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The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority to app vint a committee to sit in the recess of Congress, to be denominated “a committee of the states," and to consist of one delegate froin each state; and to appoint such other coinmittees and civil officers as may be necessary for inanaging the general affairs of the United States under their direction to appoint one of their number to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any terin of three years to ascertain the necessary suins of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expenses to borrow money or emit bills on the credit of the United States, transınitting, every half year, to the respective states, an account of the sums of money so borrowed or emitted to build and equip a navy — to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each state for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such state; which requisitions shall be binding; and thereupon the legislature of each state shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and clothe, arm, and equip thein in a soldier-like manner, at the expense of the United States ; and the officers and men so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled: but if the United States in Congress assembled shall, on consideration of circumstances, judge proper that any state should not raise men, or should raise a smaller nuinber than its quota, and that any other state should raise a greater number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, clothed, armed, and equipped, in the same manner as the quota of such state, unless the legislature of such state shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely spared out of the same; in which case they shall raise, officer, clothe, arın, and equip, as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely spared. And the officers and men so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled.
The United States in Congress assembled shall never engage in a war; nor grant letters of marque and reprisal in time of peace; nor enter into any treaties or alliances; nor coin money; nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expenses necessary for the defence and welfare of the United States, or any of them; nor emit bills; nor borrow money on the credit of the United States; nor appropriate money; nor agree upon the number of vessels of war to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised; nor appoint a commander-in-chief of the army or navy, - unless nine states assent to the samne; nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day, be determined, unless by the votes of a majority of the United States in Congress assembled.
The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the United States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months; and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof, relating to treaties, alliances, or military operations, as in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each state on any question shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegate; and the delegites of a state, or any of them, at his or their request, shall be furnished with a transcript of the
said jonrual, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legislatures of the several states.
Art. 10. The comınittee of the states, or any pine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United States in Congress assembled, by the consent of nine states, shall, from time to time, think expedient to vest then with; provided that no power be delegated to the said committee, for the exercise of which, by the Articles of Confederation, the voice of nine states in the Congress of the United States assembled is requisite.
Art. 11. Canada, acceding to this Confederation, and joining in the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into, and entitled to, all the advantages of this union; but no other colony shall be adınitted into the same unless such adımission be agreed to by nine states.
ART. 12. All bills of credit emitted, moneys borrowed, and debts con. tracted, by or under the authority of Congress, before the assembling of the United States in pursuance of the present Confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States, and the public faith, are hereby solemnly pledged.
Art. 13. Every state shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which, by this Confederation, are submitted to them. And the articles of this Confederation shall be inviolably observed by every state, and the union shall be perpetual ; nor shall any alteration, at any time hereafter, be made in any of them, unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the legislature of every state.
And whereas it has pleased the Great Governor of the world to in. cline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in Congress, to approve of and to authorize us to ratify the said Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union: Know
we, the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do, by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained ; and we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which, by the said Confederation, are submitted to them; and that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the states we respectively represent; and that the union shall be perpetual. In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands, in Congress. Done at Phil.
adelphia, in the state of Pennsylvania, the ninth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, and in the third year of the Independence of America.
On the part and behalf of the state of New Hampshire.
John Wentworth, Jun., Aug. 8, 1778
On l're part and behalf of the state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
On the part and behalf of the state of Connecticut.
On the part and behalf of the state of New York.
Nath. Scudder, Nov. 26, 1778.
Joseph Reed, 220 July, 1778.
On the purt und behalf of the state of Delaware.
On the part and behalf of the state of Maryland.
On the part and behalf of the state of Virginia.
Francis Lightfoot Lee.
On the part and behalf of the state of North Carolina.
On the part und behalf of the state of South Carolina.
On the part and behalf of the staic of Georgia.
ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS IN CONGRESS
ON CERTAIN PROPOSED ALTERATIONS, AMENDMENTS, OR ADDI TIONS, PROPOSED BY CERTAIN STATES TO THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION.
MONDAY, June 22, 1778. – That the objections from the state of MARYLAND to the Confederation be immediately taken up and considered by Congress, that the delegates from Maryland inay transmit to that state with all possible despatch, the determination of Congress on those objec tions.
Question put - resolved in the affirmative.
In article 4, strike qut the word “paupers ;” and after the words “ either of them,” insert “that one state shall not be burdened with the
maintenance of the poor who may remove into it from any of the others in the Union.”
Question put — passed in the negative, one state only answering Ay. Another ainendment was moved in behalf of Maryland.
Article 8, aster the words “ grauted to or surveyed for," insert, which shall hereafter be granted to or surveyed for any person.”
