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Although he dwells longest on his favorite tory of music and, more particularly, into the song writers (Schubert, Franz, Grieg, and annals of opera in France. In fact, he is most MacDowell), others are not dwarfed by an successful in his studies of the lyric drama, overbalancing praise of these few. Indeed, it and what he remarks has the value of a keenly. may be laid down as a general principle that felt personal impression. But the attitude of in such books as this the legitimate use of the worshipper, although sometimes serviceable, comparison stops at illustration and charac- is not always the best for the critic; his upterization. As evidence that the author's opin- lifted eyes are too likely to see only the head ions evince a thorough knowledge of the subject of fine gold, and to neglect the less noble parts we have but to point to the masterly review of of baser material. Schubert.

The chapters which furnish the most delightWhile there may be a few who will contend ful reading are “ Italian Music and the Last that the popular purpose for which the book is Two Operas of Verdi” and “Silhouettes of designed would have been better served by Musicians.” Miss Orr deserves credit for her some modifications in the way of both elision admirable translation ; the style is clear and and amplification, the volume can never be forcible, and, above all, she has the gift

, classed as a compendium of useless knowledge which few translators possess when the subject about insignificant composers and antiquated considered is music - of always putting the

- songs. Mr. Finck has treated his subject right adjective in the right place. conscientiously and enthusiastically, from a practical standpoint, and his treatise is just It has been pointed out that it would be a what he intended it to be: a sort of Song- vast gain to the growth of taste, and to all Baedeker, with bibliographic foot-notes for the forms of art among us, if the present ambition benefit of students who wish to pursue the sub- to write books on ästhetics might, in some ject further.

greater measure, give place to more serious To try what may be called the emotional and modest study of nature and standard art, analysis of music is to offer a direct and peril- as a means of cultivation and for the sake of ous challenge to ridicule and cynicism. In cultivation. In a volume entitled “For My view of the inherent difficulties it may seem Musical Friend,” Mrs. Aubertine Woodward inappropriate, if not unwise, that Camille Bel- Moore (whom we used to know as “ Auber laigue’s volume, “Musical Studies and Sil. Forestier ") has compiled a series of essays on houettes," opens with lengthy chapters on

music and music culture. Its purpose is to Sociology in Music” and “Realism and indicate how the rational methods applied toIdealism in Music.” The author's theory is day in other branches of learning may be that “to humanize sound" is the mission of brought to bear on the music lesson, how reckmusic, and that it has ever been the effort of less waste of time and effort may be avoided, great musicians of nature to translate into and how music may gain its rightful place as melodies, rhythms, and chords the impression a beneficent influence in daily life. or the reaction of material things upon us. Mrs. Moore properly expounds the theory

This theory is logica). Was it not because that to appreciate music we must possess a Beethoven had felt and suffered all that there definite and systematic knowledge of it as a is in life to feel and suffer that he was able to foundation, and though she does not tell us so strike chords more full of emotion and pathos totidem verbis, the real object of her book is to than have ever been struck before or since ? spread the opinion that such a knowledge Both of the essays referred to evince a tireless should form part of general education. It study of the subjects, and are models of intel. would be unnecessary to insist on the value of ligent criticism; yet, after all, there is more this if it were not widely assumed that æsthetic unembellished truth spoken in Joubert's words: appreciation is a mere matter of taste. The " The more nearly a note or chord, a melody, chapters on 6 Rational Methods of Music rhythm, or sonority, touches a human senti- Study,” “ The Technique That Endures,” and ment or a soul, the more nearly is it ideal, the “ How to Memorize Music,” are alike readable more nearly is it real, and the more nearly and instructive. Her work is pervaded by an does it attain to the perfection of beauty.” enthusiasm which gives a peculiar zest to the

critical portions. The index of twenty pages, M. Bellaigue has shown bimself to be one of in addition to a table of contents, is almost the most erudite of investigators into the his. I superfluous.


