limnæa. Now in the instance of these Barnes specimens, I think there cannot be much doubt that the truncated spire is caused by a want of calcareous material in the water, and that, if a number of them were introduced into a pond containing a sufficient amount of carbonate of lime, the next

We have received the first number of a new monthly periodical, the “Journal of Mycology”. (Manhattan, Kansas). It is intended to be a medium for the publication of matter of mycological interest; to note the discovery of new species of fungi, to give an account of the literature of the subject, and so assist in the extension of North American mycology in general.

* My brother (S.C.C.) has also taken the decollated form of L. peregra at Barnes.

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