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Fainting, despair; despairing, yield thy breath! (To Richmond.) I died for hope ere I could lend thee aid;

But cheer thy heart, and be thou not dismay'd.
God and good angels fight on Richmond's side,
And Richard fall in height of all his pride! 176
[The Ghosts vanish. King] Richard
starts out of his dream.
K. Rich. Give me another horse! Bind up
my wounds!

Have mercy, Jesu!-Soft! I did but dream.
O coward conscience, how dost thou afflict me!
The lights burn blue. It is now dead mid-


Cold fearful drops stand on my trembling flesh.

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For what is he they follow? Truly, gentlemen A bloody tyrant and a homicide;


One rais'd in blood, and one in blood estab lish'd;

One that made means to come by what he hath,

And slaughter'd those that were the means to help him;

A base foul stone, made precious by the foil
Of England's chair, where he is falsely set;
One that hath ever been God's enemy.
Then, if you fight against God's enemy,
God will in justice ward you as his soldiers;
If you do sweat to put a tyrant down,
You sleep in peace, the tyrant being slain;
If you do fight against your country's foes,
Your country's fat shall pay your pains the

If you do fight in safeguard of your wives,
Your wives shall welcome home the conquer-

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They would restrain the one, distain the other.
And who doth lead them but a paltry fellow,
Long kept in Bretagne at our mother's cost?
A milk-sop, one that never in his life
Felt so much cold as over shoes in snow?
Let's whip these stragglers o'er the seas again;
Lash hence these overweening rags of France,
These famish'd beggars, weary of their lives;
Who, but for dreaming on this fond exploit, 330
For want of means, poor rats, had hang'd them-

If we be conquered, let men conquer us,
And not these bastard Bretons; whom our

Have in their own land beaten, bobb'd, and thump'd,

And on record, left them the heirs of shame. Shall these enjoy our lands? lie with our wives?


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Alarum. Excursions.


[SCENE IV. Another part of the field.] Enter [NORFOLK and forces fighting; to him] CATESBY. Cate. Rescue, my Lord of Norfolk, rescue, rescue!

The King enacts more wonders than a man,
Daring an opposite to every danger.
His horse is slain, and all on foot he fights,
Seeking for Richmond in the throat of death. 5
Rescue, fair lord, or else the day is lost!
Alarums. Enter KING RICHARD.

K. Rich. A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!

Cate. Withdraw, my lord; I'll help you to

a horse.

K. Rich. Slave, I have set my life upon a cast,

And I will stand the hazard of the die.

I think there be six Richmonds in the field;
Five have I slain to-day instead of him.
A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!



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That in submission will return to us;
And then, as we have ta'en the sacrament,
We will unite the white rose and the red.
Smile heaven upon this fair conjunction,
That long have frown'd upon their enmity!
What traitor hears me, and says not amen?
England hath long been mad, and scarr'd her-

The brother blindly shed the brother's blood,
The father rashly slaughtered his own son,
The son, compell'd, been butcher to the sire.
All this divided York and Lancaster,
Divided in their dire division,


O, now, let Richmond and Elizabeth,
The true succeeders of each royal house,
By God's fair ordinance conjoin together!
And let their heirs, God, if thy will be so,
Enrich the time to come with smooth-fae'd


With smiling Plenty and fair prosperous days! Abate the edge of traitors, gracious Lord, That would reduce these bloody days again, England weep in streams of

And make poor


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A PLAY called Henry VIII or All is True was being played in the Globe Theatre on June 29, 1613, when the theatre caught fire and was burned down. Contemporary descriptions of this piece fit the present history so exactly that there remains little doubt that the Shakespearean drama is meant. We have here, then, a later limit for its composition. Wotton, writing of the burning of the Globe, calls All is True" a new play." The chief reason urged against taking this literally lies in the reference to Elizabeth in II. ii. 50-52, and in the eulogy in v. v. 18–39, 58–63, to which the praise of James may have been added later. But eulogies of the great queen did not cease with her death; and there is much in the treatment of her parents that could hardly have been pleasing to her. In the style and metre of the undoubted Shakespearean part of the drama we find nothing pointing to a date before 1603, but much to the latest years of his activity; and it is a fairly safe conclusion that in the parts of the present play written by him we have the last of his extant work.

No edition of Henry VIII appeared till it was published in the First Folio, and on that version the present text is based.

The chief historical basis for the play is Holinshed's Chronicles. Some details seem to have come direct from Halle; and the scenes presenting the attempt to crush Cranmer (v. i., ii., iii.) are taken from Foxe's Actes and Monuments, better known as The Book of Martyrs. These sources are followed at times almost slavishly, much of the actual diction being derived from the prose narratives. Yet with all this borrowing of detail, much freedom is used in the selection and arrangement of incident, historical time is disregarded, and even the identity of personages is confused.

The characterization of Queen Katherine alone shows any great creative imagination. Though all her acts and much of her language are taken from the Chronicles, the dramatist has bestowed on her a pathetic dignity which elevates her to such a pitch that in spite of her passive rôle she stands out as the real heroine of the play. Wolsey's farewell speech (except III. ii. 455–457) is also invented; but his other important utterances and almost all his actions are based directly on Holinshed, who here drew from a variety of sources varying much in their estimate of the Cardinal. Some details seem to have been suggested by Samuel Rowley's When You See Me You Know Me (printed 1605). The low comedy scenes in the palace yard and Cranmer's closing prophecies are, of course, without historical basis.

This drama is singularly lacking in unity. The material is simply translated into dialogue or pageant; and there results a succession of brilliant stage pictures, sketches of character, and fine speeches, entirely without dramatic coherence. Buckingham, Katherine, the King, Wolsey, and Cranmer hold in succession the centre of the stage, but no causal connection is apparent in the sequence; nor is there consistency in the demand for sympathy with men or factions. This fragmentary quality alone is sufficient to suggest a doubt as to unity of authorship; and examination of the technical qualities of style and metre has confirmed this suspicion. It is now fairly generally, though not universally, conceded that the greater number of scenes are to be credited to John Fletcher, and to Shakespeare only 1. i., ii.; II. iii., iv.; m. ii. 1-203; and with less assurance of purity, v. i.

Attempts have been made to deny to Shakespeare any share in the authorship, and to assign it to other authors, especially to Massinger. But various internal reasons, besides the unchallenged appearance of the play in the First Folio, prevent the acceptance of this extreme view. No speculation on the method of collaboration has resulted in anything more than mere conjecture.

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The pronunciation of Abergavenny" is indicated by the spelling found in the Folio, “Aburgany."

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