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modern art, but something approximating originality RECENT BOOKS OF FICTION.*

may be predicated of a book that combines suggesMr. Henry B. Faller has a keen sense of the tions of Sterne and Stevenson and Mr. Stockton. charm of the unexpected. He has essayed so many So peculiar a blend as this is not often met with, manners that we anticipate some sort of a surprise and we give it welcome as a relief from the innumwhenever a new book appears bearing his name.

erable story books written upon conventional lines. For a time he seemed to delight in the kind of There could not well be a greater contrast than realism that is dear to Mr. Howells, and his skilful is offered by placing this book side by side with handling of unpromising material elicited our some. Mr. Hamlin Garland's latest novel. Mr. Garland, what unwilling admiration when “ The Cliff Dwell. we know by this time, will not surprise us, whaters” and “ With the Procession " came to band. ever else he may do. In “The Eagle's Heart” he But the creator of Pensieri-Vani and the Chatelaine is the same plain blunt man that he was in “Mainwas obviously a romanticist at heart — albeit of a Travelled ads,” and has acquired little more of fantastic and refined type 80 that we are not sur- art than he had at the outset of his career. The sense prised to find in “ The Last Refuge

a reversion

of humor was left out of his composition, and of to the romantic manner. The story opens enter. the finer graces of style his work has remained imtainingly with the description of a certain Freiherr perturbably innocent. But he has other qualities, of middle age, who finds his capacity for æsthetic qualities of earnestness and rugged force, that are enjoyment waning, and who seeks a sort of vicari- impressive, and never made by him more impressive ous rejuvenation in the companionship of a youth than in this straightforward story of the wild free in whom enthusiasm is undimmed, and

upon whom life of the Western cattle ranges. The cowboy the primal impulses of life act with undiminished period of our Western civilization is fast becoming force. To these two characters others are soon a matter of history, and Mr. Garland has done us joined, each animated by a special idealism, and in a service in thus preserving its spirit in a form that search of the conditions under which it may be real- may

make it seem real and vivid to coming generaized. For one reason or another, the fair island of tions. There is even poetic feeling of a sombre Sicily appears to the imagination of all these people sort in some of his descriptive pages, and a realizato be the spot of which all are in search to each tion of the elemental and abiding forces in human of them individually it is a sort of " last refuge "in character. Of characterization in the minuter sense a hitherto bafiled quest. To Sicily they all repair, in which the art of the novelist understands it there and their patbs converge to the same ducal estate, is little or nothing. The people of whom he writes where they find themselves gathered together under are not convincing presences — the eagle-hearted

the same roof, and where they indulge in artistic hero possibly excepted — but rather lay figures revels. We leave the reader to find out the nature decked out in such sentiments and attributes as the of these diversions and the upshot of the somewhat writer thinks appropriate to them. In a word, they singular relations that grow up between the char- are not viewed from within, but rather from the acters concerned. It must suffice us here to em. outside, and with somewhat unsympathetic vision. phasize the charm of Mr. Fuller's manner, and the

Dr. William Elliot Griffis has written many exfact that he has again (as in his first books) produced cellent books of popular history, and is well-equipped something that almost deserves the name of a new for this work. But it is one thing to write a convariety of literary composition. No one can hope fessed history, and quite another to write a historical to produce anything really new in literature at this novel, and for the latter task Dr. Griffis does not late day and under the sophisticated conditions of seem to possess the necessary qualifications, if we • THE LAST REFUGE: A Sicilian Romance. By Henry

may judge by his “ Pathfinders of the Revolution.” B. Fuller. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co.