Question put — passed in the negative; 4 ayes, 8 noes. A third amendment was moved in behalf of Maryland. Article I, after the words “shall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the United States," insert, “ the United States in Congress assembled shall have the power to appoint commissioners, who shall be fully authorized and empowered to ascertain and restrict the boundaries of such of the confederated states which claim to extend to the River Mississippi or South Sea :" after debate,
Resolved, That the consideration thereof be postponed till to-morrow.
Tuesday, June 23, 1778. — Congress proceeded to consider the amendment of the Articles of Confederation moved in behalf of Maryland,
And it passed in the negative.
The delegates of MASSACHUSETTS BAY, being called on, read sundry objections, transmitted to them by their constituents, to the Artiticles of Confederation, and thereupon moved, in behalf of their state,
1st. That the 8th article be reconsidered, so far as relates to the criterion fixed on for settling the proportion of taxes to be paid by each state; that an amendment may be made, so that the rule of apportioninent may be varied, from time to time, by Congress, until experience shall have shown what rule of apportioninent will be most equal, and, consequently, most just. Question put — passed in the negative: 2 ayes,
8 2d. That the 5th section of the 9th article be reconsidered, so far as relates to the rule of apportioning the number of forces to be raised by each state on the requisition of Congress.
Question put-passed in the negative; 3 ayes, 7 noes.
3d. That the 6th section of the 9th article be reconsidered, so far as it makes the assent of nine states necessary to exercise the powers with which Congress are thereby invested.
Question put — passed in the negative.
The delegates from RHODE ISLAND, being called on, produced instructions from their constituents, and thereupon moved the following amendments :
1st. In the 5th article, after the word "two," insert " members, unless by sickness, death, or any other unavoidable accident, but one of the members of a state can attend Congress in which case such state may be represented in Congress by one member for the space of - months."
Question put — passed in the negative; 1 ay, 9 noes.
2d. In the 8th article, after the word " appoint,” add " such estimate w be taken and made once in every five years."
Question put — passed in the negative; 4 ayes, 6 noes.
3d. In the 9th article, at the end of the 20 paragraph, aster the words “ for the benefit of the United States," add “provided, nevertheless, that all lands within these states, the property of which, before the present war, was vested in the crown of Great Britain, or out of which revenues from quitrents arise, payable to the said crown, shall be deemed, taken, and considered, as the property of these United States, and be disposed of and
appropriated by Congress for the benefit of the whole confederacy--reserv: iny, however, to the states, within whose limits such crown lands may be the entire and complete jurisdiction thereof."
Question put — passed in the negative ; 1 ay, 9 noes.
The delegates from CONNECTICUT, being called on, produced instructions, and thereupon moved the following amendinents :
1st. In the 8th article, after the words“ in proportion to," strike out what follows, to the end of the sentence, and in lieu thereof insert “ the number of inhabitants in each state."
Question put - passed in the negative; 3 ayes, 9 noes. 2d. So the 9th article, at the end of the 5th paragraph, add the words following: “provided, that no land army shall be kept up by the United States in time of peace; nor any officers or pensioners kept in pay by thein, who are not in actual service, except such as are or may be rendered unable to support themselves, by wounds received in battle, in the service of the said states, agreeably to the provisions already made by a resolution of Congress."
Question put — passed in the negative; 1 ay, 11 noes.
Thursday, June 25, 1778. — Congress took into consideration the representation from NEW JERSEY, on the Articles of Confederation, which was read as follows:
"To the United States in Congress assembled, the representation of the
Legislative Councils and General Assembly of the state of New Jersey showeth,
“That the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, between the states of New Humpshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, proposed by the honorable Congress of the said states, severally, for their consideration, have been by us fully and attentively considered, on which we beg leave to remark as follows:
" 1st. In the 5th article, where, among other things, the qualifications of the delegates from the several states are described, there is no mention of any oath, test, or declaration, to be taken or made by them previous to their adınission to seats in Congress. It is indeed to be presumed, the respective states will be careful that the delegates they send to assist in managing the general interests of the Union take the oaths to the government froin which they derive their authority; but as the United States, collectively considered, have interests as well as each particular state, we are of opinion that some test or obligation, binding upon ench delegate, while he continues in the trust, to consult and pursue the former as well as the latter, and particularly to assent to no vote or proceeding which njay violate the general confederation, is necessary. The laws and usages of all civilized nations evince the propriety of an oath on such occasions, and the more solemn and important the deposit, the more strong and explicit ought the obligation to be.
** 2d. By the 6th and 9th articles, the regulation of trade seems to be committed to the several states within their separate jurisdiction, in such a degree as may involve many difficulties and embarrassments and be attended with injiistice to some states in the Union. We are of opinion that the sole and exclusive power of regulating the trade of the United