This book deals with Sullivan's expedition, made in The EAGLE's Heart. By Hamlin Garland. New York:

1779, into the country of the Six Nations, an exD. Appleton & Co.

pedition which broke the power of the Iroquois THE PATHFINDERS OF THE REVOLUTION. By William E. allies of the British, and proved an important facGriffis. Boston: W. A. Wilde Co.

tor in the eventual triumph of the Revolutionary IN HOSTILE RED: A Romance of the Monmouth Cam- cause. The matter of this book is of great interest, paign. By J. A. Altsheler. New York: Doubleday, Page

and Dr. Griffis has shown himself an accurate & Co. Who Goes THERE? The Story of a Spy in the Civil War.

student of the subject. But his manner, from the By B. K. Benson. New York: The Macmillan Co.

point of view of the art of fiction, is not that of the CRITTENDEN: A Kentucky Story of Love and War. By successful story, and he is obviously out of his eleJohn Fox, Jr. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

ment in attempting to write one. A single illusTak LIFE AND DEATH OF RICHARD YEA-AND-Nay. By tration will suffice to make our meaning clear. A Maurice Hewlett. New York : The Macmillan Co.

considerable part of the narrative is made up of THE GLORY AND SORROW OF Norwich. By M. M. Blake.

letters from the actors to their friends at home, and Boston : L. C. Page & Co.

Dr. Griffis thinks nothing of beginning a letter at King STORK OF THE NETHERLANDS. By Albert Lee. New York: D. Appleton & Co.

the end of one chapter, and continuing it into the GWYNETT OF THORNHAUGA: A Romance. By Frederic next. The composition must be sawn into equal W. Hayes. New York: The F. M. Lupton Publishing Co. lengths, no matter what the artistic effect.

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Mr. Altsheler is one of the best of our novelists being concerned with the war in Cuba, and having of American history, but he has done better work the San Juan charge for its culminating episode. than may be found in the book entitled “In Hostile It takes the popular view of that war and its heroes, Red.” The fact that this is an older and shorter a view which the author evidently holds in all sinstory revamped into a full-sized novel probably ac- cerity, but which is possible only when we shut our counts for its lack of proportion, and its extremely eyes to the mad passion which brought the war uneven quality. It is a story of the Monmouth upon us, and to the sinister administrative influences Campaign and the operations in and about Phila- that shaped its developments. If we knew nothing delphia just before the retirement of Sir William of these things, we should be carried away by the Howe. The central situation is rather effective. fine enthusiasm of the book, besides being captiTwo young Continental officers, having captured vated by its tender poetic sentiment. It is probably two recently arrived Englishmen, are led by a reck- as wholesome a book as could be made out of the less impulse to assume the clothes and the characters material offered by our unfortunate war with Spain. of their captives. Thus transformed, they make


“ Richard Yea-and-Nay” is a work of fiction their way into Philadelphia, and live for some days that seems in strange company when grouped with hand in glove with the British officers. At the end the artificial productions of current romance. It they make a clean breast of the affair, and are sent is a book of flesh-and-blood, a book of marvellous back by Howe, who is satisfied that they are not insight into a vanished historical period, a book of spies in the ordinary sense. When they interview creative imagination in a very high sense, a book General Washington on their return, they do not which possesses such distinction of style as few get off so easily, and spend the following night modern writers have at their command. The judge under guard, with the pleasant anticipation of being ment which has prompted so sound a critic as Mr. shot at day break. Having had their scare, which Frederic Harrison to single this book out as preis richly deserved, they are given their liberty. eminent among all the writings of the past year is The love interest of the novel is supplied by the hardly to be disputed, and those who come under daughter of a Philadelphia merchant, a young the spell of Mr. Hewlett's vivid pages must feel woman who pretends to be a royaliet, but is at that they are in the presence of veritable genius. heart a patriot, and, as such, more than once in- It is not too much to say that the figure of Cæurstrumental in helping the Continental forces to de-Lion is now made for the first time a real prescarry out their plans.

ence in the world of romantic reconstruction of the “ Who Goes There?” by Mr. B. K. Benson, is past, a saying ventured with all due reverence to the story of a spy in the serious sense, and the the memory of Scott, and of such lesser story-tellers time is that of the earlier period of the Civil War. as bave attempted to deal with this complex and The hero is a young man who suffers occasional fascinating personality. And what we may say of lapses of memory, which may last for months or Richard may be said with almost equal truth conyears. One of these attacks comes upon him when cerning John and Henry the father of both, conhe is within the Confederate lines, and, as a conse- cerning the fair Jebane and Berengaria of Navarre, quence, forgetting that he is a Union soldier, his and Bertrand de Born, and a host of other personrecollections revert to the time of his boy hood, ages. It was the troubadour just mentioned who which had been passed at school in a Southern fixed upon Richard the name that serves Mr. Hewcity. He fights for a time in the ranks of his newa

lett as a title for his work, and the strange selffound friends, when accident restores him to his contradictions exhibited by that masterful ruler are Northern comrades and to the memories that had portrayed with a power that almost places this book failed him. The psychological part of this study in a class by itself. The archaic and incisive charis rather clumsily managed as a whole, although it acter of Mr. Hewlett's diction is in itself a triumph becomes effective when it deals with the mental of art, and the art is one so difficult that it comes struggles of the hero to reinstate the section of as a sort of sbock to the reader of easy conventional conscious memory which be dimly feels to be miss- romance. One thing is clear: this is no book to be ing, but to which no clue seems obtainable. The skimmed, but one to be read word for word, and fighting part of the story is given up to a great deal deeply pondered at that, if the reader wish to posof the minute detail of skirmishing, and of battle- sess himself fully of its import. incidents as they appear to the individual partici- Thin indeed, and hopelessly unreal, in comparipant; there are no broad effects, and there are no son with Mr. Hewlett's extraordinary production, episodes of absorbing interest.

seems such a book as Mr. M. M. Blake's “The The fourth American war story on our list is the Glory and Sorrow of Norwich,” which is yet a fair “Crittenden " of Mr. John Fox, Jr. Here, at last, example of its class, and not so bad a romance after is a book written in the spirit of art — not a great all. We would not make it suffer unduly by setting book, by any means, but a pleasant one, and dis- it in this unfair juxtaposition, and hasten to say playing a talent for literature that sets it upon a that the generality of those who read historical far higher plane than any of the three previously fiction for their entertainment will be likely to find mentioned. It is strictly up-to-date in its theme, their satisfactory account in this tale of the days of



the third Edward, the French wars, and the Black

Mr. Albert Lee, who wrote “ The Key of the

Two historical works intended for

American Holy House,” has again taken a theme from the expansion, and popular reading and instruction have history of the Dutch uprising against the Spanish

American leaders. been written by Mr. Edwin Erle oppressor, and produced, in "King Stork of the Sparks, associate professor of history in the UniNetherlands,” a historical novel of more than usual versity of Chicago. One of these is given the interest and merit. King Stork is, of course, the timely name of “ The Expansion of the American Duke of Anjou, whom the great Prince trusted People, Social and Territorial" (Scott, Foresman with such unfortunate consequences, and the story & Co.), and is a dispassionate account of the exdeals with Spanish intrigue, and the deeds of the tension of the English-speaking people over the familiars, and the exploits of the beggars, all deftly North American continent, a preliminary chapter interwoven with the private romance which gives or two introducing the more specific questions reunity to the story. But we feel all the while that lating to the United States. In the modern manner, the real hero is William of Orange, and when that Dr. Sparks

refrains for the most part from philosoheroic leader at last becomes the victim of the phizing. What philosophy is to be gained from assassin — foiled so many times

we care little the book is hardly that peculiar form of pessimism for the outcome of the book as far as the other which has been masquerading recently under the characters are concerned.

phrase, “the higher morality,” but it is of the sort When we reviewed “A Kent Squire," by Mr. which will give comfort to the advocates of that Frederic W. Hayes, a few months ago, we com. persuasion. In the later chapters of his book, those plained that the romance had been hurried to a dealing with the recent assumptions by the Amerconclusion without resolving half of the perplexities ican Government of the policies of Europe, Dr. in which the plot had become involved. It seems Sparks sees only obedience to laws which have, that our judgment was over-hasty, for the author throughout history, governed the conduct and decay never really meant to leave us thus unsatisfied, as of nations. Judging the future by the past, he is now evidenced by his “Gwynett of Thornhaugh.” even prophesies the retention of Cuba as a part of This romance takes up the threads that were drop- the territory under the American flag, with other ped in the earlier volume, and proves a worthy dependencies to be governed in the European man. successor to that fascinating production. Its period

ner, while the United States lays off her garment is the year or two following the death of the Roi of national righteousness for the uniform of the Soleil, and it deals, among other material, with the soldier and the acceptance of the title "world Jacobite rising of 1715, the last impotent efforts power' in the continental sense. • We cannot of Marlborough to turn traitor, and the whole web escape it,” writes the historian, “because we have of intrigue that characterized the early years of the no desire to escape it.” The other book from this Regency. The scene is mostly in France, and the same hand is styled “ The Men Who Made the adventures of Ambrose Gwynett are quite as sur- Nation” (Macmillan), and is a history in the more prising as “A Kent Squire” would naturally lead

usual sense.

The name given the book is slightly us to expect. The Regent himself, however, is the misleading. The various chapters bear each the

, most interesting figure of all, and is presented to name of the leading American of one specific period. us in a more favorable light than history would It is natural to think each chapter, therefore, an seem to warrant. The suggestion may seem far. essay upon the individual whose name it bears. fetched, but we have been more tha once reminded Rather is the work a homogeneous whole, begin. by bim of the use which Mr. Sienkiewicz makes of ning with the voyages of Benjamin Franklin to the figure of Petronius in “Quo Vadis.” That is, England as the agent of the American colonies and he says most of the good things, and is the most ending with the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, attractive of the characters presented. It has the name at the head of each chapter serving as a seemed to us fair to say that this novel, taken to- means of identifying the precise era. The numergether with its predecessor, comes

nearer than ous illustrations in both volumes are appropriate almost any other English product has done to re- and interesting. producing the characteristic charm of the romances

During the years from 1891 to 1897

The closing years of Alexandre Dumas. There is the same brilliancy

Mrs. Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer

of the 19th century. of invention, the same intimate familiarity with the

gave to the public six ample volumes public and private life of the period concerned, and, on the history of the different nations of Europe we regret to add, the same readiness to resort to during the nineteenth century. The volumes were illegitimate sensational devices. Mr. Hayes had reviewed at length in our columns, and a favorable no need of endowing his hero with quasi-miraculous judgment was pronounced upon them as being of powers; he would have been interesting enough much interest and usefulness to the general reading without them. As for the episode of the messe noire, public. Mrs. Latimer makes no pretensions to we can only say that the grewsome picture offered historical research and disclaims technical training. is only in part atoned for by the striking manner of But through a long life she has mingled in the best the presentation. WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE. social circles of Europe, and has thus been able to

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tell the story of Europe during the century largely financier and his partial triumph over death in from the inside, and with the grace that comes completing his wonderful memoirs, Grant's career from such social experience. She has now issued is eminently human, and can gain nothing by cona volume made up of supplements to these books, cealment of the obvious facts. Both of the small with the title “ The Last Years of the Nineteenth volumes are carefully printed and bound, characCentury” (McClurg). From the nature of her teristic portraits of their subjects serving as frontistask the author has not been able to invest these pieces. brief supplements with the charm of the original

To that interesting series of biograchatty volumes. They have been compiled from Thomas Sydenham, phies known as “ Masters of Medinewspapers and magazines, and from the notebooks

cine" (Longmans), Dr.Joseph Frank of Richard Harding Davis, G. W. Steevens, and Payne now adds the life of Thomas Sydenham. others, thus lacking freshness as well as the per- Dr. Payne prepared the article in the Dictionary sonal element. The volume is, however, of value of National Biography on this eminent seventeenth for reference where the facts are undisputed, and century leech and warrior, and the present volume some parts of it are full of interest for the story they is an expansion of that article, much more in detail tell, especially the account of Lord Kitchener's and adding many documents complete from which Soudan campaign. There is quite a complete nar- insight into the life of the physician and his times rative of the Boer war. Altogether, the book is a can be gained. The times, indeed, were interesting, valuable one, and we are glad Mrs. Latimer has and few did more to make them so than the Sydadded it to her series.

enhams. They were frankly on the side of the

Parliament, and Thomas left Oxford before graduTwo more of the compact, pleasant ation in order to take part in the border warfare Sketches of

little “ Beacon Biographies” (Small, tuo Presidents.

then waging in his native county of Dorset. Later Maynard & Co.) are at hand, one

the field of revolt broadened and the exertions of dealing with Thomas Jefferson, from the pen of

the Sydenhams with it. Of this family, five brothers the Hon. Thomas E. Watson, of Georgia, and the

served on the independent side, Colonel William, other with Ulysses S. Grant, written by Mr. Owen

Major Francis, Major John, and Captain Richard, Wister. Mr. Watson writes a readable book, but from the outset seems burdened with the thought with Thomas Sydenham,

the latter in a civil capacity, ranging themselves

with Thomas Sydenham, — who himself gained the that his space will not avail for a proper treatment

rank of captain, a fact which Dr. Payne has been of his subject. He avoids controversy, and in doing among the first to bring to the world's attention. so fails also to present Jefferson as the greatest

With this goes the further fact of service in the original political philosopher this country has ever

second war, after a time spent in the rehabilitation produced. “I have no space,” Mr. Watson re

of Oxford. The wars over, the trooper went to his marks in his preface, “ for his speculative opinions, study of medicine in Montpellier, and thence to for his political theories, for his daring suggestions London, where he accumulated an excellent practice in science, mechanical arts, education, and state

and, in good part, prepared those treatises on dissocialism.” The collectivists have been saying that

ease which have gained him the world's esteem. if Jefferson were alive to-day he would be of their

The book is in every way a worthy one. number. Mr. Watson here goes further, and his own views being well known, it seems a pity that

Manners and

In his recent volume, “ London Memhe could not have hinted somewhere what it is in customs of ories" (Lippincott), Mr. Charles the great individualist's writings that gives support

W. Heckethorn is not quite so happy to “ state socialism." There seems to be a certain as in his preceding book noticed last year in these lack of sympathy throughout the narrative. But columns, “ London Souvenirs.” It is, perhaps, as the intention to be wholly fair and impartial is also full of valuable information not easily accessible elsemanifest, and nothing before the people to-day con- where, and it has the distinct advantage of a good intains so much worth reading in as little room, 80 dex; but the subject matter has not so much living far as Jefferson is concerned. To devotees of the interest, since it is less a transcript of life, and houses

a leader of the Northern armies, General Grant, Mr. and bridges and priories figure in it more than men Wister's book will doubtless seem lacking in sym- and women. Some of the chapters are, “ Horrors of pathy as well. To lovers of mankind it will be a Old London Executions,” “Old London Hermi. treasure, and the biographer has done an honest | tages,” “ London's Immortal Animals,” and “ Wells and a daring thing in telling the truth. He gives and Springs in Old London,” titles sufficiently sug. the real reason why Grant left the army before the gestive of the character of the book. Mr. Heckewar, and shows him as he was in Galena in 1860, thorn has collected a great deal of matter of curious a man without a future and on the downward grade interest and presents it pleasantly, although per- . in fortune. From that to the presidency, where haps at times bis style has too much the air of col. fortune did not smile upon him, traversing in the loquial carelessness. For the student of manners meantime the heights of military glory, and subse- and customs it will be of real value, and the general quently receiving the homage of the world in his reader will find in it much to surprise him as well extended tour, thence to bis pitiful failure as a as much to give him occasion for reflection, so great

old London.

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